392 Works

Data from: Vegetation structure mediates a shift in predator avoidance behavior in a range-edge population

Cora A. Johnston & Rachel S. Smith
Where organisms encounter novel conditions during range expansion, behavioral changes suited to the new habitat can enhance survival. Behavioral changes that mitigate predation risk are particularly important for the persistence of range-edge populations, especially where plastic responses outpace genetic adaptation. We use a climate-driven spatial mismatch between the arboreal mangrove tree crab (Aratus pisonii) and its primary mangrove habitat to evaluate differences in predator avoidance behavior between populations in range-center mangroves and adjacent range-edge salt...

Data from: Protoporphyrin-based eggshell pigmentation is associated with female plumage colouration and predicts offspring sex ratio in the barn swallow

Margherita Corti, Andrea Romano, Alessandra Costanzo, Alexandra B. Bentz, Kristen Navara, Marco Parolini, Nicola Saino, Diego Rubolini & Kristen J. Navara
Inter- and intraspecific variation in eggshell colouration has long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Among species, such variation may accomplish different functions, the most obvious of which is camouflage and background matching. Within species, it has been proposed that inter-female variation in eggshell pigmentation patterns can reflect egg, maternal or paternal traits and hence may provide cues to conspecifics about egg, maternal or paternal phenotypic quality. However, the relationship between protoporphyrin-based eggshell pigmentation and egg or maternal/paternal...

Data from: Incubation temperature and social context affect the nest exodus of precocial ducklings

Sydney F. Hope, Robert A. Kennamer, Schuyler G. Van Montfrans & William A. Hopkins
The environments that animals experience during development have important fitness consequences. In birds, parents influence the developmental environment of their offspring through incubation. Subtle changes in incubation temperature affect offspring morphology and physiology, such as growth, immune function, and thermoregulation, yet little is known about how it may affect critical early-life behaviors. Because expression of behavior can be influenced by the social environment, the effect of incubation temperature on behavior may be context-dependent. We investigated...

Data from: The evolution of sexual signal modes and associated sensor morphology in fireflies (Lampyridae, Coleoptera)

Kathrin F. Stanger-Hall, Sarah E. Lower Sander, Lauri Lindberg, Andrew Hopkins, Jenna Pallansch & David W. Hall
Animals employ different sexual signal modes (e.g. visual, acoustic, chemical) in different environments and behavioural contexts. If sensory structures are costly, then evolutionary shifts in primary signal mode should be associated with changes in sensor morphology. Further, sex differences are expected if male and female signalling behaviours differ. Fireflies are known for their light displays, but many species communicate exclusively with pheromones, including species that recently lost their light signals. We performed phylogenetically-controlled analyses of...

Data from: Continental-scale biogeographic variation: provinces versus gradients in the Upper Ordovician of Laurentia

Chelsea E. Jenkins & Steven M. Holland
Although provinces are widely used to delimit large-scale variations in biotic composition, it is unknown to what extent such variations simply reflect large-scale gradients, much as has been shown at smaller scales for communities. We examine here whether four previously described Middle and Late Ordovician provinces on Laurentia are best described as distinct provinces or as biotic gradients through a combination of the Paleobiology Database and new field data. Both data sets indicate considerable overlap...

Data from: Faunal response to sea-level and climate change in a short-lived seaway: Jurassic of the Western Interior, USA

Silvia Danise & Steven M. Holland
Understanding how regional ecosystems respond to sea-level and environmental perturbations is a main challenge in palaeoecology. Here we use quantitative abundance estimates, integrated within a sequence stratigraphic and environmental framework, to reconstruct benthic community changes through the 13 myr history of the Jurassic Sundance Seaway in the western United States. Sundance Seaway communities are notable for their low richness and high dominance relative to most areas globally in the Jurassic, and this probably reflects steep...

Data from: Evolution of nutrient resorption across the herbaceous genus Helianthus

Ashley M. Rea, Chase. M. Mason & Lisa A. Donovan
Foliar nutrient resorption is a key modulator of plant nutrient use. However, evolutionary patterns for nutrient resorption remain unclear, especially in herbs. We measured nitrogen and phosphorus resorption on pre-selected leaves across the Helianthus (sunflower) genus in a common garden in Athens, GA. We analyzed our data with published leaf traits and native habitat environmental data. Using phylogenetically-controlled analyses, we tested if (1) nutrient resorption correlates with leaf economic, vasculature, and defense traits through evolutionary...

Data from: Two genomic regions together cause dark abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila tenebrosa

Kelly A. Dyer, Thomas Werner & Michael J. Bray
Pigmentation is a rapidly evolving trait that is under both natural and sexual selection in many organisms. In the quinaria group of Drosophila, nearly all of the 30 species have an abdomen that is light in color with distinct markings; D. tenebrosa is the exception in that it has a completely melanic abdomen with no visible markings. In this study, we use a combination of quantitative genetic and candidate gene approaches to investigate the genetic...

Data from: Asymmetrical sexual isolation but no postmating isolation between the closely related species Drosophila suboccidentalis and Drosophila occidentalis

Nicholas J. Arthur & Kelly A. Dyer
Background: During the speciation process several types of isolating barriers can arise that limit gene flow between diverging populations. Studying recently isolated species can inform our understanding of how and when these barriers arise, and which barriers may be most important to limiting gene flow. Here we focus on Drosophila suboccidentalis and D. occidentalis, which are closely related mushroom-feeding species that inhabit western North America and are not known to overlap in geographic range. We...

Data from: Behavioral plasticity and GxE of reproductive tactics in Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles

Mauricio J. Carter, Megan L. Head, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Phenotypic plasticity is important in the evolution of traits and facilitates adaptation to rapid environmental changes. However, variation in plasticity at the individual level, and the heritable basis underlying this plasticity is rarely quantified for behavioral traits. Alternative behavioral reproductive tactics are key components of mating systems but are rarely considered within a phenotypic plasticity framework (i.e., as reaction norms). Here, using lines artificially selected for repeated mating rate, we test for genetic (GxE) sources...

Data from: The role of neuropeptide F in a transition to parental care

Christopher B. Cunningham, Kathryn VanDenHeuvel, Daven B. Khana, Elizabeth C. McKinney & Allen J. Moore
The genetics of complex social behaviour can be dissected by examining the genetic influences of component pathways, which can be predicted based on expected evolutionary precursors. Here, we examine how gene expression in a pathway that influences the motivation to eat is altered during parental care that involves direct feeding of larvae. We examine the expression of neuropeptide F, and its receptor, in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, which feeds pre-digested carrion to its begging...

Data from: Flow-ecology relationships are spatially structured and differ among flow regimes

Lindsey A. Bruckerhoff, Douglas R. Leasure & Daniel D. Magoulick
1. In streams, hydrology is a predominant driver of ecological structure and function. Providing adequate flows to support aquatic life, or environmental flows, is therefore a top management priority in stream systems. 2. Flow regime classification is a widely accepted approach for establishing environmental flow guidelines. However, it is surprisingly difficult to quantify relationships between hydrology and ecology (flow-ecology relationships) while describing how these relationships vary across classified flow regimes. Developing such relationships is complicated...

Data from: Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

Dong Zhang, Wenqian Kong, Jon Robertson, Valorie H. Goff, Ethan Epps, Alexandra Kerr, Gabriel Mills, Jay Cromwell, Yelena Lugin, Christine Phillips & Andrew H. Paterson
Background: Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. Results: We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6...

Data from: Speciation and introgression between Mimulus nasutus and Mimulus guttatus

Yaniv Brandvain, Amanda M. Kenney, Lex Flagel, Graham Coop & Andrea L. Sweigart
Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus are an evolutionary and ecological model sister species pair differentiated by ecology, mating system, and partial reproductive isolation. Despite extensive research on this system, the history of divergence and differentiation in this sister pair is unclear. We present and analyze a population genomic data set which shows that M. nasutus budded from a central Californian M. guttatus population within the last 200 to 500 thousand years. In this time, the...

Data from: Tree phenology responses to winter chilling, spring warming, at north and south range limits

James S. Clarke, Carl Salk, Jerry M. Melillo, Jacqueline Mohan & James S. Clark
Increases in primary production may occur if plants respond to climate warming with prolonged growing seasons, but not if local adaptation, cued by photoperiod, limits phenological advance. It has been hypothesized that trees with diffuse porous xylem anatomy and early successional species may respond most to warming. Within species, northern populations may respond most due to the fact that growing seasons are relatively short. Species most sensitive to spring temperature may show little overall response...

Data from: Genetic analysis of safflower domestication

Stephanie A. Pearl, John E. Bowers, Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo, Richard W. Michelmore & John M. Burke
Background: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oilseed crop in the Compositae (a.k.a. Asteraceae) that is valued for its oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present an analysis of the genetic architecture of safflower domestication and compare our findings to those from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an independently domesticated oilseed crop within the same family. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying 24 domestication-related traits in progeny from a cross between safflower and...

Data from: Adaptive evolution and environmental durability jointly structure phylodynamic patterns in avian influenza viruses

Benjamin Roche, John M. Drake, Justin Brown, David E. Stallknecht, Trevor Bedford & Pejman Rohani
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker...

Data from: Experimental N and P additions alter stream macroinvertebrate community composition via taxon‐level responses to shifts in detrital resource stoichiometry

Lee M. Demi, Jonathan P. Benstead, Amy D. Rosemond & John C. Maerz
1. Increases in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability are changing animal communities, partly by altering stoichiometric imbalances between consumers and their food. Testing relationships between resource stoichiometry and consumer assemblage structure requires ecosystem-level manipulations that have been lacking to date. 2. We analyzed patterns of macroinvertebrate community composition in five detritus-based headwater streams subject to experimental whole-stream N and P additions that spanned a steep gradient in dissolved N:P ratio (2:1, 8:1, 16:1, 32:1,...

Data from: Migratory behavior predicts greater parasite diversity in ungulates

Claire S. Teitelbaum, Shan Huang, Richard J. Hall & Sonia Altizer
Long-distance animal movements can increase exposure to diverse parasites, but can also reduce infection risk through escape from contaminated habitats or culling of infected individuals. These mechanisms have been demonstrated within and between populations in single-host/single-parasite interactions, but how long-distance movement behaviors shape parasite diversity and prevalence across host taxa is largely unknown. Using a comparative approach, we analyze the parasite communities of 93 migratory, nomadic, and resident ungulate species. We find that migrants have...

Data from: Phenological responses to multiple environmental drivers under climate change: insights from a long-term observational study and a manipulative field experiment

Susana M. Wadgymar, Jane E. Ogilvie, David W. Inouye, Arthur E. Weis & Jill T. Anderson
• Climate change has induced pronounced shifts in the reproductive phenology of plants, yet we know little about which environmental factors contribute to interspecific variation in responses and their effects on fitness. • We integrate data from a 43-year record of first flowering for six species in subalpine Colorado meadows with a 3-year snow manipulation experiment on the perennial forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) from the same site. We analyze shifts in the onset of flowering...

Data from: RRapid global spread of wRi-like Wolbachia across multiple Drosophila

Michael Turelli, Brandon S. Cooper, Kelly M. Richardson, Paul S. Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X. Antelope, Kevin J. Kim, Michael R. May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A. Wilson, Michael J. Bronski, Brian R. Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B. Eisen, Joanna C. Chiu, William R. Conner & Ary A. Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects, but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare. Here we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila...

Data from: Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease

Courtney C. Murdock, Michelle V. Evans, Taylor D. McClanahan, Kerri L. Miazgowicz & Blanka Tesla
Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of...

Data from: The whitefly-associated facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa suppresses induced plant defences in tomato

Qi Su, Kerry M. Oliver, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang & Youjun Zhang
1. Maternally inherited bacterial symbionts are present in many, if not most, insect species. While there is rapidly accumulating evidence that facultative, heritable symbionts often protect insect hosts from natural enemies, there have been few clear examples where facultative symbionts mediate herbivore–plant interactions. 2. The phloem-feeding whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a major agricultural pest that frequently harbours facultative symbionts, including Hamiltonella defensa. While H. defensa and other facultative symbionts have been shown to improve whitefly...

Nest survival, female survival, and average covariates used in modeling, along with metadata

Michael Chamberlain
Females must balance physiological and behavioral demands of producing offspring with associated expenditures, such as resource acquisition and predator avoidance. Nest success is an important parameter underlying avian population dynamics. Galliforms are particularly susceptible to low nest success due to exposure of ground nests to multiple predator guilds, lengthy incubation periods, and substantive reliance on crypsis for survival. Hence, it is plausible that nesting individuals prioritize productivity and survival differently, resulting in a gradient of...

Reactivation of latent infections with migration shapes population-level disease dynamics

Daniel Becker, Ellen Ketterson & Richard Hall
Annual migration is common across animal taxa and can dramatically shape the spatial and temporal patterns of infectious disease. Although migration can decrease infection prevalence in some contexts, these energetically costly long-distance movements can also have immunosuppressive effects that may interact with transmission processes in complex ways. Here we develop a mechanistic model for the reactivation of latent infections driven by physiological changes or energetic costs associated with migration (i.e., “migratory relapse”) and its effects...

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