189 Works

Data from: Incomplete host immunity favors the evolution of virulence in an emergent pathogen

Arietta E. Fleming-Davies, Paul D. Williams, André A. Dhondt, Andrew P. Dobson, Wesley A. Hochachka, Ariel E. Leon, David H. Ley, Erik E. Osnas & Dana M. Hawley
Immune memory evolved to protect hosts from reinfection, but incomplete responses that allow future reinfection might inadvertently select for more harmful pathogens. We present empirical and modeling evidence that incomplete immunity promotes the evolution of higher virulence in a natural host-pathogen system. We performed sequential infections of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains of varying virulence. Virulent bacterial strains generated stronger host protection against reinfection than less virulent strains, and thus excluded less virulent strains...

Data from: Responses of interspecific associations in mixed-species bird flocks to selective logging

Binod Borah, Suhel Quader & Umesh Srinivasan
1. Non-trophic interactions (or, inter-species associations) play a prominent role in determining community structure and function. Mixed-species bird flocks are networks of non-trophic associations that confer foraging and anti-predator benefits to participant species. Yet, the responses of these interspecific associations to anthropogenic environmental change are poorly understood. 2. Selective logging is pervasive in the tropics, and can affect associations in mixed-species bird flocks by altering resource availability and/or predation risk, or through the altered abundances...

Data from: A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation

Michael J. Noonan, Marlee A. Tucker, Christen H. Fleming, Tom S. Akre, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Jeanne Altmann, Pamela C. Antunes, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean Beyer, Niels Blaum, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, , Rogerio De Paula Cunha, Jasja Dekker, Jonathan Drescher-Lehman, Nina Farwig, Claudia Fichtel, Christina Fischer, Adam T. Ford, Jacob R. Goheen, René Janssen, Florian Jeltsch, Matthew Kauffman, Peter M. Kappeler … & Justin M. Calabrese
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated tracking data remains open. This question is particularly relevant given that most estimators assume independently sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of...

Data from: Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease

Georgia Titcomb, Brian F. Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Henson Lauren, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M. Pringle, Todd M. Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G. Campana, Robert C. Fleischer, John N. Mantas, Hillary S. Young, Lauren Henson & John Naisikie Mantas
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa....

Data from: Robust extraction of quantitative structural information from high-variance histological images of livers from necropsied Soay sheep

Quentin Caudron, Romain Garnier, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Christina Hansen, Bryan T. Grenfell, Tawfik Aboellail, Andrea L. Graham, T. Aboellail, Q. Caudron, R. Garnier, A. L. Graham, B. T. Grenfell, C. Hansen, J. G. Pilkington & K. A. Watt
Quantitative information is essential to the empirical analysis of biological systems. In many such systems, spatial relations between anatomical structures is of interest, making imaging a valuable data acquisition tool. However, image data can be difficult to analyse quantitatively. Many image processing algorithms are highly sensitive to variations in the image, limiting their current application to fields where sample and image quality may be very high. Here, we develop robust image processing algorithms for extracting...

Data from: Error-robust modes of the retinal population code

Adrianna R. Loback, Gašper Tkačik, Jason S. Prentice, Mark L. Ioffe, , Olivier Marre & Michael J. Berry
Across the nervous system, certain population spiking patterns are observed far more frequently than others. A hypothesis about this structure is that these collective activity patterns function as population codewords–collective modes–carrying information distinct from that of any single cell. We investigate this phenomenon in recordings of ∼150 retinal ganglion cells, the retina’s output. We develop a novel statistical model that decomposes the population response into modes; it predicts the distribution of spiking activity in the...

Data from: Tree circumference dynamics in four forests characterized using automated dendrometer bands

Valentine Herrmann, Sean M. McMahon, Matteo Detto, James A. Lutz, Stuart J. Davies, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang & Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira
Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12–40 trees at four...

Data from: How do lianas and vines influence competitive differences and niche differences among tree species? Concepts and a case study in a tropical forest

Helene C. Muller-Landau & Marco D. Visser
1. Lianas and other climbing plants are structural parasites of trees, generally reducing host tree survival, growth, and reproduction, yet their influences on the outcome of competition among tree species have remained largely unexplored. 2. We propose that there are three distinct components to liana-tree interactions: prevalence, defined as the proportion of infested trees; load, defined as the mean liana cover on infested trees; and tolerance, defined as the effect of a given level of...

Data from: Disentangling serology to elucidate henipa‐ and filovirus transmission in Madagascar fruit bats

Cara E. Brook, Hafaliana C. Ranaivoson, Christopher C. Broder, Andrew A. Cunningham, Jean-Michel Heraud, Alison J. Peel, Louise Gibson, James L. N. Wood, C. Jessica Metcalf & Andrew P. Dobson
Bats are reservoirs for emerging human pathogens, including Hendra and Nipah henipaviruses and Ebola and Marburg filoviruses. These viruses demonstrate predictable patterns in seasonality and age structure across multiple systems; previous work suggests that they may circulate in Madagascar's endemic fruit bats, which are widely consumed as human food. We aimed to (a) document the extent of henipa‐ and filovirus exposure among Malagasy fruit bats, (b) explore seasonality in seroprevalence and serostatus in these bat...

Data from: Cascading impacts of large-carnivore extirpation in an African ecosystem

Justine L. Atkins, Ryan A. Long, Johan Pansu, Joshua H. Daskin, Arjun B. Potter, Marc E. Stalmans, Corina E. Tarnita & Robert M. Pringle
The world’s largest carnivores are declining and now occupy mere fractions of their historical ranges. Theory predicts that when apex predators disappear, large herbivores should become less fearful, occupy new habitats, and modify those habitats by eating new food plants. Yet experimental support for this prediction has been difficult to obtain in large-mammal systems. Following the extirpation of leopards and African wild dogs from Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park, forest-dwelling antelopes (bushbuck, Tragelaphus sylvaticus) expanded into...

An experimental test of community-based strategies for mitigating human-wildlife conflict around protected areas

Ryan Long, Paola Branco, Jerod Merkle, Robert Pringle, Lucy King, Tosca Tindall & Marc Stalmans
Natural habitats are rapidly being converted to cultivated croplands, and crop-raiding by wildlife threatens both wildlife conservation and human livelihoods worldwide. We combined movement data from GPS-collared elephants with camera-trap data and local reporting systems in a before-after-control-impact design to evaluate community-based strategies for reducing crop raiding outside Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park. All types of experimental fences tested (beehive, chili, beehive and chili combined, and procedural controls) significantly reduced the number of times elephants left...

Shakespeare and Company Project Dataset: Lending Library Members, Books, Events

Joshua Kotin, Rebecca Sutton Koeser, Carl Adair, Serena Alagappan, Jean Bauer, Oliver J. Browne, Nick Budak, Harriet Calver, Jin Chow, Ian Davis, Gissoo Doroudian, Currie Engel, Elspeth Green, Benjamin Hicks, Madeleine E. Joelson, Carolyn Kelly, Sara Krolewski, Xinyi Li, Ellie Maag, Cate Mahoney, Jesse D. McCarthy, Mary Naydan, Isabel Ruehl, Sylvie Thode, Camey VanSant … & Clifford E. Wulfman
The Shakespeare and Company Project makes three datasets available to download in CSV and JSON formats. The datasets provide information about lending library members; the books that circulated in the lending library; and lending library events, including borrows, purchases, memberships, and renewals. The datasets may be used individually or in combination site URLs are consistent identifiers across all three. The DOIs for each dataset are as follows: Members (https://doi.org/10.34770/ht30-g395); Books (https://doi.org/10.34770/g467-3w07); Events (https://doi.org/10.34770/2r93-0t85).

Multiple dimensions of dietary diversity in large mammalian herbivores

Tyler Kartzinel & Robert Pringle
Theory predicts that trophic specialization (i.e., low dietary diversity) should make consumer populations sensitive to environmental disturbances, yet diagnosing specialists is complicated both by the difficulty of precisely quantifying diet composition and by definitional ambiguity—what makes a diet ‘diverse’? We sought to characterize the relationship between taxonomic dietary diversity (TDD) and phylogenetic dietary diversity (PDD) in a species-rich community of large mammalian herbivores in semi-arid East African savanna. We hypothesized that TDD and PDD would...

Eco-evolutionary significance of 'loners'

Corina Tarnita, Fernando Rossine, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Allyson Sgro & Thomas Gregor
Loners, individuals out-of-sync with a coordinated majority, occur frequently in nature. Are loners incidental byproducts of large-scale coordination attempts or are they part of a mosaic of life-history strategies? Here, we provide empirical evidence of naturally occurring heritable variation in loner behavior in the model social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We propose that Dictyostelium loners—cells that do not join the multicellular life-stage—arise from a dynamic population-partitioning process, the result of each cell making a stochastic, signal-based...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal in module composition and species connectivity in compartmentalized host-parasite networks

Boris R. Krasnov, Miguel A. Fortuna, David Mouillot, Irina S. Khokhlova, Georgy I. Shenbrot & Robert Poulin
Across different taxa, networks of mutualistic or antagonistic interactions show consistent architecture. Most networks are modular, with modules being distinct species subsets connected mainly with each other and having few connections to other modules. We investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of species within modules and whether a phylogenetic signal is detectable in the within- and among module connectivity of species using 27 mammal-flea networks from the Palaearctic. In the 24 networks that were modular, closely-related hosts...

Data from: Infanticide and within-clutch competition select for reproductive synchrony in a cooperative bird

Christina Riehl
Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of...

Data from: Does primary productivity modulate the indirect effects of large herbivores? A global meta-analysis

Joshua H Daskin, Robert M Pringle, Joshua H. Daskin & Robert M. Pringle
1. Indirect effects of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), while much less studied than those of apex predators, are increasingly recognized to exert powerful influences on communities and ecosystems. The strength of these effects is spatiotemporally variable, and several sets of authors have suggested that they are governed in part by primary productivity. However, prior theoretical and field studies have generated conflicting results and predictions, underscoring the need for a synthetic global analysis. 2. We conducted...

Data from: Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids

Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Roland W. Kays, John P. Pollinger & Robert K. Wayne
Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years...

Data from: Role of grooming in reducing tick load in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Mercy Y. Akinyi, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Nilesh B. Patel, Jenny Tung & Maamun Jeneby
Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behaviour that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined whether grooming behaviour reduced tick load (number of ticks) and haemoprotozoan infection status in...

Data from: Multivariate immune defences and fitness in the wild: complex but ecologically important associations among plasma antibodies, health and survival

Daniel H. Nussey, Kathryn A. Watt, Abigail Clark, Jill G. Pilkington, Josephine M. Pemberton, Andrea L. Graham, Tom N. McNeilly, A. L. Graham, A. Clark, D. H. Nussey, J. M. Pemberton, J. G. Pilkington, K. A. Watt & T. N. McNeilly
Despite our rapidly advancing mechanistic understanding of vertebrate immunity under controlled laboratory conditions, the links between immunity, infection and fitness under natural conditions remain poorly understood. Antibodies are central to acquired immune responses, and antibody levels circulating in vivo reflect a composite of constitutive and induced functional variants of diverse specificities (e.g. binding antigens from prevalent parasites, self tissues or novel non-self sources). Here, we measured plasma concentrations of 11 different antibody types in adult...

Data from: Mechanisms of plant–plant interactions: concealment from herbivores is more important than abiotic-stress mediation in an African savannah

Allison M. Louthan, Daniel F. Doak, Jacob R. Goheen, Todd M. Palmer, Robert M. Pringle, D. F. Doak, R. M. Pringle, J. R. Goheen, T. M. Palmer & A. M. Louthan
Recent work on facilitative plant–plant interactions has emphasized the importance of neighbours’ amelioration of abiotic stress, but the facilitative effects of neighbours in reducing plant apparency to herbivores have received less attention. Whereas theory on stress reduction predicts that competition should be more important in less stressful conditions, with facilitation becoming more important in harsh environments, apparency theory suggests that facilitation should be greater in the presence of herbivores, where it is disadvantageous to be...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals lower genetic diversity in overfished populations

Malin L. Pinsky & Stephen R. Palumbi
While population declines can drive the loss of genetic diversity under some circumstances, it has been unclear whether this loss is a general consequence of overharvest in highly abundant marine fishes. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach across 160 species and 11,658 loci to show that allelic richness was on average 11% lower (p < 0.0001) in overharvested populations, even after accounting for the effects of body size, latitude, and other factors. Heterozygosity was 2%...

Data from: Cutting through the complexity of cell collectives

Carey D. Nadell, Vanni Bucci, Knut Drescher, Simon A. Levin, Bonnie L. Bassler, Joao B. Xavier, B. L. Bassler, K. Drescher, S. A. Levin, C. D. Nadell, V. Bucci & J. B. Xavier
Via strength in numbers, groups of cells can influence their environments in ways that individual cells cannot. Large-scale structural patterns and collective functions underpinning virulence, tumour growth and bacterial biofilm formation are emergent properties of coupled physical and biological processes within cell groups. Owing to the abundance of factors influencing cell group behaviour, deriving general principles about them is a daunting challenge. We argue that combining mechanistic theory with theoretical ecology and evolution provides a...

Data from: Dynamic interpretation of maternal inputs by the Drosophila segmentation gene network

Feng Liu, Alexander H. Morrison & Thomas Gregor
Patterning of body parts in multicellular organisms relies on the interpretation of transcription factor (TF) concentrations by genetic networks. To determine the extent by which absolute TF concentration dictates gene expression and morphogenesis programs that ultimately lead to patterns in Drosophila embryos, we manipulate maternally supplied patterning determinants and measure readout concentration at the position of various developmental markers. When we increase the overall amount of the maternal TF Bicoid 5-fold, Bicoid concentrations in cells...

Agincourt Integrated Family Survey 2004

Anne Case

Registration Year

  • 2020
    24
  • 2019
    21
  • 2018
    30
  • 2017
    24
  • 2016
    20
  • 2015
    27
  • 2014
    16
  • 2013
    14
  • 2012
    8
  • 2011
    4

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    186
  • Text
    3

Affiliations

  • Princeton University
    189
  • Duke University
    21
  • University of California Los Angeles
    9
  • University of Wyoming
    8
  • University of Florida
    7
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    6
  • Mpala Research Center and Wildlife Foundation
    6
  • National Museums of Kenya
    6
  • University of Notre Dame
    5
  • University of Minnesota
    5