20 Works

Data from: Neurotrophins induce fission of mitochondria along embryonic sensory axons

Gianluca Gallo
Neurotrophins are growth factors that have a multitude of roles in the nervous system. We report that neurotrophins induce the fission of mitochondria along embryonic chick sensory axons driven by combined PI3K and Mek-Erk signaling. Following an initial burst of fission a new steady state of neurotrophin-dependent mitochondria length is established. Mek-Erk controls the activity of the fission mediator Drp1 GTPase, while PI3K may contribute to the actin dependent aspect of fission. Drp1-mediated fission is...

Predation shapes invertebrate diversity in tropical but not temperate seagrass communities

Amy Freestone, Elizabeth Carroll, Katherine Papacostas, Gregory Ruiz, Mark Torchin & Brent Sewall
1. The hypothesis that biotic interactions are stronger at lower relative to higher latitudes has a rich history, drawing from ecological and evolutionary theory. While this hypothesis suggests that stronger interactions at lower latitudes may contribute to the maintenance of contemporary patterns of diversity, there remain few standardized biogeographic comparisons of community effects of species interactions. 2. Using marine seagrasses as a focal ecosystem of conservation importance and sessile marine invertebrates as model prey, we...

Data from: A multispecies coalescent model for quantitative traits

Fabio K. Mendes, Jesualdo A. Fuentes-González, Joshua G. Schraiber & Matthew W. Hahn
We present a multispecies coalescent model for quantitative traits that allows for evolutionary inferences at micro- and macroevolutionary scales. A major advantage of this model is its ability to incorporate genealogical discordance underlying a quantitative trait. We show that discordance causes a decrease in the expected trait covariance between more closely related species relative to more distantly related species. If unaccounted for, this outcome can lead to an overestimation of a trait's evolutionary rate, to...

Data from: Universal target-enrichment baits for anthozoan (Cnidaria) phylogenomics: new approaches to long-standing problems

Andrea M. Quattrini, Brant C. Faircloth, Luisa F. Dueñas, Thomas C.L. Bridge, Mercer R. Brügler, Ivan F. Calixto-Botía, Danielle M. DeLeo, Sylvain Foret, Santiago Herrera, Simon M.Y. Lee, David J. Miller, Carlos Prada, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Juan A. Sánchez, Estefania Rodriguez, Catherine S. McFadden, Tom C. L. Bridge & Simon M. Y. Lee
Anthozoans (e.g., corals, anemones) are an ecologically important and diverse group of marine metazoans that occur from shallow to deep waters worldwide. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the ~7500 species within this class is hindered by the lack of phylogenetically informative markers that can be reliably sequenced across a diversity of taxa. We designed and tested 16,308 RNA baits to capture 720 Ultraconserved Element loci and 1,071 exon loci. Library preparation and...

Data from: Environmental variation is a major predictor of global trait turnover in mammals

Ben G. Holt, Gabriel C. Costa, Caterina Penone, Jean-Philippe Lessard, Thomas M. Brooks, Ana D. Davidson, S. Blair Hedges, Volker C. Radeloff, Carsten Rahbek, Carlo Rondinini, Catherine H. Graham & S. Blair Hedges
Aim: To evaluate how environment and evolutionary history interact to influence global patterns of mammal trait diversity (a combination of 14 morphological and life-history traits). Location: The global terrestrial environment. Taxon: Terrestrial mammals. Methods: We calculated patterns of spatial turnover for mammalian traits and phylogenetic lineages using the mean nearest taxon distance. We then used a variance partitioning approach to establish the relative contribution of trait conservatism, ecological adaptation and clade specific ecological preferences on...

Data from: Global mammal betadiversity show parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments

Caterina Penone, Ben G. Weinstein, Catherine H. Graham, Thomas M. Brooks, Carlo Rondinini, S. Blair Hedges, Ana D. Davidson & Gabriel C. Costa
The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of betadiversity each provide unique insight into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait betadiversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity but...

Data from: Fine-Scale Mapping of Recombination Rate in Drosophila Refines its Correlation to Diversity and Divergence

R. J. Kulathinal, S. M. Bennett, C. L. Fitzpatrick & Mohamed A. F. Noor
Regional rates of recombination often correlate with levels of nucleotide diversity, and either selective or neutral hypotheses can explain this relationship. Regional recombination rates also correlate with nucleotide differences between human and chimpanzee, consistent with models where recombination is mutagenic; however, a lack of correlation is observed in the Drosophila melanogaster group, consistent with models invoking natural selection. Here, we revisit the relationship among recombination, diversity, and interspecies difference by generating empirical estimates of these...

Data from: Molecular evidence for the paraphyly of Scolecophidia and its evolutionary implications

Aurélien Miralles, Julie Marin, Damien Markus, Anthony Herrel, Blair S. Hedges, Nicolas Vidal & S. Blair Hedges
The phylogenetic relationships between the three main clades of worm snakes remain controversial. This question is, however, crucial to elucidate the origin of the successful snake radiation, as these burrowing and miniaturized wormlike organisms represent the earliest branching clades among the snake tree. The present molecular phylogenetic study, intended to minimize the amount of missing data, provides fully resolved inter-subfamilial relationships among Typhlopidae. It also brings robust evidence that worm snakes (Scolecophidia) are paraphyletic, with...

Data from: Testing the depth-differentiation hypothesis in a deepwater octocoral

Andrea M. Quattrini, Iliana B. Baums, Timothy M. Shank, Cheryl L. Morrison, Erik E. Cordes, C. L. Morrison, I. B. Baums, E. E. Cordes, A. M. Quattrini & T. M. Shank
The depth-differentiation hypothesis proposes that the bathyal region is a source of genetic diversity and an area where there is a high rate of species formation. Genetic differentiation should thus occur over relatively small vertical distances, particularly along the upper continental slope (200–1000 m) where oceanography varies greatly over small differences in depth. To test whether genetic differentiation within deepwater octocorals is greater over vertical rather than geographical distances, Callogorgia delta was targeted. This species...

Data from: Changes in spatial variance during a grassland to shrubland state transition

Zak Ratajczak, Paolo D'Odorico, Jesse B. Nippert, Scott L. Collins, Nathaniel A. Brunsell & Sujith Ravi
State transitions are changes in ecosystem structure and self-reinforcing feedbacks that are initiated when an exogenous driver variable crosses a threshold. Reversing state transitions is difficult and costly. While some state transitions are relatively rapid, many take years to decades. Outside of theoretical models, very little is known about slower state transitions and how they unfold in time and space. We quantified changes in spatial variance as a mesic grassland ecosystem shifts to a shrub-dominated...

Data from: Temporal and gefitinib-sensitive regulation of cardiac cytokine expression via chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation

Laurel A. Grisanti, Ashley A. Repas, Jennifer A. Talarico, Jessica I. Gold, Rhonda L. Carter, Walter J. Koch & Douglas G. Tilley
Chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βAR) can promote survival signaling via transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but ultimately alters cardiac structure and contractility over time, in part via enhanced cytokine signaling. We hypothesized that chronic catecholamine signaling will have a temporal impact on cardiac transcript expression in vivo, in particular cytokines, and that EGFR transactivation plays a role in this process. C57BL/6 mice underwent infusion with vehicle or isoproterenol (Iso) ± gefitinib (Gef)...

Data from: Niche divergence by deep-sea octocorals in the genus Callogorgia across the continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico

Andrea M. Quattrini, Samuel E. Georgian, Luke Byrnes, Alex Stevens, Rosalia Falco & Erik E. Cordes
Environmental variables that are correlated with depth have been suggested to be among the major forces underlying speciation in the deep sea. This study incorporated phylogenetics and ecological niche models (ENM) to examine whether congeneric species of Callogorgia (Octocorallia: Primnoidae) occupy different ecological niches across the continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), and whether this niche divergence could be important in the evolution of these closely related species. Callogorgia americana americana, C. americana...

Data from: β-adrenergic receptor-dependent alterations in murine cardiac transcript expression are differentially regulated by gefitinib in vivo

Jennifer A. Talarico, Rhonda L. Carter, Laurel A. Grisanti, Justine E. Yu, Ashley A. Repas & Douglas G. Tilley
β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to promote cardioprotection in a mouse model of heart failure and we recently showed that this mechanism leads to enhanced cell survival in part via regulation of apoptotic transcript expression in isolated primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that this process could regulate cardiac transcript expression in vivo. To comprehensively assess cardiac transcript alterations in response to acute βAR-dependent EGFR transactivation,...

Data from: Shifts to earlier selfing in sympatry may reduce costs of pollinator sharing

April M. Randle, Rachel B. Spigler & Susan Kalisz
Coexisting plant congeners often experience strong competition for resources. Competition for pollinators can result in direct fitness costs via reduced seed set or indirect costs via heterospecific pollen transfer (HPT), causing subsequent gamete loss and unfit hybrid offspring production. Autonomous selfing may alleviate these costs, but to preempt HPT, selfing should occur early, before opportunities for HPT occur (i.e. “preemptive selfing hypothesis”). We evaluated conditions for this hypothesis in Collinsia sister species, C. linearis and...

Data from: Inbreeding depression and drift load in small populations at demographic disequilibrium

Rachel B. Spigler, Konstantinos Theodorou & Shu-Mei Chang
Inbreeding depression is a major driver of mating system evolution and has critical implications for population viability. Theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to predicting how inbreeding depression varies with population size. Lower inbreeding depression is predicted in small populations at equilibrium, primarily due to higher inbreeding rates facilitating purging and/or fixation of deleterious alleles (drift load), but predictions at demographic and genetic disequilibrium are less clear. In this study, we experimentally evaluate how...

Data from: Conformational dynamics in TRPV1 channels reported by an encoded coumarin amino acid

Ximena Steinberg, Marina A. Kasimova, Deny Cabezas-Bratesco, Jason D. Galpin, Ernesto Ladron-De-Guevara, Federica Villa, Vincenzo Carnevale, Leon Islas, Christopher A. Ahern, Sebastian Brauchi, Jason D Galpin, Christopher A Ahern, Marina A Kasimova & Sebastian E Brauchi
TRPV1 channels support the detection of noxious and nociceptive input. Currently available functional and structural data suggest that TRPV1 channels have two gates within their permeation pathway: one formed by a ′bundle-crossing′ at the intracellular entrance and a second constriction at the selectivity filter. To describe conformational changes associated with channel gating, the fluorescent non-canonical amino acid coumarin-tyrosine was genetically encoded at Y671, a residue proximal to the selectivity filter. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...

Data from: Gene expression profiling reveals deep-sea coral response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Danielle M. DeLeo, Santiago Herrera, Stephen D. Lengyel, Andrea M. Quattrini, Rob J. Kulathinal & Erik E. Cordes
Deep-sea coral communities are key components of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem and were adversely affected by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Coral colonies exposed to oil and dispersant exhibited mortality, damage, and physiological signatures of stress. Understanding how corals respond to oil and dispersant exposure at the molecular level is important to elucidate the sub-lethal effects of the DWH disaster, and reveal broader patterns of coral stress responses. Gene expression profiles from RNAseq...

Data from: Complementary mechanisms for upright balance during walking

Hendrik Reimann, Tyler D. Fettrow, Elizabeth D. Thompson, Peter Agada, Bradford J. McFadyen & John J. Jeka
Lateral balance is a critical factor in keeping the human body upright during walking. Two important mechanisms for balance control are the stepping strategy, in which the foot placement is changed in the direction of a sensed fall to modulate how the gravitational force acts on the body, and the lateral ankle strategy, in which the body mass is actively accelerated by an ankle torque. Currently, there is minimal evidence about how these two strategies...

Data from: On the occurrence of false positives in tests of migration under an isolation with migration model

Jody Hey, Yujin Chung & Arun Sethuraman
The population genetic study of divergence is often carried out using a Bayesian genealogy sampler, like those implemented in ima2 and related programs, and these analyses frequently include a likelihood ratio test of the null hypothesis of no migration between populations. Cruickshank and Hahn (2014, Molecular Ecology, 23, 3133–3157) recently reported a high rate of false-positive test results with ima2 for data simulated with small numbers of loci under models with no migration and recent...

Data from: Neural control of balance during walking

Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow, Elizabeth D. Thompson & John J. Jeka
Neural control of standing balance has been extensively studied. However, most falls occur during walking rather than standing, and findings from standing balance research do not necessarily carry over to walking. This is primarily due to the constraints of the gait cycle: Body configuration changes dramatically over the gait cycle, necessitating different responses as this configuration changes. Notably, certain responses can only be initiated at specific points in the gait cycle, leading to onset times...

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