334 Works

Data from: Prediction error and repetition suppression have distinct effects on neural representations of visual information

Matthew F. Tang, Cooper A. Smout, Ehsan Arabzadeh & Jason B. Mattingley
Predictive coding theories argue that recent experience establishes expectations in the brain that generate prediction errors when violated. Prediction errors provide a possible explanation for repetition suppression, where evoked neural activity is attenuated across repeated presentations of the same stimulus. The predictive coding account argues repetition suppression arises because repeated stimuli are expected, whereas non-repeated stimuli are unexpected and thus elicit larger neural responses. Here we employed electroencephalography in humans to test the predictive coding...

Best-practice forestry management delivers diminishing returns for coral reefs with increased land-clearing

Amelia Wenger, Daniel Harris, Samuel Weber, Ferguson Vaghi, Yashika Nand, Waisea Naisilisili, Alec Hughes, Jade Delevaux, Carissa Klein, James Watson, Peter Mumby & Stacy Jupiter
Protection of coastal ecosystems from deforestation may be the best way to protect coral reefs from sediment runoff. However, given the importance of generating economic activities for coastal livelihoods, the prohibition of development is often not feasible. In light of this, logging codes-of-practice have been developed to mitigate the impacts of logging on downstream ecosystems. However, no studies have assessed whether managed land-clearing can occur in tandem with coral reef conservation goals. This study quantifies...

Higher sociability leads to lower reproductive success in female kangaroos

Alecia Carter, Clementine Menz, Best Emily, Natalie Freeman, Ross Dwyer, Simone Blomberg & Anne Goldizen
In social mammals, social integration is generally assumed to improve females’ reproductive success. Most species demonstrating this relationship exhibit complex forms of social bonds and interactions. However, female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) exhibit social preferences, yet do not appear to cooperate directly. It is unclear what the fitness consequences of sociability could be in species that do not exhibit obvious forms of cooperation. Using four years of life history, spatial, and social data from...

Loss of ecologically important genetic variation in late generation hybrids reveals links between adaptation and speciation

Greg Walter, Thomas Richards, Melanie Wilkinson, Mark Blows, J. Aguirre & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
Adaptation to contrasting environments occurs when advantageous alleles accumulate in each population, but it remains largely unknown whether these same advantageous alleles create genetic incompatibilities that can cause intrinsic reproductive isolation leading to speciation. Identifying alleles that underlie both adaptation and reproductive isolation is further complicated by factors such as dominance and genetic interactions among loci, which can affect both processes differently and obscure potential links between adaptation and speciation. Here, we use a combination...

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Sedimentation and overfishing drive changes in early succession and coral recruitment (Palau, Micronesia)

George Roff, Ama Wakwella & Peter Mumby
Sedimentation and overfishing are important local stressors on coral reefs that can independently result in declines in coral recruitment and shifts to algal dominated states. However, the role of herbivory in driving recovery across environmental gradients is often unclear. Here we investigate early successional benthic communities and coral recruitment across a sediment gradient in Palau, Micronesia over a 12-month period. Total sedimentation rates measured by ‘TurfPods’ varied from 0.03 ± 0.1 SE mg cm-2 day-1...

Data from: Greater agility increases probability of survival in the endangered northern quoll

Miranda Rew-Duffy, Skye Cameron, Natalie Freeman, Rebecca Wheatley, Jessica Latimer & Robbie Wilson
Introduced predators combined with habitat loss and modification are threatening biodiversity worldwide, particularly the ‘critical weight range’ (CWR) mammals of Australia. In order to mitigate the impacts of invasive predators on native species in different landscapes, we must understand how the prey's morphology and performance determine their survival. Here we evaluate how phenotypic traits related to escape performance predict the probability of survival for an endangered CWR mammal, the northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus). We measured...

An invasive grass species has both local and broad-scale impacts on diversity: Potential mechanisms and implications

Gabrielle Lebbink, John Dwyer & Rod Fensham
Questions The impact of invasive plant species on native diversity varies with spatial scale, with some invaders leading to broad-scale diversity declines and others only local declines. These discrepancies may reflect the invaders capacity to reduce niche opportunities across spatial scales which can be associated with their functional traits. We investigated impact-scale relationships and trait-based mechanisms, in areas invaded by the exotic perennial grass species, Bothriochloa pertusa. We examine root traits specifically, as belowground competition...

Experimental evidence of warming-induced disease emergence and its prediction by a trait-based mechanistic model

Devin Kirk, Pepijn Luijckx, Natalie Jones, Leila Krichel, Clara Pencer, Peter Molnar & Martin Krkosek
Predicting the effects of seasonality and climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious disease remains difficult, in part because of poorly understood connections between warming and the mechanisms driving disease. Trait-based mechanistic models combined with thermal performance curves arising from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) have been highlighted as a promising approach going forward; however, this framework has not been tested under controlled experimental conditions that isolate the role of gradual temporal...

Coastal urbanization influences human pathogens and microdebris contamination in seafood

Raechel Littman, Evan Fiorenza, Amelia Wenger, Kathryn Berry, Jeroen Van De Water, Lily Nguyen, Soe Tint Aung, Daniel Parker, Douglas Rader, C. Drew Harvell & Joleah Lamb
Seafood is one of the leading imported products implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Coastal marine environments are being increasingly subjected to reduced water quality from urbanization and leading to contamination of important fishery species. Given the importance of seafood exchanged as a global protein source, it is imperative to maintain seafood safety worldwide. To illustrate the potential health risks associated with urbanization in a coastal environment, we use next-generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Fire Safety Engineering: Professional Development Report 6 of 8

David Lange, Peter Johnson, Jose Torero, Juan P Hidalgo, Cristian Maluk & Felix Wiesner
The Professional Development Report addresses the resource and skill constraints hindering the full professionalisation of fire safety engineering, in order to one day achieve a sustainable provision of fire safety engineering professionals.

Data from: Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird

Mark James Adams, Matthew R. Robinson, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Ben Hatchwell & Ben J. Hatchwell
Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is...

Data from: UV-B radiation interacts with temperature to determine animal performance

Ensiyeh Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Craig E. Franklin & Frank Seebacher
The interaction between UV-B and temperature can modify the effects of climate variability on animal function because UV-B and increasing temperatures may increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and thereby impair animal performance. However, antioxidant enzyme activities are also increased at higher temperatures, which could counteract negative effects of increased ROS. Conversely, UV-B exposure at lower temperature can exacerbate the effects of ROS because of lower antioxidant enzyme activities. Phenotypes can be plastic to compensate...

Data from: Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

Wendy J. King, David M. Forsyth, Graeme Coulson & Marco Festa-Bianchet
Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently...

Data from: Assessing spatio-temporal priorities for species’ recovery in broad-scale dynamic landscapes

Truly Santika, Clive A. McAlpine, Daniel Lunney, Kerrie A. Wilson & Jonathan R. Rhodes
1. As threats to biodiversity from environmental change increase, assessing priorities for mitigation action becomes increasingly important. However, there have been few attempts to schedule actions across broad spatial extents that explicitly account for dynamic ecological processes and threats. 2. We combined a dynamic occupancy model with a decision analysis framework to spatially allocate multiple recovery actions to maximize species’ probability of occupancy under threats posed by climate and land-use change. We used the koala...

Data from: Accounting for uncertainty in dormant life stages in stochastic demographic models

Maria Paniw, Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Fernando Ojeda & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Dormant life stages are often critical for population viability in stochastic environments, but accurate field data characterizing them are difficult to collect. Such limitations may translate into uncertainties in demographic parameters describing these stages, which then may propagate errors in the examination of population-level responses to environmental variation. Expanding on current methods, we 1) apply data-driven approaches to estimate parameter uncertainty in vital rates of dormant life stages and 2) test whether such estimates provide...

Data from: Progression of phosphine resistance in susceptible Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) populations under different immigration regimes and selection pressures

Michelle A. Rafter, Graham A. McCulloch, Greg J. Daglish, Gimme H. Walter & Gregory J. Daglish
Insecticide resistance is an escalating global issue for a wide variety of agriculturally important pests. The genetic basis and biochemical mechanisms of resistance are well characterised in some systems, but little is known about the ecological aspects of insecticide resistance. We therefore designed a laboratory experiment to quantify the progression of phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum populations subject to different immigration regimes and selection pressures. Mated resistant females were added to originally susceptible populations under...

Data from: High species richness and lineage diversity of reef corals in the mesophotic zone

Paul R. Muir, Carden C. Wallace, Michel Pichon & Pim Bongaerts
Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by thermal bleaching and tropical storm events associated with rising sea surface temperatures. Deeper habitats offer some protection from these impacts and may safeguard reef-coral biodiversity, but their faunas are largely undescribed for the Indo-Pacific. Here, we show high species richness of scleractinian corals in mesophotic habitats (30-125 m) for the northern Great Barrier Reef region that greatly exceeds previous records for mesophotic habitats globally. Overall, 45% of shallow reef...

Data from: Genomic clustering of adaptive loci during parallel evolution of an Australian wildflower

Federico Roda, Greg M. Walter, Rick Nipper & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
The buildup of the phenotypic differences that distinguish species has long intrigued biologists. These differences are often inherited as stable polymorphisms that allow the co-segregation of adaptive variation within species, and facilitate the differentiation of complex phenotypes between species. It has been suggested that the clustering of adaptive loci could facilitate this process but evidence is still scarce. Here we used QTL analysis to study the genetic basis of phenotypic differentiation between coastal populations of...

Data from: An Ishihara-style test of animal colour vision

Karen L. Cheney, Naomi.F. Green, Alexander P. Vibert, Misha Vorobyev, Justin Marshall, Daniel C. Osorio & John A. Endler
Colour vision mediates ecologically relevant tasks for many animals, such as mate choice, foraging and predator avoidance. However, our understanding of animal colour perception is largely derived from human psychophysics, even though animal visual systems differ from our own. Behavioural tests of non-human animals are required to understand how colour signals are perceived by them. Here we introduce a novel test of colour vision in animals inspired by the Ishihara colour charts, which are widely...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: New small-bodied ornithopods (Dinosauria, Neornithischia) from the Early Cretaceous Wonthaggi Formation (Strzelecki Group) of the Australian-Antarctic rift system, with revision of Qantassaurus intrepidus Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1999

Matthew C. Herne, Jay P. Nair, Alistair R. Evans & Alan M. Tait
The Flat Rocks locality in the Wonthaggi Formation (Strzelecki Group) of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia, hosts fossils of a late Barremian vertebrate fauna that inhabited the ancient rift between Australia and Antarctica. Known from its dentary, Qantassaurus intrepidus Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1999 has been the only dinosaur named from this locality. However, the plethora of vertebrate fossils collected from Flat Rocks suggests that further dinosaurs await discovery. From this locality, we name a new...

Data from: Adaptation to reef habitats through selection on the coral animal and its associated microbiome

Madeleine J.H. Van Oppen, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro Frade, Lesa M. Peplow, Sarah E. Boyd, Hieu T. Nim, Line K. Bay & Madeleine J. H. Van Oppen
Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction-site-associated sequencing [RAD-seq]), and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using...

Data from: The osteology and systematics of the enigmatic Australian Oligo-Miocene metatherian Yalkaparidon (Yalkaparidontidae; Yalkaparidontia; Australidelphia; Marsupialia)

Robin M. D. Beck, Kenny J. Travouillon, Ken P. Aplin, Henk Godthelp & Michael Archer
We provide the first detailed description of the osteology of the enigmatic Oligo-Miocene Australian metatherian Yalkaparidon. This taxon exhibits a number of unusual craniodental apomorphies but appears to be plesiomorphic within Metatheria in retaining four molars, rather than three as previously reported. We demonstrate that the only known skull of Yalkaparidon almost certainly represents a single individual. We also tentatively refer a number of isolated tarsals to the genus. Maximum parsimony analyses of a 258...

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