84 Works

Data from: A taxonomic revision of the whitefish radiation of lakes Brienz and Thun, Switzerland, with descriptions of three new species (Teleostei: Coregonidae)

Oliver Martin Selz, Ole Seehausen, Pascal Vonlanthen & Carmela Dönz
The alpha taxonomy of the endemic whitefish of Lakes Brienz and Thun, Switzerland, are reviewed and revised. We evaluate the status of six known species: Coregonus steinmanni sp. nov. occurs in both lakes; Coregonus profundus sp. nov. and Coregonus acrinasus sp. nov. are endemic to Lake Thun; and Coregonus alpinus, C. albellus, and C. fatioi from lakes Brienz and Thun are redescribed. One of these, C. alpinus, is revised, since the lectotype for this species...

Data for: Interactive effects of foundation species on ecosystem functioning and stability in response to disturbance

Anita Narwani
A major challenge in ecology is to understand determinants of ecosystem functioning and stability in the face of disturbance. Some important species can strongly shape community structure and ecosystem functioning, but their impacts and interactions on ecosystem-level responses to disturbance are less well known. Shallow ponds provide a model system in which to study the effects of such species because some taxa mitigate transitions between alternate ecosystem states caused by eutrophication. We performed pond experiments...

Data from: Interspecific hybridization can generate functional novelty in cichlid fish

Oliver Martin Selz & Ole Seehausen
The role of interspecific hybridization in evolution is still being debated. Interspecific hybridization has on the one hand been suggested to facilitate the evolution of ecological novelty and hence the invasion of new niches and adaptive radiation when ecological opportunity is present beyond the parental species niches. On the other hand, hybrids between two ecologically divergent species may perform less well than parental species in their respective niches because hybrids would be intermediate in performance...

Data from: Ecological opportunity shapes a large Arctic charr species radiation

Carmela Doenz, Andrin Kraehenbuehl, Jonas Walker, Ole Seehausen & Jakob Brodersen
Ecological opportunity is considered a crucial factor for adaptive radiation. Here, we combine genetic, morphological and ecological data to assess species and ecomorphological diversity of Artic charr in six lakes of a catchment in southernmost Greenland, harbouring only charr and stickleback. Because the diversity of habitats and resources increases with lake size, we predict a positive association between lake size and the extent of ecomorphological diversity. The largest lake of the catchment harbours the largest...

Data from: Lessons learned from microsatellite development for non-model organisms using 454 pyrosequencing

Corine Schoebel, Sabine Brodbeck, Dominique Buehler, Carolina Cornejo, Jyoti Gajurel, Hanna Hartikainen, Daniela Keller, Marie Leys, Štěpánka Říčanová, Gernot Segelbacher, Silke Werth, Daniela Csencsics, C. N. Schoebel, S. Brodbeck, D. Buehler, C. Cornejo, D. Keller, D. Csencsics, M. Leys, Š. Říčanová & G. Segelbacher
Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are among the most commonly used marker types in evolutionary and ecological studies. Next Generation Sequencing techniques such as 454 pyrosequencing allow the rapid development of microsatellite markers in nonmodel organisms. 454 pyrosequencing is a straightforward approach to develop a high number of microsatellite markers. Therefore, developing microsatellites using 454 pyrosequencing has become the method of choice for marker development. Here, we describe a user friendly way...

Data from: Genomics of parallel ecological speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids

Joana I Meier, David A Marques, Catherine E Wagner, Laurent Excoffier, Ole Seehausen, Joana Isabel Meier, David Alexander Marques & Catherine Elise Wagner
The genetic basis of parallel evolution of similar species is of great interest in evolutionary biology. In the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes, sister species with either blue or red-back male nuptial coloration have evolved repeatedly, often associated with shallower and deeper water, respectively. One such case are blue and red-backed Pundamilia species, for which we recently showed that a young species pair may have evolved through “hybrid parallel speciation”. Coalescent simulations suggested...

Data from: Signatures of microevolutionary processes in phylogenetic patterns

Carolina L.N. Costa, Paula Lemos-Costa, Flavia M.D. Marquitti, Lucas D. Fernandes, Marlon F. Ramos, David M. Schneider, Ayana B. Martins, Marcus A.M. De Aguiar, Lucas D Fernandes, Ayana B Martins, Carolina L N Costa, Flavia M D Marquitti, Marlon F Ramos, David M Schneider & Marcus A M De Aguiar
Phylogenetic trees are representations of evolutionary relationships among species and contain signatures of the processes responsible for the speciation events they display. Inferring processes from tree properties, however, is challenging. To address this problem we analysed a spatially-explicit model of speciation where genome size and mating range can be controlled. We simulated parapatric and sympatric (narrow and wide mating range, respectively) radiations and constructed their phylogenetic trees, computing structural properties such as tree balance and...

Data from: Hybrid ‘superswarm’ leads to rapid divergence and establishment of populations during a biological invasion

Denis Roy, Kay Lucek, Ryan P. Walter & Ole Seehausen
Understanding the genetic background of invading species can be crucial information clarifying why they become invasive. Intraspecific genetic admixture among lineages separated in the native ranges may promote the rate and extent of an invasion by substantially increasing standing genetic variation. Here, we examined the genetic relationships among threespine stickleback that recently colonized Switzerland. This invasion results from several distinct genetic lineages that colonized multiple locations and have since undergone range expansions, where they coexist...

Data from: Predicting novel trophic interactions in a non-native world

Ian S. Pearse & Florian Altermatt
Humans are altering the global distributional ranges of plants, while their co-evolved herbivores are frequently left behind. Native herbivores often colonise non-native plants, potentially reducing invasion success or causing economic loss to introduced agricultural crops. We developed a predictive model to forecast novel interactions and verified it with a data set containing hundreds of observed novel plant–insect interactions. Using a food network of 900 native European butterfly and moth species and 1944 native plants, we...

Data from: Niches within a niche: ecological differentiation of subterranean amphipods across Europe’s interstitial waters

Cene Fiser, Teo Delić, Roman Luštrik, Maja Zagmajster & Florian Altermatt
Species that successfully colonized subterranean environments are subject to two opposing selection processes. Stringent abiotic factors select for convergent adaptations, such as loss of eyes and pigments, while interspecific competition drives between-species divergence. Subterranean species can resolve opposing selection by adaptation to physically different microhabitats. Yet, species frequently co-occur in physically homogeneous subterranean habitats, like interstitial. These co-occurrences in such a narrow ecological context can be explained either by equalizing mechanisms, in which neither of...

Data from: The predictability of a lake phytoplankton community, over time-scales of hours to years

Mridul K. Thomas, Simone Fontana, Marta Reyes, Michael Kehoe & Francesco Pomati
Forecasting changes to ecological communities is one of the central challenges in ecology. However, nonlinear dependencies, biotic interactions and data limitations have limited our ability to assess how predictable communities are. We used a machine learning approach and environmental monitoring data (biological, physical and chemical) to assess the predictability of phytoplankton cell density in one lake across an unprecedented range of time scales. Communities were highly predictable over hours to months: model R2 decreased from...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Sereina Gut, Florian Altermatt, E. A. Fronhofer, S. Gut & F. Altermatt
Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. While it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of...

Data from: Parasitoid gene expression changes after adaptation to symbiont-protected hosts

Alice B. Dennis, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver & Christoph Vorburger
Reciprocal selection between aphids, their protective endosymbionts, and the parasitoid wasps that prey upon them offers an opportunity to study the basis of their coevolution. We investigated adaptation to symbiont-conferred defense by rearing the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum on aphids (Aphis fabae) possessing different defensive symbiont strains (Hamiltonella defensa). After ten generations of experimental evolution, wasps showed increased abilities to parasitize aphids possessing the H. defensa strain they evolved with, but not aphids possessing the...

Data from: Importance of antecedent environmental conditions in modeling species distributions

Masahiro Ryo, Chihiro Yoshimura & Yuichi Iwasaki
Although species distributions can change in an unexpectedly short period of time, most species distribution models (SDMs) use only long-term averaged environmental conditions to explain species distributions. We aimed to demonstrate the importance of incorporating antecedent environmental conditions into SDMs in comparison to long-term averaged environmental conditions. We modeled the presence/absence of 18 fish species captured across 108 sampling events along a 50-km length of the Sagami River in Japan throughout the 1990s (one to...

Data from: Dispersal in dendritic networks: ecological consequences on the spatial distribution of population densities

Florian Altermatt & Emanuel A. Fronhofer
1. Understanding the consequences of spatial structure on ecological dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Recently, research has recognized the relevance of river and river-analogue network structures, because these systems are not only highly diverse but also rapidly changing due to habitat modifications or species invasions. 2. Much of the previous work on ecological and evolutionary dynamics in metapopulations and metacommunities in dendritic river networks has been either using comparative approaches or was purely...

Data from: Ecological interactions and coexistence are predicted by gene expression similarity in freshwater green algae

Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Markos A. Alexandrou, Keith J. Fritschie, Charles Delwiche, Todd H. Oakley & Bradley J. Cardinale
Phenotypic variation controls the species interactions which determine whether or not species coexist. Long-standing hypotheses in ecology and evolution posit that phenotypic differentiation enables coexistence by increasing the size of niche differentiation. This hypothesis has only been tested using macroscopic traits to date, but niche differentiation, particularly of microscopic organisms, also occurs at the molecular and metabolic level. We examined how phenotypic variation that arises at the level of gene expression over evolutionary time affects...

Data from: Cryptic lineages of a common alpine mayfly show strong life-history divergence

Marie Leys, Irene Keller, Christopher T. Robinson & Katja Räsänen
Understanding ecological divergence of morphologically similar but genetically distinct species – previously considered as a single morphospecies – is of key importance in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology. Despite their morphological similarity, cryptic species may have evolved distinct adaptations. If such ecological divergence is unaccounted for, any predictions about their responses to environmental change and biodiversity loss may be biased. We used spatio-temporally replicated field surveys of larval cohort structure and population genetic analyses (using...

Data from: De novo transcriptome analysis of the common New Zealand stick insect Clitarchus hookeri (Phasmatodea) reveals genes involved in olfaction, digestion and sexual reproduction

Chen Wu, Ross N Crowhurst, Alice B Dennis, Victoria G Twort, Shanlin Liu, Richard D Newcomb, Howard A Ross, Thomas R Buckley, Victoria G. Twort, Thomas R. Buckley, Richard D. Newcomb, Howard A. Ross & Alice B. Dennis
Phasmatodea, more commonly known as stick insects, have been poorly studied at the molecular level for several key traits, such as components of the sensory system and regulators of reproduction and development, impeding a deeper understanding of their functional biology. Here, we employ de novo transcriptome analysis to identify genes with primary functions related to female odour reception, digestion, and male sexual traits in the New Zealand common stick insect Clitarchus hookeri (White). The female...

Data from: Transcriptome profiling of immune tissues reveals habitat-specific gene expression between lake and river sticklebacks

Yun Huang, Frederic Chain, Mahesh Panchal, Christophe Eizaguirre, Martin Kalbe, Tobias Lenz, Irene Samonte, Monika Stoll, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Thorsten B. Reusch, Manfred Milinski & Philine Feulner
The observation of habitat-specific phenotypes suggests the action of natural selection. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has repeatedly colonized and adapted to diverse freshwater habitats across the northern hemisphere since the last glaciation, while giving rise to recurring phenotypes associated with specific habitats. Parapatric lake and river populations of sticklebacks harbour distinct parasite communities, a factor proposed to contribute to adaptive differentiation between these ecotypes. However, little is known about the transcriptional response to the...

Data from: Evaluating genomic divergence and parallelism in replicate ecomorphs from young and old cichlid adaptive radiations

Matthew D. McGee, Russell Y. Neches & Ole Seehausen
Comparative genomic studies of closely related species typically focus on single species pairs at one given stage of divergence. That makes it difficult to infer the continuum of evolutionary process during speciation and beyond. Here, we use whole-genome resequencing to examine genomic patterns of divergence in three sympatric cichlid species pairs with very similar functional and ecological differentiation, but different ages. We find a strong signature of increasing genomic divergence with time in both the...

Data from: Rapid evolutionary loss of metal resistance revealed by hatching decades-old eggs

Patrick William Turko, Laura Sigg, Juliane Hollender, Piet Spaak & Patrick Turko
We investigated the evolutionary response of an ecologically important freshwater crustacean, Daphnia, to a rapidly changing toxin environment. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the use of leaded gasoline caused the aquatic concentration of Pb to increase at least 5-fold, presumably exerting rapid selective pressure on organisms for resistance. We predicted that Daphnia from this time of intense pollution would display greater resistance than those hatched from times of lower pollution. This question was addressed...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, Gonçalves Jr., Jose Francisco, Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: Interactions among bacterial strains and fluke genotypes shape virulence of co-infection

Katja-Riikka Louhi, Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Jukka Jokela & Anssi Karvonen
Most studies of virulence of infection focus on pairwise host-parasite interactions. However, hosts are almost universally co-infected by several parasite strains and/or genotypes of the same or different species. While theory predicts that co infection favours more virulent parasite genotypes through intensified competition for host resources, knowledge of effects of genotype by genotype (G×G) interactions between unrelated parasite species on virulence of co infection is limited. Here we tested such relationship by challenging rainbow trout...

Data from: Quality attracts parasites: host condition-dependent chemo-orientation of trematode larvae

Otto Seppälä & Katja Leicht
1. Environmental factors impairing physiological condition of organisms are assumed to predispose them to parasite infections. This is because host immune function is typically condition-dependent. However, poor physiological condition has been reported to reduce host susceptibility to parasites in various systems. 2. We examined whether such an effect can be due to altered exposure of hosts to active parasite transmission stages by investigating chemo-orientation of free-swimming cercariae larvae of a parasite Echinoparyphium aconiatum towards its...

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