Data from: Genomic evidence that resource-based trade-offs limit host-range expansion in a seed beetleZachariah Gompert & Frank J. Messina
Trade-offs have often been invoked to explain the evolution of ecological specialization. Phytophagous insects have been especially well studied, but there has been little evidence that resource-based trade-offs contribute to the evolution of host specialization in this group. Here, we combine experimental evolution and partial genome resequencing of replicate seed beetle selection lines to test the trade-off hypothesis and measure the repeatability of evolution. Bayesian estimates of selection coefficients suggest that rapid adaptation to a...
Data from: Tree circumference dynamics in four forests characterized using automated dendrometer bandsValentine Herrmann, Sean M. McMahon, Matteo Detto, James A. Lutz, Stuart J. Davies, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang & Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira
Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12–40 trees at four...
Data from: Intraspecific phytochemical variation shapes community and population structure for specialist caterpillarsAndrea E. Glassmire, Christopher S. Jeffrey, Matthew L. Forister, Thomas L. Parchman, Chris C. Nice, Joshua P. Jahner, Joseph S. Wilson, Thomas R. Walla, Lora A. Richards, Angela M. Smilanich, Michael D. Leonard, Colin R. Morrison, Wilmer Simbaña, Luis A. Salagaje, Craig D. Dodson, Jim S. Miller, Eric J. Tepe, Santiago Villamarin-Cortez & Lee A. Dyer
Chemically mediated plant–herbivore interactions contribute to the diversity of terrestrial communities and the diversification of plants and insects. While our understanding of the processes affecting community structure and evolutionary diversification has grown, few studies have investigated how trait variation shapes genetic and species diversity simultaneously in a tropical ecosystem. We investigated secondary metabolite variation among subpopulations of a single plant species, Piper kelleyi (Piperaceae), using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to understand associations between plant phytochemistry...
1. Adapting to a low-quality plant may require modification of an insect's digestive physiology, oviposition behaviour, or other host-use traits. If colonising a marginal host entails a cost, a decay in adaptation would be expected after selection is relaxed, i.e. if populations on a novel host are reverted to their high-quality ancestral host. 2. Replicate lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) rapidly adapted to lentil seeds; larval survival rose from approximately 1 to...
Data from: Toxicity and population structure of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa) outside the range of an arms race with resistant predatorsMichael T. J. Hague, Leleña A. Avila, Charles T. Hanifin, W. Andrew Snedden, Amber N. Stokes, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Brodie III, Edmund D., Michael T.J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Species interactions, and their fitness consequences, vary across the geographic range of a coevolutionary relationship. This spatial heterogeneity in reciprocal selection is predicted to generate a geographic mosaic of local adaptation, wherein coevolutionary traits are phenotypically variable from one location to the next. Under this framework, allopatric populations should lack variation in coevolutionary traits due to the absence of reciprocal selection. We examine phenotypic variation in tetrodotoxin (TTX) toxicity of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa)...
Data from: What, if anything, are hybrids: enduring truths and challenges associated with population structure and gene flowZachariah Gompert & C. Alex Buerkle
Hybridization is a potent evolutionary process that can affect the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity. Because of its ecological and evolutionary consequences, an understanding of hybridization is important for basic and applied sciences, including conservation biology and agriculture. Herein, we review and discuss ideas that are relevant to the recognition of hybrids and hybridization. We supplement this discussion with simulations. The ideas we present have a long history, particularly in botany, and clarifying them...
Data from: Interactions between demography, genetics, and landscape connectivity increase extinction probability for a small population of large carnivores in a major metropolitan areaJohn F. Benson, Peter J. Mahoney, Jeff A. Sikich, Laurel E.K. Serieys, John P. Pollinger, Holly B. Ernest, Seth P.D. Riley, Laurel E. K. Serieys & Seth P. D. Riley
The extinction vortex is a theoretical model describing the process by which extinction risk is elevated in small, isolated populations owing to interactions between environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. However, empirical demonstrations of these interactions have been elusive. We modelled the dynamics of a small mountain lion population isolated by anthropogenic barriers in greater Los Angeles, California, to evaluate the influence of demographic, genetic, and landscape factors on extinction probability. The population exhibited strong survival...
Data from: Historical contingency in a multigene family facilitates adaptive evolution of toxin resistanceJoel McGlothlin, Megan Kobiela, Chris R. Feldman, Todd A. Castoe, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Gabriela Toledo, Freek J. Vonk, Michael K. Richardson, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Michael Pfrender & Brodie III, Edmund D.
Novel adaptations must originate and function within an already established genome [ 1 ]. As a result, the ability of a species to adapt to new environmental challenges is predicted to be highly contingent on the evolutionary history of its lineage [ 2–6 ]. Despite a growing appreciation of the importance of historical contingency in the adaptive evolution of single proteins [ 7–11 ], we know surprisingly little about its role in shaping complex adaptations...
Data from: Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographical expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosaMargarita M. López-Uribe, James H. Cane, Robert L. Minckley & Bryan N. Danforth
Squash was first domesticated in Mexico and is now found throughout North America (NA) along with Peponapis pruinosa, a pollen specialist bee species of the squash genus Cucurbita. The origin and spread of squash cultivation is well-studied archaeologically and phylogenetically; however, no study has documented how cultivation of this or any other crop has influenced species in mutualistic interactions. We used molecular markers to reconstruct the demographic range expansion and colonization routes of P. pruinosa...
Data from: Recreational harvest and incident-response management reduce human-carnivore conflicts in an anthropogenic landscapeJarod D. Raithel, Melissa J. Reynolds-Hogland, David N. Koons, Patrick C. Carr & Lise M. Aubry
Conserving viable large carnivore populations requires managing their interactions with humans in increasingly anthropogenic landscapes. Faced with declining budgets and escalating wildlife conflicts, agencies in North America continue to grapple with uncertainty surrounding the efficacy of socially divisive management actions such as harvest to reduce conflict. We used multistate capture–reencounter methods to estimate cause-specific mortality for a large sample (>3500) of American black bears Ursus americanus in north-western New Jersey, USA over a 33-year period....
Data from: Effects of roads and land use on frog distributions across spatial scales and regions in the eastern and central United StatesDavid M. Marsh, Bradley J. Cosentino, Kara S. Jones, Joseph J. Apodaca, Karen H. Beard, Jane M. Bell, Christine Bozarth, Derrick Carper, Julie F. Charbonnier, Andreia Dantas, Elizabeth Forys, Miran Foster, Jaquelyn General, Kristen S. Genet, Macie Hanneken, Kyle R. Hess, Shane A. Hill, Faisal Iqbal, Nancy E. Karraker, Eran S. Kilpatrick, Tom A. Langen, James Langford, Kathryn Lauer, Alison J. McCarthy, Joseph Neale … & Mohammad Tasleem
Aim: Understanding the scales over which land use affects animal populations is critical for conservation planning, and it can provide information about the mechanisms that underlie correlations between species distributions and land use. We used a citizen-science database of anuran surveys to examine the relationship between road density, land use, and the distribution of frogs and toads across spatial scales and regions of the United States. Location: Eastern and Central United States Methods: We compiled...
Data from: Toxin-resistant isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in snakes do not closely track dietary specialization on toadsShabnam Mohammadi, Zachariah Gompert, Jonathan Gonzalez, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Akira Mori & Alan H. Savitzky
Toads are chemically defended by bufadienolides, a class of cardiotonic steroids that exert toxic effects by binding to and disabling the Na+/K+-ATPases of cell membranes. Some predators, including a number of snakes, have evolved resistance to the toxic effects of bufadienolides and prey regularly on toads. Resistance in snakes to the acute effects of these toxins is conferred by at least two amino acid substitutions in the cardiotonic steroid binding pocket of the Na+/K+-ATPase. We...
Data from: Genetic and morphological evidence of a geographically widespread hybrid zone between two crocodile species, Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus moreletiiGualberto Pacheco-Sierra, Zachariah Gompert, Jerónimo Domínguez-Laso & Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
Hybrid zones represent natural laboratories to study gene flow, divergence and the nature of species boundaries between closely related taxa. We evaluated the level and extent of hybridization between Crocodylus moreletii and C. acutus using genetic and morphological data on 300 crocodiles from 65 localities. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic study that includes the entire historic range and sympatric zone of the two species. Contrary to expectations, Bayesian admixture proportions and maximum...
Macroevolutionary rates of diversification and anthropogenic extinction risk differ vastly throughout the Tree of Life. This results in a highly heterogeneous distribution of Evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) and threat status among species. We examine the phylogenetic distribution of ED and threat status for squamates (amphisbaenians, lizards, and snakes) using fully-sampled phylogenies containing 9574 species and expert-based estimates of threat status for ~ 4000 species. We ask whether threatened species are more closely related than would be...
Data from: Heterogeneity and concordance in locus-specific differentiation and introgression between species of towheesSarah E. Kingston, Thomas L. Parchman, Zachariah Gompert, C. Alex Buerkle, Michael J. Braun, T. L. Parchman, Z. Gompert, C. A. Buerkle, S. E. Kingston & M. J. Braun
The maintenance or breakdown of reproductive isolation are observable outcomes of secondary contact between species. In cases where hybrids beyond the F1 are formed, the representation of each species’ ancestry can vary dramatically among genomic regions. This genomic heterogeneity in ancestry and introgression can offer insight into evolutionary processes, particularly if introgression is compared in multiple hybrid zones. Similarly, considerable heterogeneity exists across the genome in the extent to which populations and species have diverged,...
Data from: The many dimensions of diet breadth: phytochemical, genetic, behavioral, and physiological perspectives on the interaction between a native herbivore and an exotic hostJoshua G. Harrison, Zachariah Gompert, James A. Fordyce, C. Alex Buerkle, Rachel Grinstead, Joshua P. Jahner, Scott Mikel, Christopher C. Nice, Aldrin Santamaria & Matthew L. Forister
From the perspective of an herbivorous insect, conspecific host plants are not identical, and intraspecific variation in host nutritional quality or defensive capacity might mediate spatially variable outcomes in plant-insect interactions. Here we explore this possibility in the context of an ongoing host breadth expansion of a native butterfly (the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa) onto an exotic host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa). We examine variation among seven alfalfa populations that differed in terms of colonization...
The study of ecological speciation is inherently linked to the study of selection. Methods for estimating phenotypic selection within a generation based on associations between trait values and fitness (e.g. survival) of individuals are established. These methods attempt to disentangle selection acting directly on a trait from indirect selection caused by correlations with other traits via multivariate statistical approaches (i.e. inference of selection gradients). The estimation of selection on genotypic or genomic variation could also...
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