Data from: The hitchhiker's guide to Europe: the infection dynamics of an ongoing Wolbachia invasion and mitochondrial selective sweep in Rhagoletis cerasiHannes Schuler, Kirsten Koeppler, Sabine Daxböck-Horvath, Bilal Rasool, Susanne Krumboeck, Dietmar Schwarz, Thomas Hoffmeister, Birgit Schlick-Steiner, Florian Steiner, Arndt Telschow, Christian Stauffer, Wolfgang Arthofer, Markus Riegler, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner & Thomas S. Hoffmeister
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited and ubiquitous endosymbiont of insects. It can hijack host reproduction by manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) to enhance vertical transmission. Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia can also result in the colonization of new mitochondrial lineages. In this study, we present a 15-year-long survey of Wolbachia in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi across Europe and the spatiotemporal distribution of two prevalent strains, wCer1 and wCer2, and associated mitochondrial haplotypes in...
Data from: Reconstruction of genetically identified neurons imaged by serial-section electron microscopyMaximilian Joesch, David Mankus, Masahito Yamagata, Ali Shahbazi, Richard Shalek, Adi Suissa-Peleg, Markus Meister, Jeff W. Lichtman, Walter J. Scheirer, Joshua R. Sanes, Walter J Scheirer, Richard Schalek, Jeff W Lichtman & Joshua R Sanes
Resolving patterns of synaptic connectivity in neural circuits currently requires serial section electron microscopy. However, complete circuit reconstruction is prohibitively slow and may not be necessary for many purposes such as comparing neuronal structure and connectivity among multiple animals. Here, we present an alternative strategy, targeted reconstruction of specific neuronal types. We used viral vectors to deliver peroxidase derivatives, which catalyze production of an electron-dense tracer, to genetically identified neurons, and developed a protocol that...
Sexually selected feticide—the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour—has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide...
Data from: Meek mothers with powerful daughters: effects of novel host environments and small trait differences on parasitoid competitionGabriela Hamerlinck, Nathan P. Lemoine, Glen R. Hood, Karen C. Abbott & Andrew A. Forbes
Outcomes of competition may depend both on subtle differences in traits relevant to fitness and on how those traits are expressed in the context of the environment. Environmental effects on traits impacting population dynamics are often overlooked in studies of parasitic wasp (parasitoid) competition. Lineages of the parasitoid Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) differ in relative ovipositor length (a trait affecting the proportion of hosts available for parasitism). Since the size of natal hosts affects the...
Data from: Historical contingency in a multigene family facilitates adaptive evolution of toxin resistanceJoel McGlothlin, Megan Kobiela, Chris R. Feldman, Todd A. Castoe, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Gabriela Toledo, Freek J. Vonk, Michael K. Richardson, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Michael Pfrender & Brodie III, Edmund D.
Novel adaptations must originate and function within an already established genome [ 1 ]. As a result, the ability of a species to adapt to new environmental challenges is predicted to be highly contingent on the evolutionary history of its lineage [ 2–6 ]. Despite a growing appreciation of the importance of historical contingency in the adaptive evolution of single proteins [ 7–11 ], we know surprisingly little about its role in shaping complex adaptations...
The foundation for any ecological study and the for effective management of biodiversity in natural systems requires knowing what species are present in an ecosystem. We assessed fish communities in a stream using two methods, depletion-based electrofishing and environmental DNA metabarcoding (eDNA) from water samples, to test the hypothesis that eDNA provides an alternative means of determining species richness and species identities for a natural ecosystem. In a northern Indiana stream, electrofishing yielded a direct...
Data from: Environmental DNA (eDNA) detects the invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) at low abundancesMatthew M. Dougherty, Eric R. Larson, Mark A. Renshaw, Crysta A. Gantz, Scott P. Egan, Daniel M. Erickson & David M. Lodge
Early detection is invaluable for the cost-effective control and eradication of invasive species, yet many traditional sampling techniques are ineffective at the low population abundances found at the onset of the invasion process. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a promising and sensitive tool for early detection of some invasive species, but its efficacy has not yet been evaluated for many taxonomic groups and habitat types. We evaluated the ability of eDNA to detect the invasive rusty...
Pathogens inflict a wide variety of disease manifestations on their hosts, yet the impacts of disease on the behaviour of infected hosts are rarely studied empirically and are seldom accounted for in mathematical models of transmission dynamics. We explored the potential impacts of one of the most common disease manifestations, fever, on a key determinant of pathogen transmission, host mobility, in residents of the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru. We did so by comparing two...
Data from: Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flowScott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Lauren Assour, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Glen R. Hood, Scott Emrich, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H.Q. Powell
Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect effects due to correlations among loci, is critical to understanding speciation. Here, we measure the genome-wide impacts of host-associated selection between hawthorn and apple...
Data from: Chromosomal inversions and ecotypic differentiation in Anopheles gambiae: the perspective from whole-genome sequencingR. Rebecca Love, Aaron M. Steele, Mamadou B. Coulibaly, Sekou F. Traore, Scott J. Emrich, Michaël C. Fontaine & Nora J. Besansky
The molecular mechanisms and genetic architecture that facilitate adaptive radiation of lineages remain elusive. Polymorphic chromosomal inversions, due to their recombination-reducing effect, are proposed instruments of ecotypic differentiation. Here we study an ecologically diversifying lineage of An. gambiae, known as the Bamako chromosomal form based on its unique complement of three chromosomal inversions, to explore the impact of these inversions on ecotypic differentiation. We used pooled and individual genome sequencing of Bamako, typical (non-Bamako) An....
Understanding the types and functions of genes that are able to cross species boundaries—and those that are not—is an important step in understanding the forces maintaining species as largely independent lineages across the remainder of the genome. With large next-generation sequencing data sets we are now able to ask whether introgression has occurred across the genome, and multiple methods have been proposed to detect the signature of such events. Here, we introduce a new summary...
The study of ecological speciation is inherently linked to the study of selection. Methods for estimating phenotypic selection within a generation based on associations between trait values and fitness (e.g. survival) of individuals are established. These methods attempt to disentangle selection acting directly on a trait from indirect selection caused by correlations with other traits via multivariate statistical approaches (i.e. inference of selection gradients). The estimation of selection on genotypic or genomic variation could also...
University of Notre Dame12
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