367 Works

Data: Experimental evidence of warming-induced disease emergence and its prediction by a trait-based mechanistic model

Devin Kirk, Pepijn Luijckx, Natalie Jones, Leila Krichel, Clara Pencer, Peter Molnár & Martin Krkosek
Predicting the effects of seasonality and climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious disease remains difficult, in part because of poorly understood connections between warming and the mechanisms driving disease. Trait-based mechanistic models combined with thermal performance curves arising from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) have been highlighted as a promising approach going forward; however, this framework has not been tested under controlled experimental conditions that isolate the role of gradual temporal...

Data from: Telemetry tails: A practical method for attaching animal-borne devices to small vertebrates in the field

Kate A. Cornelsen, Cassandra M. Arkinstall, Jason Van Weenen, Alexandra K. Ross, Jasmin C. Lawes, Katherine E. Moseby, Andrew Elphinstone & Neil R. Jordan
Context. Continued miniaturisation of tracking technology increases its utility in animal applications. However, species morphology often dictates the type of animal-borne device (ABD) that can be used, and how it is attached. The morphology of species within the order Peramelemorphia preclude them from the standard collar attachment of ABDs for terrestrial mammals. Aims. This paper describes a method for the tail-mount attachment of ABDs, and consolidates deployment results for Peramelemorphia across arid, semi-arid, and temperate...

Far Eastern Curlew and Whimbrel prefer flying low: wind support and good visibility appear only secondary factors in determining migratory flight altitude

Batbayar Galtbalt, Amanda Lilleyman, Jonathan T Coleman, Chuyu Cheng, Zhijun Ma, Danny I Rogers, Bradley K Woodworth, Richard A Fuller, Stephen T Garnett & Marcel Klaassen
Background: In-flight conditions are hypothesized to influence the timing and success of long-distance migration. Wind assistance and thermal uplift are thought to reduce the energetic costs of flight, humidity, air pressure and temperature may affect the migrants’ water balance, and clouds may impede navigation. Recent advances in animal-borne long-distance tracking enable evaluating the importance of these factors in determining animals’ flight altitude. Methods: Here we determine the effects of wind, humidity, temperature, cloud cover, and...

Phase A Science Case for MAVIS -- The Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Visible Imager-Spectrograph for the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

Richard M. McDermid, Giovanni Cresci, Francois Rigaut, Jean-Claude Bouret, Gayandhi De Silva, Marco Gullieuszik, Laura Magrini, J. Trevor Mendel, Simone Antoniucci, Giuseppe Bono, Devika Kamath, Stephanie Monty, Holger Baumgardt, Luca Cortese, Deanne Fisher, Filippo Mannucci, Alessandra Migliorini, Sarah Sweet, Eros Vanzella & Stefano Zibetti

Environmental DNA reveals a multi-taxa biogeographic break across the Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman

Joseph DiBattista, Michael Berumen, Mark Priest, Maarten De Brauwer, Darren Coker, Tane Sinclair-Taylor, Amanda Hay, Gerd Bruss, Shawky Mansour, Michael Bunce, Christopher Goatley, Matthew Power & Alyssa Marshell
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used to assess community composition in marine ecosystems. Applying eDNA approaches across broad spatial scales now provide the potential to inform biogeographic analyses. However, to date, few studies have employed this technique to assess broad biogeographic patterns across multiple taxonomic groups. Here, we compare eDNA-derived communities of bony fishes and invertebrates, including corals and sponges, from 15 locations spanning the entire length of the Omani coast. This survey includes...

Millennial-scale change on a Caribbean reef system that experiences hypoxia

Blanca Figuerola, Ethan L. Grossman, Noelle Lucey, Nicole D. Leonard & Aaron O'Dea
Coastal hypoxia has become an increasingly acknowledged threat to coral reefs that is potentially intensifying because of increased input of anthropogenic nutrients. Almirante Bay (Caribbean Panama) is a semi-enclosed system that experiences hypoxia in deeper waters which occasionally expand into shallow coral reefs, suffocating most aerobic benthic life. To explore the long-term history of reefs in the bay we extracted reef matrix cores from two reefs that today experience contrasting patterns of oxygenation. We constructed...

Mind Mapping as a Pragmatic Solution for Evaluation: A Critical Reflection through Two Case Studies

Elbina Avdagic, Fiona May, Tom McClean, Fiona Shackleton, Catherine Wade & Karen Healy
Funders of social interventions that address complex child and family welfare concerns for highly vulnerable populations are increasingly seeking cost-effective and rapid mixed method evaluations of their services. This paper describes a mind mapping approach that was used to collect valid and reliable qualitative data from large numbers of informants across two separate evaluation projects. The mind mapping approach provided a rapid, credible solution to the need to extract and summarize views from a diverse...

Global sediment export based on InVEST Sediment Delivery Ratio model

Andrés F. Suarez Castro, Hawthorne L. Beyer, Caitlin D. Kuempel, Simon Linke, Pasquale Borrelli & Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
Sediment runoff from disturbed coastal catchments is a major threat to marine ecosystems. Understanding where sediments are produced and where they are delivered enables managers to design more effective strategies for improving water quality. In this context, targeted restoration of degraded terrestrial areas provides opportunities to reduce land-based runoff from coastal areas and consequently foster coral reef conservation. To do this strategically, a systematic approach is needed to identify watersheds where restoration actions will provide...

Combined effects of climate change and the herbicide diuron on the coral Acropora millepora (NESP 2.1.6 and NESP TWQ 5.2, AIMS)

Flores Florita, Sven Uthicke, Frances Patel, Andrew Negri, Joseanne Marques & Kaserzon Sarit

Fire Safety Engineering: The Final Report 8 of 8

Peter Johnson, David Lange, Jose Torero, Ashley Brinson & Marianne Foley
The Final Report develops a pragmatic plan on a transition from the current state of fire safety engineering and design in Australia, which differs across states and territories in relation to regulation, registration, and other practice controls, to the required regulatory, education, accreditation and registration state which will ensure a full and proper profession for fire safety engineers.

Fire Safety Engineering: The Accreditation and Regulatory Reform Report 7 of 8

Nate Lobel, MC Hui, David Lange, Jose Torero & Peter Johnson
The Accreditation and Regulatory Reform Report sets a plan for how Australia should assess and accredit engineers who seek to practice fire safety design and take responsibility for public safety in their work

Fire Safety Engineering: Competencies Report 5 of 8

David Lange, Jose Torero, Cristian Maluk & Juan P Hidalgo
The Competencies Report points towards an accreditation framework for professional engineers in fire safety

Fire Safety Engineering: Comparison of FSE Guidance Documents and Assessment Criteria Special Report

Ashley Brinson, Peter Johnson, Stephen Kip, Jose Torero, David Lange & Tobias Salomonsson
The Comparison of FSE Guidance Documents and Assessment Criteria Report provides a review of four guidance documents for fire safety engineering to determine their suitability for use in Australia. A commissioned research report for the Australian Building Codes Board

The Appointment and Removal of the Head of Government of the Kiribati Republic

Peter W Edge, Jennifer Corrin & Claire de Than
This report examines the unique arrangements for the appointment and removal of the President of the Pacific state of Kiribati, in the context of political, historical and social factors. It outlines the potential for similar mechanisms to be introduced in the Isle of Man, while remaining aware of the significance of the constitutional, geographical and cultural differences between the two jurisdictions. The report concludes that the dual effect of a vote of no confidence in...

Data from: Distorted views of biodiversity: spatial and temporal bias in species occurrence data

Elizabeth H. Boakes, Philip J. K. McGowan, Richard A. Fuller, Ding Chang-Qing, Natalie E. Clark, Kim O'Connor & Georgina M. Mace
Historical as well as current data on species distributions are needed to track changes in biodiversity. Species distribution data are found in a variety of sources but is likely that they include different biases towards certain time periods or places. By collating a large historical database of ~170,000 records of species in the avian order Galliformes dating back over two centuries and covering Europe and Asia, we investigate patterns of spatial and temporal bias in...

Data from: Comparative multi-locus phylogeography confirms multiple vicariance events in co-distributed rainforest frogs

Rayna C Bell, Jason B MacKenzie, Michael J Hickerson, Krystle L Chavarría, Michael Cunningham, Stephen Williams, Craig Moritz & K. L. Chavarria
Though Pleistocene refugia are frequently cited as drivers of species diversification, comparisons of molecular divergence among sister species typically indicate a continuum of divergence times from the late Miocene, rather than a clear pulse of speciation events at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Community-scale inference methods that explicitly test for multiple vicariance events, and account for differences in ancestral effective population size and gene flow, are well suited for detecting heterogeneity of species’ responses to...

Data from: Reducing mutation load through sexual selection on males

Katrina McGuigan, Donna Petfield & Mark W Blows
Mutation load is a key parameter in evolutionary theories, but relatively little empirical information exists on the mutation load of populations, or the elimination of this load through selection. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection within a mutation accumulation divergence experiment to determine how sexual selection on males affected the accumulation of mutations contributing to sexual and non-sexual fitness. Sexual selection prevented the accumulation of mutations affecting male mating success, the target trait, as...

Data from: Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia) in China: native range expansion or recent introduction?

Bo Zhang, Le Kang, Owain R. Edwards & Susan J. Fuller
In this study, we explore the population genetics of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA) (Diuraphis noxia), one of the world’s most invasive agricultural pests, in north-western China. We have analysed the data of 10 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial sequences from 27 populations sampled over 2 years in China. The results confirm that the RWAs are holocyclic in China with high genetic diversity indicating widespread sexual reproduction. Distinct differences in microsatellite genetic diversity and distribution revealed...

Data from: Genomic evidence for the parallel evolution of coastal forms in the Senecio lautus complex

Federico Roda, Luke Ambrose, Gregory M. Walter, Huanle L. Liu, Andrea Schaul, Andrew Lowe, Pieter B. Pelser, Peter Prentis, Loren H. Rieseberg & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
Instances of parallel ecotypic divergence where adaptation to similar conditions repeatedly cause similar phenotypic changes in closely related organisms are useful for studying the role of ecological selection in speciation. Here we used a combination of traditional and next generation genotyping techniques to test for the parallel divergence of plants from the Senecio lautus complex, a phenotypically variable groundsel that has adapted to disparate environments in the South Pacific. Phylogenetic analysis of a broad selection...

Data from: Generalist insects behave in a jasmonate-dependent manner on their host plants, leaving induced areas quickly and staying longer on distant parts

Lynda E. Perkins, Bronwen W. Cribb, Philip B. Brewer, Jim Hanan, Murray Grant, Marta De Torres & Myron P. Zalucki
Plants are sessile so have evolved sensitive ways to detect attacking herbivores, and sophisticated strategies to effectively defend themselves. Insect herbivory induces synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonic acid which activates downstream metabolic pathways for various chemical defences such as toxins and digestion inhibitors. Insects are also sophisticated animals, and many have co-evolved physiological adaptations that negate this induced plant defence. Insect behaviour has rarely been studied in the context of induced plant defence, although behavioural...

Data from: Phylogenomic resolution of the Hemichordate and Echinoderm clade

Johanna T. Cannon, Kevin M. Kocot, Damien S. Waits, David A. Weese, Billie J. Swalla, Scott R. Santos & Kenneth M. Halanych
Ambulacraria, comprising Hemichordata and Echinodermata, is closely related to Chordata, making it integral to understanding chordate origins and polarizing chordate molecular and morphological characters. Unfortunately, relationships within Hemichordata and Echinodermata have remained unresolved, compromising our ability to extrapolate findings from the most closely related molecular and developmental models outside of Chordata (e.g., the acorn worms Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Ptychodera flava and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). To resolve long-standing phylogenetic issues within Ambulacraria, we sequenced...

Data from: The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands

Craig A. Woodward, James Shulmeister, Joshua Larsen, Geraldine E. Jacobsen & Atun Zawadzki
Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases...

Data from: The maintenance of sperm variability: context-dependent selection on sperm morphology in a broadcast spawning invertebrate

Darren W. Johnson, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
Why are sperm so variable despite having a singular, critical function and an intimate relationship with fitness? A key to understanding the evolution of sperm morphology is identifying which traits enable sperm to be successful fertilizers. Several sperm traits (e.g. tail length, overall size) are implicated in sperm performance, but the benefits of these traits are likely to be highly context-dependent. Here, we examined phenotypic selection on sperm morphology of a broadcast spawning tube worm...

Data from: Aridity drives coordinated trait shifts but not decreased trait variance across the geographic range of eight Australian trees

Leander Anderegg, Xingwen Loy, Ian Markham, Christina Elmer, Mark Hovenden, Janneke HilleRisLambers & Margaret Mayfield
Large intraspecific functional trait variation strongly impacts many aspects of communities and ecosystems, and is the medium upon which evolution works. Yet intraspecific trait variation is inconsistent and hard to predict across traits, species, and locations. We measured within-species variation in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), branch wood density (WD), and allocation to stem area vs. leaf area in branches (branch Huber value, HV) across the aridity range of seven...

Data from: Immune-challenged fish up-regulate their metabolic scope to support locomotion

Camille Bonneaud, Robbie S. Wilson & Frank Seebacher
Energy-based trade-offs occur when investment in one fitness-related trait diverts energy away from other traits. The extent to which such trade-offs are shaped by limits on the rate of conversion of energy ingested in food (e.g. carbohydrates) into chemical energy (ATP) by oxidative metabolism rather than by the amount of food ingested in the first place is, however, unclear. Here we tested whether the ATP required for mounting an immune response will lead to a...

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