65 Works

Coastal urbanization influences human pathogens and microdebris contamination in seafood

Raechel Littman, Evan Fiorenza, Amelia Wenger, Kathryn Berry, Jeroen Van De Water, Lily Nguyen, Soe Tint Aung, Daniel Parker, Douglas Rader, C. Drew Harvell & Joleah Lamb
Seafood is one of the leading imported products implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Coastal marine environments are being increasingly subjected to reduced water quality from urbanization and leading to contamination of important fishery species. Given the importance of seafood exchanged as a global protein source, it is imperative to maintain seafood safety worldwide. To illustrate the potential health risks associated with urbanization in a coastal environment, we use next-generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S...

Data from: Experimental evidence for accelerated adaptation to desiccation through sexual selection on males

Aline Gibson Vega, Jason Kennington, Joseph Tomkins & Robert Dugand
The impact of sexual selection on the adaptive process remains unclear. On the one hand, sexual selection might hinder adaptation by favouring costly traits and preferences that reduce nonsexual fitness. On the other hand, condition dependence of success in sexual selection may accelerate adaptation. Here, we used replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster to artificially select on male desiccation resistance while manipulating the opportunity for precopulatory sexual selection in a factorial design. Following five generations of...

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

Best-practice forestry management delivers diminishing returns for coral reefs with increased land-clearing

Amelia Wenger, Daniel Harris, Samuel Weber, Ferguson Vaghi, Yashika Nand, Waisea Naisilisili, Alec Hughes, Jade Delevaux, Carissa Klein, James Watson, Peter Mumby & Stacy Jupiter
Protection of coastal ecosystems from deforestation may be the best way to protect coral reefs from sediment runoff. However, given the importance of generating economic activities for coastal livelihoods, the prohibition of development is often not feasible. In light of this, logging codes-of-practice have been developed to mitigate the impacts of logging on downstream ecosystems. However, no studies have assessed whether managed land-clearing can occur in tandem with coral reef conservation goals. This study quantifies...

Higher sociability leads to lower reproductive success in female kangaroos

Alecia Carter, Clementine Menz, Best Emily, Natalie Freeman, Ross Dwyer, Simone Blomberg & Anne Goldizen
In social mammals, social integration is generally assumed to improve females’ reproductive success. Most species demonstrating this relationship exhibit complex forms of social bonds and interactions. However, female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) exhibit social preferences, yet do not appear to cooperate directly. It is unclear what the fitness consequences of sociability could be in species that do not exhibit obvious forms of cooperation. Using four years of life history, spatial, and social data from...

Loss of ecologically important genetic variation in late generation hybrids reveals links between adaptation and speciation

Greg Walter, Thomas Richards, Melanie Wilkinson, Mark Blows, J. Aguirre & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
Adaptation to contrasting environments occurs when advantageous alleles accumulate in each population, but it remains largely unknown whether these same advantageous alleles create genetic incompatibilities that can cause intrinsic reproductive isolation leading to speciation. Identifying alleles that underlie both adaptation and reproductive isolation is further complicated by factors such as dominance and genetic interactions among loci, which can affect both processes differently and obscure potential links between adaptation and speciation. Here, we use a combination...

The extensibility of the plantar fascia influences the windlass mechanism during human running

Lauren Welte, Luke Kelly, Sarah Kessler, Daniel Lieberman, Susan D'Andrea, Glen Lichtwark & Michael Rainbow
The arch of the human foot is unique among hominins as it is compliant at ground-contact but sufficiently stiff to enable push-off. These behaviours are partly facilitated by the ligamentous plantar fascia whose role is central to two mechanisms. The ideal windlass mechanism assumes that the plantar fascia has a nearly constant length to directly couple toe dorsiflexion with a change in arch shape. However, the plantar fascia also stretches and then shortens throughout gait...

Sedimentation and overfishing drive changes in early succession and coral recruitment (Palau, Micronesia)

George Roff, Ama Wakwella & Peter Mumby
Sedimentation and overfishing are important local stressors on coral reefs that can independently result in declines in coral recruitment and shifts to algal dominated states. However, the role of herbivory in driving recovery across environmental gradients is often unclear. Here we investigate early successional benthic communities and coral recruitment across a sediment gradient in Palau, Micronesia over a 12-month period. Total sedimentation rates measured by ‘TurfPods’ varied from 0.03 ± 0.1 SE mg cm-2 day-1...

Data from: Greater agility increases probability of survival in the endangered northern quoll

Miranda Rew-Duffy, Skye Cameron, Natalie Freeman, Rebecca Wheatley, Jessica Latimer & Robbie Wilson
Introduced predators combined with habitat loss and modification are threatening biodiversity worldwide, particularly the ‘critical weight range’ (CWR) mammals of Australia. In order to mitigate the impacts of invasive predators on native species in different landscapes, we must understand how the prey's morphology and performance determine their survival. Here we evaluate how phenotypic traits related to escape performance predict the probability of survival for an endangered CWR mammal, the northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus). We measured...

An invasive grass species has both local and broad-scale impacts on diversity: Potential mechanisms and implications

Gabrielle Lebbink, John Dwyer & Rod Fensham
Questions The impact of invasive plant species on native diversity varies with spatial scale, with some invaders leading to broad-scale diversity declines and others only local declines. These discrepancies may reflect the invaders capacity to reduce niche opportunities across spatial scales which can be associated with their functional traits. We investigated impact-scale relationships and trait-based mechanisms, in areas invaded by the exotic perennial grass species, Bothriochloa pertusa. We examine root traits specifically, as belowground competition...

Experimental evidence of warming-induced disease emergence and its prediction by a trait-based mechanistic model

Devin Kirk, Pepijn Luijckx, Natalie Jones, Leila Krichel, Clara Pencer, Peter Molnar & Martin Krkosek
Predicting the effects of seasonality and climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious disease remains difficult, in part because of poorly understood connections between warming and the mechanisms driving disease. Trait-based mechanistic models combined with thermal performance curves arising from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) have been highlighted as a promising approach going forward; however, this framework has not been tested under controlled experimental conditions that isolate the role of gradual temporal...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Fire Safety Engineering: Professional Development Report 6 of 8

David Lange, Peter Johnson, Jose Torero, Juan P Hidalgo, Cristian Maluk & Felix Wiesner
The Professional Development Report addresses the resource and skill constraints hindering the full professionalisation of fire safety engineering, in order to one day achieve a sustainable provision of fire safety engineering professionals.

Pre-introduction introgression contributes to parallel differentiation and contrasting hybridisation outcomes between invasive and native marine mussels

Iva Popovic, Nicolas Bierne, Federico Gaiti, Miloš Tanurdžić & Cynthia Riginos
Non-native species experience novel selection pressures in introduced environments and may interbreed with native lineages. Species introductions therefore provide opportunities to investigate repeated patterns of adaptation and introgression across replicated contact zones. Here, we investigate genetic parallelism between multiple introduced populations of the invasive marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in the absence (South Africa and California) and presence of hybridisation with a native congener (Mytilus planulatus in Batemans Bay and Sydney Harbour, Australia). Repeatability in post-introduction...

Cardioespiratory physiological perturbations after acute smoke-induced lung injury and during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in sheep

Saul Chemonges
Background: Numerous successful therapies developed for human medicine involve animal experimentation. Animal studies that are focused solely on translational potential, may not sufficiently document unexpected outcomes. Considerable amounts of data from such studies could be used to advance veterinary science. For example, sheep are increasingly being used as models of intensive care and therefore, data arising from such models must be published. In this study, the hypothesis is that there is little information describing physiological...

Skull shape of a widely-distributed, endangered marsupial reveals little evidence of local adaptation between fragmented populations

Pietro Viacava, Vera Weisbecker, Simone P. Blomberg, Gabriele Sansalone, Thomas Guillerme, Skye F. Cameron, Robbie S. Wilson & Matthew J. Phillips
The biogeographical distribution of diversity among populations of threatened mammalian species is generally investigated using population genetics. However, intraspecific phenotypic diversity is rarely assessed beyond taxonomy-focused linear measurements or qualitative descriptions. Here, we use a technique widely used in the evolutionary sciences – geometric morphometrics – to characterize shape diversity in the skull of an endangered marsupial, the northern quoll, across its 5,000 km distribution range along Northern Australia. Skull shape is a proxy for...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

Data from: Ecological pest control fortifies agricultural growth in Asia-Pacific economies

Kris Wyckhuys
The Green Revolution is credited with alleviating famine, mitigating poverty and driving aggregate economic growth since the 1960s. In Asia, high-input technology packages secured a tripling of rice output, with germplasm improvements providing benefits beyond US$ 4.3 billion/year. Here, we unveil the magnitude and macro-economic relevance of parallel nature-based contributions to productivity growth in non-rice crops over 1918-2018 (covering 23 different Asia-Pacific geopolitical entities). We empirically demonstrate how biological control resolved invasive pest threats in...

Data from: A cross-cultural investigation of young children’s spontaneous invention of tool use behaviors

Karri Neldner, Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie, Julie Grant, Keyan Tomaselli & Mark Nielsen
Through the mechanisms of observation, imitation and teaching, young children readily pick up the tool using behaviors of their culture. However, little is known about the baseline abilities of children’s tool use: what they might be capable of inventing on their own in the absence of socially provided information. It has been shown that children can spontaneously invent 11 of 12 candidate tool using behaviors observed within the foraging behaviors of wild non-human apes (Reindl,...

Misinformation, internet honey trading, and beekeepers drive a plant invasion

Magdalena Lenda, Piotr Skórka, Karolina Kuszewska, Dawid Moroń, Michał Bełcik, Renata Baczek Kwinta, Franciszek Janowiak, David H. Duncan, Peter A. Vesk, Hugh P. Possingham & Johannes M. H. Knops
Biological invasions are a major human induced global change that is threatening global biodiversity by homogenizing the world’s fauna and flora. Species spread because humans have moved species across geographic boundaries and have changed ecological factors that structure ecosystems, such as nitrogen deposition, disturbance, etc. Many biological invasions are caused accidentally, as a byproduct of human travel and commerce driven product shipping. However, humans also have spread many species intentionally because of perceived benefits. Of...

Data for the effect of optic flow cues on honeybee flight control in wind

Emily Baird, Norbert Boeddeker & Mandyam Srinivasan
To minimise the risk of colliding with the ground or other obstacles, flying animals need to control both their ground speed and ground height. This task is particularly challenging in wind, where head winds require an animal to increase its airspeed to maintain a constant ground speed and tail winds may generate negative airspeeds, rendering flight more difficult to control. In this study, we investigate how head and tail winds affect flight control in the...

Rubble Biodiversity Samplers (RUBS): 3D-printed coral models to standardise biodiversity censuses

Kennedy Wolfe & Peter Mumby
1. To ensure standardised, quantitative and repeatable methodologies, marine ecologists have engineered a range of artificial units to survey benthic communities with varying designs depending on target taxa, life history stage and habitat. In tropical ecosystems, autonomous units have typically lacked microhabitat complexity (e.g. planar tiles), short-term efficacy (> 1 y deployment) and/or a truly standardised design to sample cryptobenthic diversity. 2. Coral rubble is characterised by high microhabitat complexity, which is unresolved in sampling...

Fire Safety Engineering: Education Report 2 of 8

Jose Torero, David Lange, Mahmut Horasan, Andres Osorio, Cristian Maluk, Juan Hidalgo & Peter Johnson
The Education Report discusses the current status of education and training of fire safety engineers; as well as the competencies which are expected of a fire safety engineering professional

Fire Safety Engineering: The Methods Report 3 of 8

David Lange, Jose Torero, Andres Osorio, Nate Lobel, Cristian Maluk & Juan P Hidalgo
The Methods Report takes a closer look at international guidelines and methods currently used for Fire Safety Engineering and considers where fundamental change is needed for Australia

Evolutionary constraints and adaptation shape the size and colour of rain forest fruits and flowers at continental scale

Robert M. Kooyman, Chloé E. L. Delmas & Maurizio Rossetto
Aim: Large-scale patterns in flower and fruit traits provide critical insights into selection processes and the evolutionary history of plant lineages. To isolate and identify the role of selective pressures including different plant-animal interactions, and the factors driving trait evolution, we investigate convergence and divergence between flower and fruit traits in shared environments. Location: Australia to Southeast Asia. Time period: Eocene (~45 My) to Present. Major taxa studied: Woody angiosperm rainforest species (2248 species, 133...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    65

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    56
  • Text
    9

Affiliations

  • University of Queensland
    65
  • University College London
    8
  • University of Sydney
    5
  • Arup Group (United Kingdom)
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • The Nature Conservancy
    3
  • University of Tasmania
    3
  • Monash University
    3
  • Curtin University
    3
  • Queensland University of Technology
    3