Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - resident, intermediate-distance migrant or long-distance migrant, occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards, a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration...
Data from: Quantifying past and present connectivity illuminates a rapidly changing landscape for the African elephantClinton W. Epps, Samuel K. Wasser, Jonah L. Keim, Benezeth M. Mutayoba & Justin S. Brashares
There is widespread concern about impacts of land-use change on connectivity among animal and plant populations, but those impacts are difficult to quantify. Moreover, lack of knowledge regarding ecosystems before fragmentation may obscure appropriate conservation targets. We use occurrence and population genetic data to contrast connectivity for a long-lived mega-herbivore over historical and contemporary time frames. We test whether (i) historical gene flow is predicted by persistent landscape features rather than human settlement, (ii) contemporary...
Data from: Crossing the uncrossable: novel trans-valley biogeographic patterns revealed in the genetic history of low dispersal mygalomorph spiders (Antrodiaetidae, Antrodiaetus) from CaliforniaMarshal Hedin, James Starrett & Cheryl Hayashi
Antrodiaetus riversi is a dispersal-limited, habitat specialized mygalomorph spider species endemic to mesic woodlands of northern and central California. Here we build upon prior phylogeographic research using a much larger geographic sample and include additional nuclear genes, providing more detailed biogeographic insights throughout the range of this complex. Of particular interest is the uncovering of unexpected and replicated trans-valley biogeographic patterns, where in two separate genetic clades western haplotypes in the California south Coast Ranges...
Data from: Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar batWinifred F. Frick, Ryan D. Price, Heady III, Paul A. & Kathleen M. Kay
Plant-pollinator interactions are great model systems to investigate mutualistic relationships. We compared pollinator effectiveness between facultative and obligate nectar-feeding bats to determine how foraging specialization influences mutualistic interactions in a bat-adapted cactus. We predicted that a specialized nectarivorous bat would deliver more pollen than an opportunistic nectar-feeding bat because of specialized adaptations to nectar-feeding that indicate close association with their food plants. Counter to our predictions, the opportunistic Antrozous pallidus delivered significantly more pollen grains...
Data from: Digging through model complexity: using hierarchical models to uncover evolutionary processes in the wildMathieu Buoro, Etienne Prévost & Olivier Gimenez
The growing interest for studying questions in the wild requires acknowledging that eco-evolutionary processes are complex, hierarchically structured and often partially observed or with measurement error. These issues have long been ignored in evolutionary biology, which might have led to flawed inference when addressing evolutionary questions. Hierarchical modelling (HM) has been proposed as a generic statistical framework to deal with complexity in ecological data and account for uncertainty. However, to date, HM has seldom been...
Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwideHari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...
We derive an expression for the variation between parallel trajectories in phenotypic evolution, extending the well known result that predicts the mean evolutionary path in adaptive dynamics or quantitative genetics. We show how this expression gives rise to the notion of fluctuation domains–parts of the fitness landscape where the rate of evolution is very predictable (due to fluctuation dissipation) and parts where it is highly variable (due to fluctuation enhancement). These fluctuation domains are determined...
Data from: Love the one you're with: proximity determines paternity success in the barnacle Tetraclita rubescensMorgan W. Kelly, Richard K. Grosberg & Eric Sanford
A species’ mating system sets limits on the strength of sexual selection. Sexual selection is widespread in dioecious species, but is less well documented in hermaphrodites, and may be less important. We used four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to broods of the hermaphroditic eastern Pacific volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens. These data were used to describe the species’ mating system and to examine factors affecting male reproductive success. Tetraclita can sire broods over...
Most founding events entail a reduction of population size, which in turn leads to genetic drift effects that can deplete alleles. Besides reducing neutral genetic variability, founder effects can in principle shift additive genetic variance for phenotypes that underlie fitness. This could then lead to different rates of adaptation among populations that have undergone a population size bottleneck as well as an environmental change, even when these populations have a common evolutionary history. Thus theory...
Data from: Montane refugia predict population genetic structure in the Large-blotched Ensatina salamanderThomas J. Devitt, Susan E. Cameron Devitt, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, Jimmy A. McGuire, Craig Moritz & Susan E. Cameron Devitt
Understanding the biotic consequences of Pleistocene range shifts and fragmentation remains a fundamental goal in historical biogeography and evolutionary biology. Here, we combine species distribution models (SDM) from the present and two late Quaternary time periods with multilocus genetic data (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites) to evaluate the effect of climate-induced habitat shifts on population genetic structure in the Large-blotched Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii klauberi), a plethodontid salamander endemic to middle and high-elevation conifer forest in the...
Data from: Changes in Bivalve functional and assemblage ecology in response to environmental change in the Caribbean NeogeneJill S. Leonard-Pingel, Jeremy B. C. Jackson & Aaron O'Dea
We documented changes in the relative abundance of bivalve genera and functional groups in the southwest Caribbean over the past 11 Myr to determine their response to oceanographic changes associated with the closure of the Central American Seaway ca. 3.5 Ma. Quantitative bulk samples from 29 localities yielded 106,000 specimens in 145 genera. All genera were assigned to functional groups based on diet, relationship to the substrate, and mobility. Ordinations of assemblages based on quantitative...
A species' genetic structure often varies in response to ecological and landscape processes that differ throughout the species' geographic range, yet landscape genetics studies are rarely spatially replicated. The Cope's giant salamander (Dicamptodon copei) is a neotenic, dispersal-limited amphibian with a restricted geographic range in the Pacific northwestern USA. We investigated which landscape factors affect D. copei gene flow in three regions spanning the species' range, which vary in climate, landcover and degree of anthropogenic...
In Bayesian divergence time estimation methods, incorporating calibrating information from the fossil record is commonly done by assigning prior densities to ancestral nodes in the tree. Calibration prior densities are typically parametric distributions offset by minimum age estimates provided by the fossil record. Specification of the parameters of calibration densities requires the user to quantify his or her prior knowledge of the age of the ancestral node relative to the age of its calibrating fossil....
Many biological traits are discretely distributed in phenotype but continuously distributed in genetics because they are controlled by multiple genes and environmental variants. Due to the quantitative nature of the genetic background, these multiple genes are called quantitative trait loci (QTL). When the QTL effects are treated as random, they can be estimated in a single generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), even if the number of QTL may be larger than the sample size. The...
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) is extremely diverse with an estimated 500 000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on both morphological and molecular data. A web-based, systematics workbench mx was used to score 945 character states illustrated by 648 figures for 233 morphological characters for a total of 66 645 observations for 300 taxa. The matrix covers 22 chalcidoid families recognized herein and includes 268 genera within 78 of 83 subfamilies. Morphological...
University of California System15
French National Institute for Agricultural Research2
Michigan Technological University1
University of Montana1
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1
University of Washington1
Sokoine University of Agriculture1
The Ohio State University1
Oregon State University1
Nature Conservation Foundation1
University of Minnesota1
University of Lisbon1
Texas A&M University1