16 Works

Data from: Long-term data reveal patterns and controls on streamwater chemistry in a forested stream: Walker Branch, Tennessee

Brian D. Lutz, Patrick J. Mulholland & Emily S. Bernhardt
We present 20 years of weekly streamwater chemistry, hydrology, and climate data for the Walker Branch watershed in eastern Tennessee, USA. Since 1989, the watershed has experienced a ~1.0˚C increase in mean annual temperature, a ~20% decline in precipitation, and a ~30% increase in forest evapotranspiration rates. As a result, runoff has declined by ~34%. We evaluate long-term trends in streamwater concentrations and fluxes for 9 solutes and use wet deposition data to calculate approximate...

Data from: Inferring the history of interchromosomal gene transposition in Drosophila using n-Dimensional parsimony

Mira V. Han & Matthew W. Hahn
Gene transposition puts a new gene copy in a novel genomic environment. Moreover, genes moving between the autosomes and the X chromosome experience change in several evolutionary parameters. Previous studies of gene transposition have not utilized the phylogenetic framework that becomes possible with the availability of whole genomes from multiple species. Here we used parsimonious reconstruction on the genomic distribution of gene families to analyze interchromosomal gene transposition in Drosophila. We identified 782 genes that...

Data from: A total-evidence approach to dating with fossils, applied to the early radiation of the Hymenoptera

Fredrik Ronquist, Seraina Klopfstein, Lars Vilhelmsen, Susanne Schulmeister, Debra L. Murray & Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn
Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically,...

Data from: The genetic architecture of biofilm formation in a clinical isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Joshua A. Granek, Debra Murray, Ömür Kayıkçı & Paul M. Magwene
Biofilms are microbial communities that form on surfaces. They are the primary form of microbial growth in nature and can have detrimental impacts on human health. Some strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae form colony biofilms, and there is substantial variation in colony architecture between biofilm-forming strains. To identify the genetic basis of biofilm variation, we developed a novel version of quantitative trait locus mapping, which leverages cryptic variation in a clinical isolate of...

Data from: Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

Elen Oneal, L. Lacey Knowles, E. Oneal & L. L. Knowles
Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation, and geographic isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male...

Data from: Rapid change in the thermal tolerance of a tropical lizard

Manuel Leal & Alex R. Gunderson
The predominant view is that the thermal physiology of tropical ectotherms, including lizards, is not labile over ecological timescales. We used the recent introduction (∼35 years ago) of the Puerto Rican lizard Anolis cristatellus to Miami, Florida, to test this thermal rigidity hypothesis. We measured lower (critical thermal minimum [CTmin]) and upper (critical thermal maximum [CTmax]) thermal tolerances and found that the introduced population tolerates significantly colder temperatures (by ∼3°C) than does the Puerto Rican...

Data from: The genomic consequences of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation between species of manakins

Thomas L. Parchman, Zachariah Gompert, Michael J. Braun, Robb T. Brumfield, D. B. McDonald, J. Albert C. Uy, G. Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, B. A. Schlinger, C. A. Buerkle, M. J. Braun, R. T. Brumfield, J. A. C. Uy, T. L. Parchman, Z. Gompert & E. D. Jarvis
The processes of adaptation and speciation are expected to shape genomic variation within and between diverging species. Here we analyze genomic heterogeneity of genetic differentiation and introgression in a hybrid zone between two bird species (Manacus candei and M. vitellinus) using 59 100 SNPs, a whole genome assembly, and Bayesian models. Measures of genetic differentiation (inline image) and introgression (genomic cline center [α] and rate [β]) were highly heterogeneous among loci. We identified thousands of...

Data from: Biomass responses to elevated CO2, soil heterogeneity and diversity: an experimental assessment with grassland assemblages

Fernando T. Maestre & James F. Reynolds
While it is well-established that the spatial distribution of soil nutrients (soil heterogeneity) influences the competitive ability and survival of individual plants, as well as the productivity of plant communities, there is a paucity of data on how soil heterogeneity and global change drivers interact to affect plant performance and ecosystem functioning. To evaluate the effects of elevated CO2, soil heterogeneity and diversity (species richness and composition) on productivity, patterns of biomass allocation and root...

Data from: Amount or pattern? Grassland responses to the heterogeneity and availability of two key resources

Fernando T. Maestre & James F. Reynolds
Patterns of resource availability and heterogeneity shape the composition, productivity, and dynamics of plant assemblages in a wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems. Despite this, the responses of plant assemblages to simultaneous changes in the availability and heterogeneity of more than a single resource are virtually unknown. To fill this gap, microcosms consisting of assemblages formed by Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata, Anthoxantum odoratum, Holcus lanatus, and Trifolium repens were grown in a factorial experiment with the...

Data from: Role of grooming in reducing tick load in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Mercy Y. Akinyi, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Nilesh B. Patel, Jenny Tung & Maamun Jeneby
Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behaviour that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined whether grooming behaviour reduced tick load (number of ticks) and haemoprotozoan infection status in...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change

Jill T. Anderson, David W. Inouye, Amy M. McKinney, Robert I. Colautti, Thomas Mitchell-Olds, J. T. Anderson, R. I. Colautti, T. Mitchell-Olds, D. W. Inouye & A. M. McKinney
Anthropogenic climate change has already altered the timing of major life history transitions, such as the initiation of reproduction. Both phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution can underlie rapid phenological shifts in response to climate change but their relative contributions are poorly understood. Here, we combine a continuous 38-year field survey with quantitative genetic field experiments to assess adaptation in the context of climate change. We focused on Boechera stricta (Brassicaeae), a mustard native to the...

Data from: Resilience and regime change in a southern Rocky Mountain ecosystem during the past 17000 years

Thomas A. Minckley, Robert K. Shriver, Bryan N. Shuman, T. A. Minckley, B Shuman & R. K. Shriver
Paleoecological records indicate that subalpine forests in western North America have been resilient in response to multiple influences, including severe droughts, insect outbreaks, and widely varying fire regimes, over many millennia. One hypothesis for explaining this ecosystem resilience centers on the disruption of forest dynamics by frequent disturbance and climatic variability, and the resulting development of non- steady-state regimes dominated by early-succession conifers with broad climatic tolerances, such as lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia...

Data from: Long distance dispersal and genetic structure of natural populations: an assessment of the inverse isolation hypothesis in peat mosses

Peter Szovenyi, A. Jonathan Shaw & Sebastian Surdberg
It is well accepted that the shape of the dispersal kernel, especially its tail, has a substantial effect on the genetic structure of species. Theory predicts that dispersal by fat-tailed kernels reshuffles genetic material and thus preserves genetic diversity during colonization. Moreover, if efficient long distance dispersal is coupled with random colonization, an inverse isolation effect is predicted to develop in which increasing genetic diversity per colonizer is expected with increasing distance from a genetically...

Data from: High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal Pezizales

Rosanne A. Healy, Matthew E. Smith, Gregory M. Bonito, Donald H. Pfister, Gonzalo G. Guevara, Caroline Hobart, Leticia Kumar, Thai Lee, Katherine Stafford, Zai-Wei Ge, Rytas Vilgalys, Gwendolyn Williams, James Trappe, David J. McLaughlin, D. H. Pfister, Ge, Z. -W., G. M. Bonito, G. Williams, K. Stafford, R. Vilgalys, J. Trappe, R. A. Healy, L. Kumar, T. Lee, D. J. McLaughlin … & C. Hobart
Fungal mitospores may function as dispersal units and/ or spermatia and thus play a role in distribution and/or mating of species that produce them. Mitospore production in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) Pezizales is rarely reported, but here we document mitospore production by a high diversity of EcM Pezizales on three continents, in both hemispheres. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA from 292 spore mats (visible mitospore clumps) collected in...

Data from: Unraveling the determinants of insular body size shifts

Craig R. McClain, Paul A. P. Durst, Alison G. Boyer, Clinton D. Francis, P. A. P. Durst, A. G. Boyer, C. D. Francis & C. R. McClain
The island rule, a pattern of size shifts on islands, is an oft-cited but little understood phenomenon of evolutionary biology. Here we explore the evolutionary mechanisms behind the rule in 184 mammal species, testing climatic, ecological, and phylogenetic hypotheses in a robust quantitative framework. Our findings confirm the importance of species’ ecological traits in determining both the strength and the direction of body size changes on islands. Although the island rule pattern appears relatively weak...

Data from: Mapping of within-species segregation distortion in D. persimilis and hybrid sterility between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura

Shannon R. McDermott, Mohamed A. F. Noor, S. R. Mcdermott & M. A. F. Noor
In contrast to the prevailing dogma in the 1990s, recent studies have suggested that an evolutionary history of segregation distortion within species may contribute to sterility in species hybrids. However, this recent work identified segregation distortion exclusively in species hybrids which may never have had an evolutionary history of segregation distortion in either parent species. We expand on previous work by using a strain of Drosophila persimilis exhibiting segregation distortion within species to generate QTL...

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