28 Works

Data from: Ebola cases and health system demand in Liberia

John M. Drake, RajReni B. Kaul, Laura W. Alexander, Suzanne M. O'Regan, Andrew M. Kramer, J. Tomlin Pulliam, Matthew J. Ferrari, Andrew W. Park & Suzanne M. O’Regan
In 2014, a major epidemic of human Ebola virus disease emerged in West Africa, where human-to-human transmission has now been sustained for greater than 12 months. In the summer of 2014, there was great uncertainty about the answers to several key policy questions concerning the path to containment. What is the relative importance of nosocomial transmission compared with community-acquired infection? How much must hospital capacity increase to provide care for the anticipated patient burden? To...

Data from: Population genetics of Setaria viridis, a new model system

Pu Huang, Maximilian Feldman, Stephan Schroder, Bochra A. Bahri, Xianmin Diao, Hui Zhi, Matt Estep, Ivan Baxter, Katrien M. Devos & Elizabeth A. Kellogg
An extensive survey of the standing genetic variation in natural populations is among the priority steps in developing a species into a model system. In recent years, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), along with its domesticated form foxtail millet (S. italica), has rapidly become a promising new model system for C4 grasses and bioenergy crops, due to its rapid life cycle, large amount of seed production, and small diploid genome, among other characters. However, remarkably little...

Data from: Adaptive evolution and environmental durability jointly structure phylodynamic patterns in avian influenza viruses

Benjamin Roche, John M. Drake, Justin Brown, David E. Stallknecht, Trevor Bedford & Pejman Rohani
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker...

Data from: Tree phenology responses to winter chilling, spring warming, at north and south range limits

James S. Clarke, Carl Salk, Jerry M. Melillo, Jacqueline Mohan & James S. Clark
Increases in primary production may occur if plants respond to climate warming with prolonged growing seasons, but not if local adaptation, cued by photoperiod, limits phenological advance. It has been hypothesized that trees with diffuse porous xylem anatomy and early successional species may respond most to warming. Within species, northern populations may respond most due to the fact that growing seasons are relatively short. Species most sensitive to spring temperature may show little overall response...

Data from: Life history costs make perfect sprouting maladaptive in two herbaceous perennials

Richard P. Shefferson, Robert J. Warren & H. Ronald Pulliam
1.Why some herbaceous plant species refrain from sprouting in some years is a longstanding puzzle in plant ecology. When vegetatively “dormant”, the plant lives as a rootstock, but does not produce or maintain photosynthetic tissue. During this time, energy may be remobilized from resource reserves, or acquired from mycorrhizal fungi, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. If vegetative dormancy is adaptive, it may be in response to a harsh environment, to life history costs,...

Data from: Speciation and introgression between Mimulus nasutus and Mimulus guttatus

Yaniv Brandvain, Amanda M. Kenney, Lex Flagel, Graham Coop & Andrea L. Sweigart
Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus are an evolutionary and ecological model sister species pair differentiated by ecology, mating system, and partial reproductive isolation. Despite extensive research on this system, the history of divergence and differentiation in this sister pair is unclear. We present and analyze a population genomic data set which shows that M. nasutus budded from a central Californian M. guttatus population within the last 200 to 500 thousand years. In this time, the...

Data from: A target enrichment method for gathering phylogenetic information from hundreds of loci: an example from the Compositae

Jennifer R. Mandel, Rebecca B. Dikow, Vicki A. Funk, Rishi R. Masalia, S. Evan Staton, Alex Kozik, Richard W. Michelmore, Loren H. Rieseberg & John M. Burke
Premise of the study: The Compositae (Asteraceae) are a large and diverse family of plants, and the most comprehensive phylogeny to date is a meta-tree based on 10 chloroplast loci that has several major unresolved nodes. We describe the development of an approach that enables the rapid sequencing of large numbers of orthologous nuclear loci to facilitate efficient phylogenomic analyses. Methods and Results: We designed a set of sequence capture probes that target conserved orthologous...

Data from: The whitefly-associated facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa suppresses induced plant defences in tomato

Qi Su, Kerry M. Oliver, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang & Youjun Zhang
1. Maternally inherited bacterial symbionts are present in many, if not most, insect species. While there is rapidly accumulating evidence that facultative, heritable symbionts often protect insect hosts from natural enemies, there have been few clear examples where facultative symbionts mediate herbivore–plant interactions. 2. The phloem-feeding whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a major agricultural pest that frequently harbours facultative symbionts, including Hamiltonella defensa. While H. defensa and other facultative symbionts have been shown to improve whitefly...

Data from: Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations

Andrew W. Park, Jochen Vandekerkhove, Yannis Michalakis, A. W. Park, Y. Michalakis & J. Vandekerkhove
Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens can have either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to co-exist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in...

Data from: Genus-wide microsatellite primers for the goldenrods (Solidago; Asteraceae)

James B. Beck, John C. Semple, Justin M. Brull, Stacey L. Lance, Mai M. Phillips, Sara B. Hoot & Gretchen A. Meyer
Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for studies of polyploid evolution, ecological genetics, conservation genetics, and species delimitation in the genus Solidago. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing of a shotgun library from S. gigantea identified ca. 1900 putative single-copy loci. Fourteen loci were subsequently shown to be amplifiable, single-copy, and variable in a broad range of Solidago species. Conclusions: The utility of these markers both across the genus and in herbarium specimens of...

Data from: Assessing the in situ fertilization status of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani; how common are unfertilized eggs in nature?

Rachel S. Lasley-Rasher, Andrew M. Kramer, Victoria Burdett-Coutts & Jeannette Yen
We utilized an egg staining technique to measure the in situ fertilization success of two marine copepod species, Temora longicornis and Eurytemora herdmani from May to October 2008 in coastal Maine and correlated fertilization success with environmental conditions in their habitat. T. longicornis is a free spawning species that releases eggs into the ambient seawater after mating. In contrast, E. herdmani carries eggs in an egg sac until they hatch. The proportion of fertilized eggs...

Data from: Temperature variability and moisture synergistically interact to exacerbate an epizootic disease

Thomas R. Raffel, Neal T. Halstead, Taegan A. McMahon, Andrew K. Davis, Jason R. Rohr, A. K. Davis, N. T. Halstead, J. R. Rohr, T. R. Raffel & T. A. McMahon
Climate change is altering global patterns of precipitation and temperature variability, with implications for parasitic diseases of humans and wildlife. A recent study confirmed predictions that increased temperature variability could exacerbate disease, because of lags in host acclimation following temperature shifts. However, the generality of these host acclimation effects and the potential for them to interact with other factors have yet to be tested. Here, we report similar effects of host thermal acclimation (constant versus...

Data from: Population size-structure dependent fitness and ecosystem consequences in Trinidadian guppies

Ronald D. Bassar, Heatherly II, Thomas, Michael C. Marshall, Steven A. Thomas, Alexander S. Flecker, David N. Reznick & Thomas Heatherly
1. Decades of theory and recent empirical results have shown that evolutionary, population, community and ecosystem properties are the result of feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. The vast majority of theory and empirical research on these eco-evolutionary feedbacks has focused on interactions among population size and mean traits of populations. 2. However, numbers and mean traits represent only a fraction of the possible feedback dimensions. Populations of many organisms consist of different size classes...

Data from: Are species differences in maternal effects arising from maternal care adaptive?

Kyle M. Benowitz, Katherine J. Moody, Allen J. Moore, K. M. Benowitz, K. J. Moody & A. J. Moore
Parental care benefits offspring through maternal effects influencing their development, growth and survival. However, although parental care in general is likely the result of adaptive evolution, it does not follow that specific differences in the maternal effects that arise from care are also adaptive. Here, we used an interspecific cross-fostering design in the burying beetle species Nicrophorus orbicollis and N. vespilloides, both of which have elaborate parental care involving direct feeding of regurgitated food to...

Data from: Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments

Stephanie R. Gillespie, M. Scarlett Tudor, Allen J. Moore, Christine W. Miller & M. Scarlett Tudor
Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised...

Data from: Leaf litter nutrient uptake in an intermittent blackwater river: influence of tree species and associated biotic and abiotic drivers

Andrew S. Mehring, Kevin A. Kuehn, Aaron Thompson, Catherine M. Pringle, Amy D. Rosemond, Matthew R. First, R. R. Lowrance, George Vellidis & R Richard Lowrance
1. Organic matter may sequester nutrients as it decomposes, increasing in total N and P mass via multiple uptake pathways. During leaf litter decomposition, microbial biomass and accumulated inorganic materials immobilize and retain nutrients, and therefore, both biotic and abiotic drivers may influence detrital nutrient content. We examined the relative importance of these types of nutrient immobilization and compared patterns of nutrient retention in recalcitrant and labile leaf litter. 2. Leaf packs of water oak...

Data from: Loss of migratory behavior increases infection risk for a butterfly host

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Sonia Altizer, S. Altizer, J. C. Maerz & D. A. Satterfield
Long-distance animal migrations have important consequences for infectious disease dynamics. In some cases, migration lowers pathogen transmission by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys and allowing animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats. Human activities are now causing some migratory animals to travel shorter distances or form sedentary (non-migratory) populations. We focused on North American monarch butterflies and a specialist protozoan parasite to investigate how the loss of migratory behaviours affects pathogen spread and evolution. Each...

Data from: Determining population structure and hybridization for two iris species

Jennafer A. P. Hamlin & Michael L. Arnold
Identifying processes that promote or limit gene flow can help define the ecological and evolutionary history of a species. Furthermore, defining those factors that make up “species boundaries” can provide a definition of the independent evolutionary trajectories of related taxa. For many species, the historic processes that account for their distribution of genetic variation remain unresolved. In this study, we examine the geographic distribution of genetic diversity for two species of Louisiana Irises, Iris brevicaulis...

Data from: Serial founder effects and genetic differentiation during worldwide range expansion of monarch butterflies

Amanda A. Pierce, Myron P. Zalucki, Marie Bangura, Milan Udawatta, Marcus R. Kronforst, Sonia Altizer, Juan Fernández Haeger, Jacobus C. De Roode, S. Altizer, M. P. Zalucki, M. Bangura, J. C. De Roode, A. A. Pierce, M. Udawatta & M. R. Kronforst
Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a long-distance annual migration in North America, but have also dispersed around the world to form populations that do not migrate or travel...

Data from: From refugia to rookeries: phylogeography of Atlantic green turtles

Eugenia Naro-Maciel, Brendan N. Reid, S. Elizabeth Alter, George Amato, Karen A. Bjorndal, Alan B. Bolten, Meredith Martin, Campbell J. Nairn, Brian Shamblin & Oscar Pineda-Catalan
Investigating species’ distribution and abundance over time is central to evolutionary biology, and provides important context for conservation and management. With respect to population genetic structure in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), certain processes such as female philopatry to natal rookeries are well understood, while others, such as male philopatry and historical changes in distribution and abundance, remain relatively understudied. Further, although inferences from mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites have both been critical in identifying...

Data from: Predator-prey trophic relationships in response to organic management practices

Jason M. Schmidt, Sarah K. Barney, Mark A. Williams, Ricardo T. Bessin, Timothy W. Coolong & James D. Harwood
A broad range of environmental conditions likely regulate predator-prey population dynamics and impact the structure of these communities. Central to understanding the interplay between predator and prey populations and their importance is characterizing the corresponding trophic interactions. Here we use a well-documented molecular approach to examine the structure of the community of natural enemies preying upon the squash bug, Anasa tristis, a herbivorous cucurbit pest that severely hinders organic squash and pumpkin production in the...

Data from: Multivariate adaptation but no increase in competitive ability in invasive Geranium carolinianum L. (Geraniaceae)

Rebecca Yukiko Shirk, James L. Hamrick & Rebecca Y. Shirk
Adaptive evolution can affect the successful establishment of invasive species, but changes in selective pressures, loss of genetic variation in relevant traits, and/or altered trait correlations can make adaptation difficult to predict. We used a common-garden experiment to assess trait correlations and patterns of adaptation in the invasive plant, Geranium carolinianum, sampled across 20 populations in its native (US) and invasive (China) ranges. We used multivariate QST – FST tests to determine if phenotypic differences...

Data from: Reinforcement shapes clines in female mate discrimination in Drosophila subquinaria

Emily R. Bewick & Kelly A. Dyer
Reinforcement of species boundaries may alter mate recognition in a way that also affects patterns of mate preference among conspecific populations. In the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females sympatric with the closely related species D. recens reject mating with heterospecific males as well as with conspecific males from allopatric populations. Here we assess geographic variation in behavioral isolation within and among populations of D. subquinaria and use cline theory to understand patterns of selection on reinforced...

Data from: Infectious disease transmission and behavioral allometry in wild mammals

Barbara A. Han, Andrew W. Park, Anna Jolles, Sonia Altizer & Anna E. Jolles
1. Animal social and movement behaviors can impact the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases, especially for pathogens transmitted through close contact between hosts or through contact with infectious stages in the environment. 2. Estimating pathogen transmission rates and R0 from natural systems can be challenging. Because host behavioral traits that underlie the transmission process vary predictably with body size, one of the best-studied traits among animals, body size might therefore also predict variation in parasite...

Data from: Subtype diversity and reassortment potential for co-circulating avian influenza viruses at a diversity hot spot

Heather D. Barton, Pejman Rohani, David E. Stallknecht, Justin Brown & John M. Drake
1. Biological diversity has long been used to measure ecological health. While evidence exists from many ecosystems that declines in host biodiversity may lead to greater risk of disease emergence, the role of pathogen diversity in the emergence process remains poorly understood. Particularly, because a more diverse pool of pathogen types provides more ways in which evolutionary innovations may arise, we suggest that host–pathogen systems with high pathogen diversity are more prone to disease emergence...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Georgia
  • University of Florida
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • University of California System
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • University of California, Davis
  • Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
  • City University of New York
  • University of Tampa
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Wichita State University
  • Duke University
  • University of Queensland
  • Oregon State University