23 Works

Data from: Maternal effects and warning signal honesty in eggs and offspring of an aposematic ladybird beetle

Anne E. Winters, Martin Stevens, Chris Mitchell, Simon P. Blomberg & Jonathan D. Blount
1. The eggs of oviparous species are often subject to intense predation pressure. One parental strategy to deter predators is to produce eggs that are laced with noxious chemicals and are conspicuously coloured (i.e. aposematism). 2. Ladybird eggs are conspicuously coloured and contain alkaloids; these traits are believed to function in concert as visual signal and chemical defence, respectively, to deter predators. However, it remains unclear whether such aposematic signals reveal the strength (rather than...

Data from: The genetic covariance between life-cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

J. David Aguirre, Mark W. Blows & Dustin J. Marshall
Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across...

Data from: Testing the correlated response hypothesis for the evolution and maintenance of male mating preferences in Drosophila serrata

Thomas P. Gosden, Howard D. Rundle & Stephen F. Chenoweth
Mate preferences are abundant throughout the animal kingdom with female preferences receiving the most empirical and theoretical attention. Although recent work has acknowledged the existence of male mate preferences, whether they have evolved and are maintained as a direct result of selection on males or indirectly as a genetically correlated response to selection for female choice remains an open question. Using the native Australian species Drosophila serrata in which mutual mate choice occurs for a...

Data from: A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife

Jonathan R. Rhodes, Daniel Lunney, John Callaghan & Clive A. McAlpine
Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on...

Data from: Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children

Tom Jefferson, Mark A. Jones, Peter Doshi, Chris B. Del Mar, Rokuro Hama, Matthew J. Thompson, Elizabeth A. Spencer, Igho Onakpoya, Kamal R. Mahtani, David Nunan, Jeremy Howick, Carl J. Heneghan & Igho J Onakpoya
PLEASE NOTE, THESE DATA ARE ALSO REFERRED TO IN TWO OTHER ARTICLES. PLEASE SEE http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g2547 AND http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g2545 FOR MORE INFORMATION. Background: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) are stockpiled and recommended by public health agencies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza. They are used clinically worldwide. Objectives: To describe the potential benefits and harms of NIs for influenza in all age groups by reviewing all clinical study reports of published and unpublished randomised, placebo-controlled trials and...

Data from: The evolution of bipedal running in lizards suggests a consequential origin may be exploited in later lineages.

Christofer J. Clemente
The origin of bipedal locomotion in lizards is unclear. Modeling studies have suggested that bipedalism may be an exaptation, a byproduct of features originally designed to increase maneuverability, which were only later exploited. Measurement of the body center of mass (BCOM) in 124 species of lizards confirms a significant rearward shift among bipedal lineages. Further racetrack trials showed a significant acceleration threshold between bipedal and quadrupedal runs. These suggest good general support for a passive...

Data from: Viral tagging reveals discrete populations in Synechococcus viral genome sequence space

Li Deng, J. Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza, Ann C. Gregory, Bonnie T. Poulos, Joshua S. Weitz, Philip Hugenholtz & Matthew B. Sullivan
Microbes and their viruses drive myriad processes across ecosystems ranging from oceans and soils to bioreactors and humans. Despite this importance, microbial diversity is only now being mapped at scales relevant to nature, while the viral diversity associated with any particular host remains little researched. Here we quantify host-associated viral diversity using viral-tagged metagenomics, which links viruses to specific host cells for high-throughput screening and sequencing. In a single experiment, we screened 107 Pacific Ocean...

Data from: Synergistic interaction between UVB radiation and temperature increases susceptibility to parasitic infection in a fish

Rebecca L. Cramp, Stefanie Reid, Frank Seebacher & Craig E. Franklin
Levels of UVB radiation (UVB) and mean temperatures have increased substantially over recent decades in many regions of the world. Both stressors independently can compromise immune function, disease resistance and fitness in fish. The impact of UVB can also be exacerbated by interactions with environmental temperatures. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that UVB and temperature act synergistically to influence patterns of energy consumption and susceptibility to disease. We exposed mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to...

Data from: Predicting climate warming effects on green turtle hatchling viability and dispersal performance

Catherine Cavallo, David Booth, Tim Dempster, Michael R. Kearney, Ella Kelly & Tim S. Jessop
1. Ectotherms are taxa considered highly sensitive to rapid climate warming. This is because body temperature profoundly governs their performance, fitness and life history. Yet, while several modelling approaches currently predict thermal effects on some aspects of life history and demography, they do not consider how temperature simultaneously affects developmental success and offspring phenotypic performance, two additional key attributes that are needed to comprehensively understand species responses to climate warming. 2. Here, we developed a...

Data from: Skin sloughing rate increases with chytrid fungus infection load in a susceptible amphibian

Michel E. B. Ohmer, Rebecca L. Cramp, Craig R. White, Craig E. Franklin & Michel E.B. Ohmer
1. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for the greatest disease-driven loss of vertebrate biodiversity in recorded history. Understanding drivers of host susceptibility to this cutaneous disease is hindered by gaps in our knowledge of the host–pathogen relationship. One such overlooked aspect of susceptibility is variation in skin maintenance processes, particularly skin turnover via routine sloughing. It has been suggested that sloughing plays a role in immune defence, by...

Data from: How much is new information worth? Evaluating the financial benefit of resolving management uncertainty.

Sean L. Maxwell, Jonathan R. Rhodes, Michael C. Runge, Hugh P. Possingham, Chooi Fei Ng & Eve McDonald-Madden
1. Conservation decision-makers face a trade-off between spending limited funds on direct management action, or gaining new information in an attempt to improve management performance in the future. Value-of-information analysis can help to resolve this trade-off by evaluating how much management performance could improve if new information was gained. Value-of-information analysis has been used extensively in other disciplines, but there are only a few examples where it has informed conservation planning, none of which have...

Data from: The evolutionary stability of cross-sex, cross-trait genetic covariances

Thomas P. Gosden & Stephen F. Chenoweth
Although knowledge of the selective agents behind the evolution of sexual dimorphism has advanced considerably in recent years, we still lack a clear understanding of the evolutionary durability of cross-sex genetic covariances that often constrain its evolution. We tested the relative stability of cross-sex genetic covariances for a suite of homologous contact pheromones of the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, along a latitudinal gradient that these traits have diverged in mean. Using a Bayesian framework, which...

Data from: Connecting thermal performance curve variation to the genotype: a multivariate QTL approach

Camille A. L. Latimer, Brad Foley, Stephen F. Chenoweth & B. R. Foley
Thermal performance curves (TPCs) are continuous reaction norms that describe the relationship between organismal performance and temperature and are useful for understanding trade-offs involved in thermal adaptation. While thermal trade-offs such as those between generalists and specialists or between hot- and cold-adapted phenotypes are known to be genetically variable and evolve during thermal adaptation, little is known of the genetic basis to TPCs – specifically, the loci involved and the directionality of their effects across...

Data from: Female mate choice predicts paternity success in the absence of additive genetic variance for other female paternity bias mechanisms in Drosophila serrata

Julie M. Collet & Mark W. Blows
After choosing a first mate, polyandrous females have access to a range of opportunities to bias paternity, such as repeating matings with the preferred male, facilitating fertilization from the best sperm or differentially investing in offspring according to their sire. Female ability to bias paternity after a first mating has been demonstrated in a few species, but unambiguous evidence remains limited by the access to complex behaviours, sperm storage organs and fertilization processes within females....

Data from: The plasticity of NBS resistance genes in sorghum is driven by multiple evolutionary processes

Emma S. Mace, Shuaishuai S. Tai, David J. Innes, Ian D. Godwin, Wushu S. Hu, Bradley C. Campbell, Edward K. Gilding, A. Cruickshank, Peter J. Prentis, Jun Wang & David R. Jordan
Background: Increased disease resistance is a key target of cereal breeding programs, with disease outbreaks continuing to threaten global food production, particularly in Africa. Of the disease resistance gene families, the nucleotide-binding site plus leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family is the most prevalent and ancient and is also one of the largest gene families known in plants. The sequence diversity in NBS-encoding genes was explored in sorghum, a critical food staple in Africa, with comparisons to...

Data from: Re-visiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

Alain C. Frantz, Allan D. McDevitt, Lisa C. Pope, Joanna Kochan, John Davison, Chris F. Clements, Morten Elmeros, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Alessandro Balestrieri, Koen Van Den Berge, Peter Breyne, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Erik O. Ågren, Franz Suchentrunk, Laurent Schley, Rafał Kowalczyk, Berit I. Kostka, Dusko Ćirović, Nikica Šprem, Marc Colyn, Marco Ghirardi, Venislava Racheva, Christophe Braun, Rita Oliveira … & Terry Burke
Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples...

Data from: Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players

Simon P. Lailvaux, Robbie Wilson & Michael M. Kasumovic
Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespans, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association...

Data from: Clock model makes a large difference to age estimates of long-stemmed clades with no internal calibration: a test using Australian grasstrees

Michael D. Crisp, Nate B. Hardy & Lyn G. Cook
Background: Estimating divergence times in phylogenies using a molecular clock depends on accurate modeling of nucleotide substitution rates in DNA sequences. Rate heterogeneity among lineages is likely to affect estimates, especially in lineages with long stems and short crowns (“broom” clades) and no internal calibration. We evaluate the performance of the random local clocks model (RLC) and the more routinely employed uncorrelated lognormal relaxed clock model (UCLN) in situations in which a significant rate shift...

Data from: Serial founder effects and genetic differentiation during worldwide range expansion of monarch butterflies

Amanda A. Pierce, Myron P. Zalucki, Marie Bangura, Milan Udawatta, Marcus R. Kronforst, Sonia Altizer, Juan Fernández Haeger & Jacobus C. De Roode
Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a long-distance annual migration in North America, but have also dispersed around the world to form populations that do not migrate or travel...

Data from: Phylogenomic resolution of the Hemichordate and Echinoderm clade

Johanna T. Cannon, Kevin M. Kocot, Damien S. Waits, David A. Weese, Billie J. Swalla, Scott R. Santos & Kenneth M. Halanych
Ambulacraria, comprising Hemichordata and Echinodermata, is closely related to Chordata, making it integral to understanding chordate origins and polarizing chordate molecular and morphological characters. Unfortunately, relationships within Hemichordata and Echinodermata have remained unresolved, compromising our ability to extrapolate findings from the most closely related molecular and developmental models outside of Chordata (e.g., the acorn worms Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Ptychodera flava and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). To resolve long-standing phylogenetic issues within Ambulacraria, we sequenced...

Data from: The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands

Craig A. Woodward, James Shulmeister, Joshua Larsen, Geraldine E. Jacobsen & Atun Zawadzki
Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases...

Data from: The contribution of spontaneous mutations to thermal sensitivity curve variation in Drosophila serrata

Camille Anne Lousie Latimer, Katrina McGuigan, Robbie S. Wilson, Mark W. Blows & Stephen F. Chenoweth
Many traits studied in ecology and evolutionary biology change their expression in response to a continuously varying environmental factor. One well-studied example are thermal performance curves (TPCs); continuous reaction norms that describe the relationship between organismal performance and temperature and are useful for understanding the trade-offs involved in thermal adaptation. We assayed TPCs for locomotor activity in a set of 66 spontaneous mutation accumulation lines in the fly Drosophila serrata. Factor-analytic modeling of the mutational...

Data from: Evolutionary origins of a bioactive peptide buried within preproalbumin

Alysha G. Elliott, Christina Delay, Huanle Liu, Zaiyang Phua, K. Johan Rosengren, Aurélie H. Benfield, Jose L. Panero, Michelle L. Colgrave, Achala S. Jayasena, Kerry M. Dunse, Marilyn A. Anderson, Edward E. Schilling, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos, David J. Craik & Joshua S. Mylne
The de novo evolution of proteins is now considered a frequented route for biological innovation, but the genetic and biochemical processes that lead to each newly created protein are often poorly documented. The common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) contains the unusual gene PawS1 (Preproalbumin with SFTI-1) that encodes a precursor for seed storage albumin; however, in a region usually discarded during albumin maturation, its sequence is matured into SFTI-1, a protease-inhibiting cyclic peptide with a motif...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    23

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    23

Affiliations

  • University of Queensland
    23
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Auburn University
    2
  • University of Sydney
    2
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    2
  • University of the Basque Country
    1
  • Bond University
    1
  • National Veterinary Institute
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1
  • Queen's University Belfast
    1