304 Works

Data from: Honey bee colonies headed by hyperpolyandrous queens have improved brood rearing efficiency and lower infestation rates of parasitic Varroa mites

Keith S. Delaplane, Stéphane Pietravalle, Mike A. Brown & Giles E. Budge
A honey bee queen mates on wing with an average of 12 males and stores their sperm to produce progeny of mixed paternity. The degree of a queen’s polyandry is positively associated with measures of her colony’s fitness, and observed distributions of mating number are evolutionary optima balancing risks of mating flights against benefits to the colony. Effective mating numbers as high as 40 have been documented, begging the question of the upper bounds of...

Data from: The response of migratory populations to phenological change: a Migratory Flow Network modelling approach

Caz M. Taylor, Andrew J. Laughlin & Richard J. Hall
1. Declines in migratory species have been linked to anthropogenic climate change through phenological mismatch, which arises due to asynchronies between the timing of life-history events (such as migration) and the phenology of available resources. Long-distance migratory species may be particularly vulnerable to phenological change in their breeding ranges, since the timing of migration departure is based on environmental cues at distant non-breeding sites. 2. Migrants may, however, be able to adjust migration speed en...

Data from: Experimental insight into the process of parasite community assembly

Sarah A. Budischak, Eric P. Hoberg, Art Abrams, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
1.Community assembly is a fundamental process that has long been a central focus in ecology. Extending community assembly theory to communities of co-infecting parasites, we used a gastrointestinal nematode removal experiment in free-ranging African buffalo to examine community assembly patterns and processes. 2.We first asked whether reassembled communities differ from undisturbed communities by comparing anthelmintic-treated and control hosts. Next, we examined the temporal dynamics of assembly using a cross-section of communities that reassembled for different...

Data from: Mosquitoes host communities of bacteria that are essential for development but vary greatly between local habitats

Kerri L. Coon, Mark R. Brown & Michael R. Strand
Mosquitoes are insects of interest because several species vector disease-causing pathogens to humans and other vertebrates. We previously reported that mosquitoes from long-term laboratory cultures require living bacteria in their gut to develop, but development does not depend on particular species of bacteria. Here, we focused on three distinct but interrelated areas of study to better understand the role of bacteria in mosquito development by studying field and laboratory populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus...

Data from: The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution

Christine W. Miller, Grant C. McDonald, Allen J. Moore, A. J. Moore, C. W. Miller & G. C. McDonald
Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of...

Data from: Stability and generalization in seed dispersal networks: a case study of frugivorous fish in Neotropical wetlands

Sandra Bibiana Correa, Joisiane K. Araujo, Jerry Penha, Catia Nunes Da Cunha, Karen E. Bobier, Jill T. Anderson & Joisiane K. Arujo
When species within guilds perform similar ecological roles, functional redundancy can buffer ecosystems against species loss. Using data on the frequency of interactions between fish and fruit, we assessed whether co-occurring frugivores provide redundant seed dispersal services in three species-rich Neotropical wetlands. Our study revealed that frugivorous fishes have generalized diets; however, large-bodied fishes had greater seed dispersal breadth than small species, in some cases, providing seed dispersal services not achieved by smaller fish species....

Data from: Biparental care is predominant and beneficial to parents in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

Kyle M. Benowitz & Allen J. Moore
Parenting strategies can be flexible within a species and may have varying fitness effects. Understanding this flexibility and its fitness consequences is important for understanding why parenting strategies evolve. In the present study, we investigate the fitness consequences of flexible parenting in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis, a species known for its advanced provisioning behaviour of regurgitated vertebrate carrion to offspring by both sexes. We show that, even when a parent is freely allowed to...

Data from: Genetic mapping of millions of SNPs in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) via whole-genome resequencing

John E. Bowers, Stephanie A. Pearl & John M. Burke
Accurate assembly of complete genomes is facilitated by very high density genetic maps. We performed low-coverage, whole-genome shotgun sequencing on 96 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of a cross between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and its wild progenitor (C. palaestinus Eig). We also produced a draft genome assembly of C. tinctorius covering 866 million bp (∼two-thirds) of the expected 1.35 Gbp genome after sequencing a single, short insert library to ∼21 × depth. Sequence reads...

Data from: Gα and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein pairs maintain functional compatibility and conserved interaction interfaces throughout evolution despite frequent loss of RGS proteins in plants

Dieter Hackenberg, Michael McKain, Soon-Goo Lee, Swarup Roy Choudhury, Tyler McCann, Spencer Schreier, Alex Harkess, J. Chris Pires, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Joseph Jez, Elizabeth Kellogg, Sona Pandey, Soon Goo Lee, Joseph M. Jez, Michael R. McKain & Elizabeth A. Kellogg
Signaling pathways regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins exist in all eukaryotes. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key interactors and critical modulators of the Gα protein of the heterotrimer. However, while G-proteins are widespread in plants, RGS proteins have been reported to be missing from the entire monocot lineage, with two exceptions. A single amino acid substitution-based adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS proteins was proposed to enable the loss of RGS in monocots. We...

Data from: A resurrection experiment finds evidence of both reduced genetic diversity and potential adaptive evolution in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea

Adam Kuester, Ariana Wilson, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Despite the negative economic and ecological impact of weeds, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that influence their persistence in agricultural fields. Here, we use a resurrection approach to examine the potential for genotypic and phenotypic evolution in Ipomoea purpurea, an agricultural weed that is resistant to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in current-day agriculture. We found striking reductions in allelic diversity between cohorts sampled nine years apart (2003 vs. 2012), suggesting...

Data from: Maternal corticosterone exposure has transgenerational effects on grand-offspring

Nicola Khan, Richard A. Peters, Emily Richardson & Kylie A. Robert
The hormone fluctuations that an animal experiences during ovulation can have lifelong effects on developing offspring. These hormones may act as an adaptive mechanism, allowing offspring to be ‘pre-programmed’ to survive in an unstable environment. Here, we used a transgenerational approach to examine the effects of elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT) on the future reproductive success of female offspring. We show that female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) exposed to embryonic CORT produce daughters that have equal...

Data from: Range-wide and regional patterns of population structure and genetic diversity in the gopher tortoise

Daniel Gaillard, Joshua R. Ennen, Brian R. Kreiser, Carl P. Qualls, Sarah C. Sweat, Roger Birkhead, Tracey D. Tuberville, Matthew Aresco, Earl D. McCoy, Henry R. Mushinsky, Thomas W. Hentges, D. Gaillard, B.R. Kreiser, C.P. Qualls, R. Birkhead, T.D. Tuberville, E.D. McCoy, H.R. Mushinsky & T.W. Hentges
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has experienced dramatic population declines throughout its distribution in the southeastern United States and is federally listed as threatened in the area west of the Tombigbee-Mobile Rivers. While there is molecular support for recognizing the listed portion of the range as genetically distinct, other research has suggested that additional population structure exists at both range-wide and regional scales. In this study, we sought to comprehensively define structure at both spatial...

Data from: Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

Jonathan Corbi, Eric J. Baack, Jennifer M. Dechaine, Gerald Seiler & John M. Burke
Crop-wild hybridization occurs in numerous plant species, and could alter the genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of wild populations. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assessing/mitigating the risks associated with transgene escape. To date, crop-wild hybridization has generally been examined via short-term studies, typically within a single generation, focusing on few traits or genetic markers. Little is known about patterns of selection on crop-derived alleles over multiple generations, particularly at a...

Data from: When environmental factors become stressors: interactive effects of vermetid gastropods and sedimentation on corals

Julie Zill, Michael A. Gil, Craig W. Osenberg & Julie A. Zill
Environmental stressors often interact, but most studies of multiple stressors have focused on combinations of abiotic stressors. Here we examined the potential interaction between a biotic stressor, the vermetid snail Ceraesignum maximum, and an abiotic stressor, high sedimentation, on the growth of reef-building corals. In a field experiment, we subjected juvenile massive Porites corals to four treatments: (i) neither stressor, (ii) sedimentation, (iii) vermetids or (iv) both stressors. Unexpectedly, we found no effect of either...

Data from: Integrating phylogenomic and population genomic patterns in avian lice provides a more complete picture of parasite evolution

Andrew D. Sweet, Bret M. Boyd, Julie M. Allen, Scott M. Villa, Michel P. Valim, Jose L. Rivera-Parra, Robert E. Wilson & Kevin P. Johnson
Parasite diversity accounts for most of the biodiversity on earth, and is shaped by many processes (e.g. cospeciation, host-switching). To identify the effects of the processes that shape parasite diversity, it is ideal to incorporate both deep (phylogenetic) and shallow (population) perspectives. To this end, we developed a novel workflow to obtain phylogenetic and population genetic data from whole genome sequences of body lice parasitizing New World ground-doves. Phylogenies from these data showed consistent, highly...

Data from: Combined effects of night warming and light pollution on predator-prey interactions

Colleen R. Miller, Brandon T. Barton, Likai Zhu, Volker C. Radeloff, Kerry M. Oliver, Jason P. Harmon & Anthony R. Ives
Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness. However, for the more-visual...

Data from: Disruption of plant-soil-microbial relationships influences plant growth

Daniel P. Keymer & Richard A. Lankau
Differential dispersal of plant and microbial propagules may result in the geographical disassociation of plant populations from their local abiotic conditions and microbial communities, especially in the face of species introductions and changing climates. To assess the potential consequences of disrupting historical relationships between plant populations, microbial communities, and soil conditions, we grew Carpinus caroliniana seedlings from populations across the species range in combinations of sterilized soils and soil microbial communities, in soils collected from...

Data from: Genomics of Compositae weeds: EST libraries, microarrays, and evidence of introgression

Zhao Lai, Nolan C. Kane, Alex Kozik, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Katrina M. Dlugosch, Michael S. Barker, Marta Matvienko, Qian Yu, Kathryn G. Turner, Stephanie A. Pearl, Graeme D.M. Bell, Yi Zou, Chris Grassa, Alessia Guggisberg, Keith L. Adams, James V. Anderson, David P. Horvath, Richard V. Kesseli, John M. Burke, Richard W. Michelmore, Loren H. Rieseberg, Stephanie Anne Pearl & Graeme D. M. Bell
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Weeds cause considerable environmental and economic damage. However, genomic characterization of weeds has lagged behind that of model plants and crop species. Here we report on the development of genomic tools and resources for 11 weeds from the Compositae family that will serve as a basis for subsequent population and comparative genomic analyses. Because hybridization has been suggested as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness, we also analyze these genomic...

Data from: A connection between colony biomass and death in Caribbean reef-building corals

Daniel J. Thornhill, Randi D. Rotjan, Brian D. Todd, Geoff C. Chilcoat, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Todd C. LaJeunesse, Dustin W. Kemp, Jennifer McCabe Reynolds, Gregory W. Schmidt, Thomas Shannon, Mark E. Warner & William K. Fitt
Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994–2007), eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995–2006), and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003–2007). For...

Data from: Generalized spatial mark-resight models with an application to grizzly bears

Jesse Whittington, Mark Hebblewhite & Richard B. Chandler
1. The high cost associated with capture-recapture studies presents a major challenge when monitoring and managing wildlife populations. Recently-developed spatial mark-resight (SMR) models were proposed as a cost-effective alternative because they only require a single marking event. However, existing SMR models ignore the marking process and make the tenuous assumption that marked and unmarked populations have the same encounter probabilities. This assumption will be violated in most situations because the marking process results in different...

Data from: Adaptive divergence in wine yeasts and their wild relatives suggests a prominent role for introgressions and rapid evolution at non coding sites

Pedro Almeida, Raquel Barbosa, Douda Bensasson, Paula Gonçalves & José Paulo Sampaio
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main yeast in wine fermentation, the opportunity to examine divergence at the molecular level between a domesticated lineage and its wild counterpart arose recently due to the identification of the closest relatives of wine strains, a wild population associated with Mediterranean oaks. Since genomic data is available for a considerable number of representatives belonging to both groups, we used population genomics to estimate the degree and distribution of nucleotide variation between...

Data from: Big biology meets microclimatology: Defining thermal niches of ectotherms at landscape scales for conservation planning

Daniel J. Isaak, Seth J. Wenger & Michael K. Young
Temperature profoundly affects ecology, a fact ever more evident as the ability to measure thermal environments increases and global changes alter these environments. The spatial structure of thermalscapes is especially relevant to the distribution and abundance of ectothermic organisms but the ability to describe biothermal relationships at extents and grains relevant to conservation planning has been limited by small or sparse datasets. Here, we combine a large occurrence database of >23,000 aquatic species surveys with...

Data from: Early antiretroviral therapy and potent second-line drugs could decrease HIV incidence of drug resistance

Mingwang Shen, Yanni Xiao, Libin Rong, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Steve E. Bellan & Steven E. Bellan
Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of drug-sensitive HIV transmission but may increase the transmission of drug-resistant HIV. We used a mathematical model to estimate the long-term population-level benefits of ART and determine the scenarios under which earlier ART (treatment at 1 year post-infection, on average) could decrease simultaneously both total and drug-resistant HIV incidence (new infections). We constructed an infection-age-structured mathematical model that tracked the transmission rates over the course of...

Data from: Specificity and strain-typing capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae detection

Kelley C. Henderson, Alvaro J. Benitez, Amy E. Ratliff, Donna M. Crabb, Edward S. Sheppard, Jonas M. Winchell, Richard A. Dluhy, Ken B. Waites, T. Prescott Atkinson & Duncan C. Krause
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously...

Data from: Facultative endosymbionts mediate dietary breadth in a polyphagous herbivore

Steven M. Wagner, Adam J. Martinez, Yong-Ming Ruan, Kyungsun L. Kim, Paul A. Lenhart, Allison C. Dehnel, Kerry M. Oliver & Jennifer A. White
1. Intraspecific variation in dietary breadth can influence important ecological and evolutionary processes, yet the mechanisms generating this variation are usually unknown. Maternally-transmitted bacterial symbionts frequently infect insect herbivores, and many have been shown to mediate key ecological interactions. For polyphagous herbivores, infection with particular symbionts is often strongly correlated with feeding on particular plant species, suggesting that facultative symbionts might directly determine herbivore food plant specificity. However, previous tests of this hypothesis have returned...

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