29 Works

Data from: Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

Markos A. Alexandrou, John D. Hall, Charles F. Delwiche, Bradley J. Cardinale, Keith Fritschie, Bastian Bentlage, Anita Narwani, Patrick A. Venail, M. Sabrina Pankey, Todd H. Oakley, K. Fritschie, B. J. Cardinale, A. Narwani, P. A. Venail, M. A. Alexandrou, M. S. Pankey, B. Bentlage, C. F. Delwiche, J. D. Hall & T. H. Oakley
The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed...

Data from: Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway

James W. Horn, Zhenxiang Xi, Ricarda Riina, Jess A. Peirson, Ya Yang, Brian L. Dorsey, Paul E. Berry, Charles C. Davis & Kenneth J. Wurdack
The mid-Cenozoic decline of atmospheric CO2 levels that promoted global climate change was critical to shaping contemporary arid ecosystems. Within angiosperms, two CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs)—CAM and C4—evolved from the C3 photosynthetic pathway, enabling more efficient whole-plant function in such environments. Many angiosperm clades with CCMs are thought to have diversified rapidly due to Miocene aridification, but links between this climate change, CCM evolution, and increased net diversification rates (r) remain to be further understood. Euphorbia...

Data from: Microhabitat differences impact phylogeographic concordance of co-distributed species: genomic evidence in montane sedges (Carex L.) from the Rocky Mountains

Rob Massatti & L. Lacey Knowles
By selecting co-distributed, closely related montane sedges from the Rocky Mountains that are similar in virtually all respects but one – their microhabitat affinities – we test predictions about how patterns of genetic variation are expected to differ between Carex nova, an inhabitant of wetlands, and Carex chalciolepis, an inhabitant of drier meadows, slopes, and ridges. Although contemporary populations of the taxa are similarly isolated, the distribution of glacial moraines suggests thattheirpast population connectedness would...

Data from: Adaptive evolution and environmental durability jointly structure phylodynamic patterns in avian influenza viruses

Benjamin Roche, John M. Drake, Justin Brown, David E. Stallknecht, Trevor Bedford & Pejman Rohani
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker...

Data from: Analysis and visualization of complex macroevolutionary dynamics: an example from Australian scincid lizards

Daniel L. Rabosky, Stephen C. Donnellan, Michael Grundler & Irby J. Lovette
The correlation between species diversification and morphological evolution has long been of interest in evolutionary biology. We investigated the relationship between these processes during the radiation of 250+ scincid lizards that constitute Australia's most species-rich clade of terrestrial vertebrates. We generated a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree for the group that was more than 85% complete at the species level and collected multivariate morphometric data for 183 species. We reconstructed the dynamics of species diversification and trait...

Data from: Automatic detection of key innovations, rate shifts, and diversity-dependence on phylogenetic trees

Daniel L. Rabosky
A number of methods have been developed to infer differential rates of species diversification through time and among clades using time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. However, we lack a general framework that can delineate and quantify heterogeneous mixtures of dynamic processes within single phylogenies. I developed a method that can identify arbitrary numbers of time-varying diversification processes on phylogenies without specifying their locations in advance. The method uses reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo to move between model...

Data from: Temporal trends of predation resistance in Paleozoic crinoid arm branching morphologies

Tomasz K. Baumiller & V. J. Syverson
The rise of durophagous predators during the Paleozoic represents an ecological constraint imposed on sessile marine fauna. In crinoids, it has been suggested that increasing predation pressure drove the spread of adaptations against predation. Damage to a crinoid's arms from nonlethal predation varies as a function of arm branching pattern. Here, using a metric for resilience to predation (“expected arm loss,” EAL), we test the hypothesis that the increase in predation led to more predation-resistant...

Data from: Reading the leaves: a comparison of leaf rank and automated areole measurement for quantifying aspects of leaf venation

Walton A. Green, Stefan A. Little, Charles A. Price, Scott L. Wing, Selena Y. Smith, Benjamin Kotrc & Gabriela Doria
The reticulate venation that is characteristic of a dicot leaf has excited interest from systematists for more than a century, and from physiological and developmental botanists for decades. The tools of digital image acquisition and computer image analysis, however, are only now approaching the sophistication needed to quantify aspects of the venation network found in real leaves quickly, easily, accurately, and reliably enough to produce biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we examine 120 leaves...

Data from: Host species composition influences infection severity among amphibians in the absence of spillover transmission

Barbara A. Han, Jacob L. Kerby, Catherine L. Searle, Andrew Storfer, Andy R. Blaustein & Andrew R. Blaustein
Wildlife epidemiological outcomes can depend strongly on the composition of an ecological community, particularly when multiple host species are affected by the same pathogen. However, the relationship between host species richness and disease risk can vary with community context and with the degree of spillover transmission that occurs among co-occurring host species. We examined the degree to which host species composition influences infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a widespread fungal pathogen associated with amphibian population...

Data from: Modeling the effects of anthropogenic exploitation and climate change on an endemic stag beetle, Lucanus miwai, of Taiwan

Jen-Pan Huang
Loss of biodiversity is a worldwide phenomenon and conservation of endemic species is becoming a pressing issue. However, species differ in life history characteristics, causing the best strategy for conservation to vary among species. Lucanus miwai is an endemic stag beetle of Taiwan, but the natural history and the conservation status of L. miwai have not been fully studied. Lucanus miwai adults live in forest-edge grassland habitats and are experiencing threats from anthropogenic exploitation. Additionally,...

Data from: Bayesian species delimitation combining multiple genes and traits in a unified framework

Claudia Solís-Lemus, L. Lacey Knowles & Cécile Ané
Delimitation of species based exclusively on genetic data has been advocated despite a critical knowledge gap: how might such approaches fail because they rely on genetic data alone, and would their accuracy be improved by using multiple data-types. We provide here the requisite framework for addressing these key questions. Because both phenotypic and molecular data can be analyzed in a common Bayesian framework with our program iBPP, we can compare the accuracy of delimited taxa...

Data from: Do polycultures promote win-wins or tradeoffs in agricultural ecosystem services? A meta-analysis

Aaron L. Iverson, Linda E. Marín, Katherine K. Ennis, David J. Gonthier, Benjamin T. Connor-Barrie, Jane L. Remfert, Bradley J. Cardinale & Ivette Perfecto
1. Agriculture comprises the largest global land use, makes it a leading cause of habitat loss. It is therefore critical to identify how to best construct agricultural systems that can simultaneously provide food and other ecosystem services. This challenge requires that we determine how to maximize win-win relationships and minimize trade-offs between services. 2. Through meta-analysis, we tested whether within-field crop diversification (polyculture) can lead to win-win relationships between two ecosystem services: yield of a...

Data from: The costs and benefits of tolerance to competition in Ipomoea purpurea, the common morning glory

Lindsay Chaney & Regina S. Baucom
Tolerance to competition has been hypothesized to reduce the negative impact of plant-plant competition on fitness. Although competitive interactions are a strong selective force, an analysis of net selection on tolerance to competition is absent in the literature. Using fifty-five full/half-sibling families from 18 maternal lines in the crop weed Ipomoea purpurea we measured fitness and putative tolerance traits when grown with and without competition in an agricultural field. We tested for the presence of...

Data from: The socio-genetics of a complex society: female gelada relatedness patterns mirror association patterns in a multi-level society.

Noah Snyder-Mackler, Susan C. Alberts & Thore J. Bergman
Multilevel societies with fission–fusion dynamics—arguably the most complex animal societies—are defined by two or more nested levels of organization. The core of these societies are modular social units that regularly fission and fuse with one another. Despite convergent evolution in disparate taxa, we know strikingly little about how such societies form and how fitness benefits operate. Understanding the kinship structure of complex societies could inform us about the origins of the social structure as well...

Data from: Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet

Eleanore D. Sternberg, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favoring the evolution of trans-generational defenses. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary...

Data from: Global phylogenetic structure of the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole reveals the repeated evolution of macroecological patterns

Evan P. Economo, Pavel Klimov, Eli M. Sarnat, Benoit Guénard, Michael D. Weiser, Beatrice Lecroq, L. Lacey Knowles, P. Klimov, L. L. Knowles, M. D. Weiser, E. P. Economo, B. Guenard & B. Lecroq
Adaptive radiations are of particular interest owing to what they reveal about the ecological and evolutionary regulation of biodiversity. This applies to localized island radiations such as Darwin's finches, and also to rapid radiations occurring on a global scale. Here we analyse the macroevolution and macroecology of Pheidole, a famously hyperdiverse and ecologically dominant ant genus. We generate and analyse four novel datasets: (i) a robust global phylogeny including 285 Pheidole species, (ii) a global...

Data from: Trophic divergence despite morphological convergence in a continental radiation of snakes

Michael C. Grundler, M. C. Grundler & D. L. Rabosky
Ecological and phenotypic convergence is a potential outcome of adaptive radiation in response to ecological opportunity. However, a number of factors may limit convergence during evolutionary radiations, including interregional differences in biogeographic history and clade-specific constraints on form and function. Here, we demonstrate that a single clade of terrestrial snakes from Australia—the oxyuranine elapids—exhibits widespread morphological convergence with a phylogenetically diverse and distantly related assemblage of snakes from North America. Australian elapids have evolved nearly...

Data from: Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism

Elizabeth G. Pringle & E. G. Pringle
In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant–plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it...

Data from: Effects of feral cats on the evolution of anti-predator behaviours in island reptiles: insights from an ancient introduction

Binbin Li, Anat Belasen, Panayiotis Pafilis, Peter Bednekoff, Johannes Foufopoulos, B. Li, A. Belasen, J. Foufopoulos, P. Bednekoff & P. Pafilis
Exotic predators have been the driving force behind the extinction of many island endemic species. We examined impacts of feral cats (Felis catus) on the abundance and anti-predator behaviors of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) in the Cyclades (Greece), where cats were introduced thousands of years ago. We compared populations with high and low cat density on Naxos and populations on surrounding islets with no cats. Results show that cats have strong negative effects on...

Data from: Cross-scale interactions and the distribution-abundance relationship

Earl E. Werner, Christopher Davis, David K. Skelly, Rick A. Relyea, Michael F. Benard, Shannon J. McCauley & Christopher J. Davis
Positive interspecific relationships between local abundance and extent of regional distribution are among the most ubiquitous patterns in ecology. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying distribution-abundance (d-a) relationships remain poorly understood. We examined the intra- and interspecific distribution-abundance relationships for a metacommunity of 13 amphibian species sampled for 15 consecutive years. Mean density of larvae in occupied ponds was positively related to number of ponds occupied by species; employing the fraction of...

Data from: Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants

Elizabeth G. Pringle, Alexandria Novo, Ian Ableson, Raymond V. Barbehenn & Rachel L. Vannette
In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners,...

Data from: Evolution of antipredator behavior in an island lizard species, Podarcis erhardii (Reptilia: Lacertidae): the sum of all fears?

Kinsey M. Brock, Peter A. Bednekoff, Panayiotis Pafilis & Johannes Foufopoulos
Organisms generally have many defenses against predation yet may lack effective defenses if from populations without predators. Evolutionary theory predicts that ‘costly’ antipredator behaviors will be selected against when predation risk diminishes. We examined antipredator behaviors in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii, across an archipelago of land-bridge islands that vary in predator diversity and period of isolation. We examined two defenses, flight initiation distance and tail autotomy. Flight initiation distance generally decreased with declining predator...

Data from: Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach

David J. Gonthier, Katherine K. Ennis, Serge Farinas, Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Aaron L. Iverson, Péter Batáry, Jörgen Rudolphi, Teja Tscharntke, Bradley J. Cardinale, Ivette Perfecto, D. J. Gonthier, B. J. Cardinale, S. Farinas, H.-Y. Hsieh, A. L. Iverson, I. Perfecto, J. Rudolphi, K. K. Ennis, P. Batary & T. Tscharntke
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...

Data from: Perinatal lead (Pb) exposure results in sex-specific effects on food intake, fat, weight, and insulin response across the murine life-course

Christopher Faulk, Amanda Barks, Brisa N. Sánchez, Zhenzhen Zhang, Olivia S. Anderson, Karen E. Peterson & Dana C. Dolinoy
Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with lower body weight in human infants and late onset obesity in mice. We determined the association of perinatal Pb exposure in mice with changes in obesity-related phenotypes into adulthood. Mice underwent exposure via maternal drinking water supplemented with 0 (control), 2.1 (low), 16 (medium), or 32 (high) ppm Pb-acetate two weeks prior to mating through lactation. Offspring were phenotyped at ages 3, 6, and 9 months for...

Data from: Influence of introgression and geological processes on phylogenetic relationships of western North American mountain suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)

Peter J. Unmack, Thomas E. Dowling, Nina J. Laitinen, Carol L. Secor, Richard L. Mayden, Dennis K. Shiozawa & Gerald R. Smith
Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    29

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    29

Affiliations

  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
    29
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • Smithsonian Institution
    2
  • Eastern Michigan University
    2
  • Yale University
    2
  • Harvard University
    2
  • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    2
  • National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
    1
  • University of South Dakota
    1
  • Baylor University
    1
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • University of California System
    1