391 Works

Data from: Fine‐scale geographic patterns of gene flow and reproductive character displacement in drosophila subquinaria and d. recens

Kelly A. Dyer, Emily R. Bewick, Brooke E. White, Michael J. Bray & Devon P. Humphreys
When two species are incompletely isolated, strengthening premating isolation barriers in response to the production of low fitness hybrids may complete the speciation process. Here we use the sister species Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens to study the conditions under which this reinforcement of species boundaries occurs in natural populations. We first extend the region of known sympatry between these species, and then we conduct a fine-scale geographic survey of mate discrimination coupled with estimates...

Data from: Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

Alex Harkess, Francesco Mercati, Hong-Yan Shan, Francesco Sunseri, Agostino Falavigna & Jim Leebens-Mack
Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as...

Data from: Resolving conflict in eutherian mammal phylogeny using phylogenomics and the multispecies coalescent model

Liang Liu, Scott V. Edwards & Shaoyuan Wu
The reconstruction of the Tree of Life has relied almost entirely on concatenation methods, which do not accommodate gene tree heterogeneity, a property that simulations and theory have identified as a likely cause of incongruent phylogenies. However, this incongruence has not yet been demonstrated in empirical studies. Several key relationships among eutherian mammals remain controversial and conflicting among previous studies, including the root of eutherian tree and the relationships within Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria. Both Bayesian...

Data from: Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

Karolina Heyduk, Nia Burrell, Falak Lalani & Jim Leebens-Mack
While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to...

Data from: Pest tradeoffs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

Steffen Hagenbucher, Felix L. Wäckers, Felix E. Wettstein, Dawn M. Olson, John R. Ruberson, Jörg Romeis & F. L. Wackers
The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target...

Data from: On the relationship between body condition and parasite infection in wildlife: a review and meta‐analysis

Cecilia A. Sánchez, Daniel J. Becker, Claire S. Teitelbaum, Paola Barriga, Leone M. Brown, Ania Aleksandra Majewska, Richard J. Hall & Sonia Altizer
Body condition metrics are widely used to infer animal health and to assess costs of parasite infection. Since parasites harm their hosts, ecologists might expect negative relationships between infection and condition in wildlife, but this assumption is challenged by studies showing positive or null condition–infection relationships. Here, we outline common condition metrics used by ecologists in studies of parasitism, and consider mechanisms that cause negative, positive, and null condition–infection relationships in wildlife systems. We then...

Data from: Predator-prey trophic relationships in response to organic management practices

Jason M. Schmidt, Sarah K. Barney, Mark A. Williams, Ricardo T. Bessin, Timothy W. Coolong & James D. Harwood
A broad range of environmental conditions likely regulate predator-prey population dynamics and impact the structure of these communities. Central to understanding the interplay between predator and prey populations and their importance is characterizing the corresponding trophic interactions. Here we use a well-documented molecular approach to examine the structure of the community of natural enemies preying upon the squash bug, Anasa tristis, a herbivorous cucurbit pest that severely hinders organic squash and pumpkin production in the...

Data from: Spatial and temporal components of induced plant responses in the context of herbivore life history and impact on host

Charles J. Mason, Caterina Villari, Ken Keefover-Ring, Stephanie Jagemann, Jun Zhu, Pierluigi Bonello & Kenneth F. Raffa
Plants defend against herbivores and pathogens through integrated constitutive and induced defenses. Induced responses may be expressed locally or tissue/plant-wide, i.e. systemically, and may also be primed for subsequent attack. Although the elicitation and efficacy of induced responses are increasingly well-characterized, we have little understanding of how timing and within-plant spatial patterns of induced defenses relate to different herbivore behaviors and selective pressures. We used interactions between pines and their major mortality agents, native bark...

Data from: A combined parasitological-molecular approach for non-invasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts

Sarah A. Budischak, Eric P. Hoberg, Art Abrams, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites; thus, fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, noninvasive methods for obtaining quantitative, species-specific infection data in wildlife are often unreliable. Consequently, characterization of gastrointestinal nematode communities of wild hosts has largely relied on lethal sampling to isolate and enumerate adult worms directly from the tissues of dead hosts. The necessity...

Data from: Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines

Anthony Waldron, Arne O. Mooers, Daniel C. Miller, Nate Nibbelink, David Redding, Tyler S. Kuhn, J. Timmons Roberts & John L. Gittleman
Inadequate funding levels are a major impediment to effective global biodiversity conservation and are likely associated with recent failures to meet United Nations biodiversity targets. Some countries are more severely underfunded than others and therefore represent urgent financial priorities. However, attempts to identify these highly underfunded countries have been hampered for decades by poor and incomplete data on actual spending, coupled with uncertainty and lack of consensus over the relative size of spending gaps. Here,...

Data from: Size-assortative choice and mate availability influences hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans)

Joseph W. Hinton, John L. Gittleman, Frank T. Van Manen & Michael J. Chamberlain
Anthropogenic hybridization of historically isolated taxa has become a primary conservation challenge for many imperiled species. Indeed, hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) poses a significant challenge to red wolf recovery. We considered 7 hypotheses to assess factors influencing hybridization between red wolves and coyotes via pair-bonding between the two species. Because long-term monogamy and defense of all-purpose territories are core characteristics of both species, mate choice has long-term consequences. Therefore,...

Data from: Large wildlife removal drives immune defense increases in rodents

Hillary S. Young, Rodolfo Dirzo, Kristofer M. Helgen, Douglas J. McCauley, Charles L. Nunn, Paul Snyder, Kari E. Veblen, Serena Zhao & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Anthropogenic disturbances involving land use change, climate disruption, pollution, and invasive species have been shown to impact immune function of wild animals. These immune changes have direct impacts on the fitness of impacted animals and, also, potentially indirect effects on other species and on ecological processes, notably involving the spread of infectious disease. Here, we investigate whether the selective loss of large wildlife can also drive changes in immune function of other consumer species. Using...

Data from: Fitness costs of herbicide resistance across natural populations of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

Megan L. Van Etten, Adam Kuester, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Although fitness costs associated with plant defensive traits are widely expected, they are not universally detected, calling into question their generality. Here we examine the potential for life history trade-offs associated with herbicide resistance by examining seed germination, root growth, and above-ground growth across 43 naturally occurring populations of Ipomoea purpurea that vary in their resistance to RoundUp®, the most commonly used herbicide worldwide. We find evidence for life history trade-offs associated with all three...

Data from: Migratory monarchs that encounter resident monarchs show life-history differences and higher rates of parasite infection

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Mark D. Hunter, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Keith A. Hobson, D. Ryan Norris, Hillary Streit, Jacobus C. De Roode & Sonia Altizer
Environmental change induces some wildlife populations to shift from migratory to resident behaviours. Newly formed resident populations could influence the health and behaviour of remaining migrants. We investigated migrant-resident interactions among monarch butterflies and consequences for life history and parasitism. Eastern North American monarchs migrate annually to Mexico, but some now breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern U.S. and experience high infection prevalence of protozoan parasites. Using stable isotopes (2H, 13C) and cardenolide...

Data from: Sea level change and the area of shallow-marine habitat: implications for marine biodiversity

Steven M. Holland
Analysis of a global elevation database to measure changes in shallow-marine habitat area as a function of sea-level reveals an unexpectedly complicated relationship. In contrast to prevailing views, sea-level rise does not consistently generate an increase in shelf area, nor does sea-level fall consistently reduce shelf area. Different depth-defined habitats on the same margin will experience different changes in area for the same sea-level change, and different margins will likewise experience different changes in area...

Data from: Duplication and sub/neofunctionalization of Malvolio, an insect homolog of Nramp, in the subsocial beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

Elijah C. Mehlferber, Kyle M. Benowitz, Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Christopher B. Cunningham & Allen J. Moore
With growing numbers of sequenced genomes, increasing numbers of duplicate genes are uncovered. Here we examine Malvolio, a gene in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family, that has been duplicated in the subsocial beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, which exhibits advanced parental behavior. There is only one copy of Mvl in honey bees and Drosophila, whereas in vertebrates there are two copies that are subfunctionalized. We first compared amino acid sequences for Drosophila, beetles, mouse and...

Data from: Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

Thomas R. Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, Katherine L. Thompson, Shishir K. Biswas, Zak Clare-Salzler, John M. Kimani, Stephen G. Kiama, Jeramiah J. Smith, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Ashley W. Seifert
Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer’ mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size,...

Data from: Integrating viability and fecundity selection to illuminate the adaptive nature of genetic clines

Susana M. Wadgymar, S. Caroline Daws, Jill Anderson & Jill T. Anderson
Genetically-based trait variation across environmental gradients can reflect adaptation to local environments. However, natural populations that appear well-adapted often exhibit directional, not stabilizing, selection on ecologically-relevant traits. Temporal variation in the direction of selection could lead to stabilizing selection across multiple episodes of selection, which might be overlooked in short-term studies that evaluate relationships of traits and fitness under only one set of conditions. Furthermore, non-random mortality prior to trait expression can bias inferences about...

Data from: Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. III. Phenotypic selection across a subspecies border

Jill Theresa Anderson, Vincent M. Eckhart & Monica Ann Geber
Sister taxa with distinct phenotypes often occupy contrasting environments in parapatric ranges, yet we generally do not know whether trait divergence reflects spatially-varying selection. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether selection favors “native phenotypes” in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), an annual plant in California. For four quantitative traits that differ between subspecies, we estimated phenotypic selection in subspecies’ exclusive ranges and their contact zone in two consecutive years. We predicted...

Data from: Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

Lillian L. M. Shapiro, Courtney C. Murdock, Gregory R. Jacobs, Rachel J. Thomas & Matthew B. Thomas
Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing...

Data from: Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression is associated with male and female parenting in a subsocial insect

Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Christopher B. Cunningham, Lauren E. Hebb, Elizabeth C. McKinney & Allen J. Moore
Complex social behaviour in Hymenoptera has been hypothesized to evolve by co-opting reproductive pathways (the ovarian ground plan hypothesis, OGPH) and gene networks (the reproductive ground plan hypothesis, RGPH). In support of these hypotheses, in eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive division of labour, the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) influences the expression of worker social behaviour. We suggest that co-opting genes involved in reproduction may occur more generally than just in the evolution of...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of codon evolution in the actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin (adf/cfl) gene family

Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Kelly A. Dyer & Richard B. Meagher
The actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin (ADF/CFL) gene family encodes a diverse group of relatively small proteins. Once known strictly as modulators of actin filament dynamics, recent research has demonstrated that these proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, from signal transduction to the cytonuclear trafficking of actin. In both plant and animal lineages, expression patterns of paralogs in the ADF/CFL gene family vary among tissue types and developmental stages. In this study we use computational...

Data from: Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

Rebecca Y. Shirk, James L. Hamrick, Chaobin Zhang & Sheng Qiang
Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions, and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity ("founder effects") should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium...

Data from: Disruption of gene expression in hybrids of the fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri

Lino Ometto, Kenneth G. Ross, D. DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool for unveiling the distribution and magnitude of genetic incompatibilities between hybridizing taxa. The nature of such incompatibilities is closely associated with the evolutionary histories of the parental species and may differ across tissues and between the sexes. In eusocial insects, the presence of castes that experience divergent selection regimes may result in additional distinct patterns of caste-specific hybrid incompatibilities. We analyzed levels of expression of >14,000 genes in two...

Data from: Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment

Jessica D. Stephens, Willie L. Rogers, Karolina Heyduk, Jennifer M. Cruse-Sanders, Ron O. Determann, Travis C. Glenn & Russell L. Malmberg
The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by...

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