57 Works

Data from: The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Neva B. Hope, John P. Wares & Christine Ewers
Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating...

Data from: Local adaptation of fish consumers alters primary production through changes in algal community composition and diversity

Ron D. Bassar, Brynne L. Bryan, Michael C. Marshall, Catherine M. Pringle, David N. Reznick, Joseph Travis & Ronald D. Bassar
Ecological research has focused on understanding how changes in consumer abundance affect community structure and ecosystem processes. However, there is increasing evidence that evolutionary changes in consumers can also alter community structure and ecosystem processes. Typically, the effects of consumer phenotype on communities and ecosystem processes are measured as net effects that integrate numerous ecological pathways. Here, we analyze new data from experimental manipulations of Trinidadian guppy Poecilia reticulata presence, density and phenotype to examine...

Data from: Fitness costs of herbicide resistance across natural populations of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

Megan L. Van Etten, Adam Kuester, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Although fitness costs associated with plant defensive traits are widely expected, they are not universally detected, calling into question their generality. Here we examine the potential for life history trade-offs associated with herbicide resistance by examining seed germination, root growth, and above-ground growth across 43 naturally occurring populations of Ipomoea purpurea that vary in their resistance to RoundUp®, the most commonly used herbicide worldwide. We find evidence for life history trade-offs associated with all three...

Data from: MycoDB, a global database of plant response to mycorrhizal fungi

V. Bala Chaudhary, Megan A. Rúa, Anita Antoninka, James D. Bever, Jeffery Cannon, Ashley Craig, Jessica Duchicela, Alicia Frame, Monique Gardes, Catherine Gehring, Michelle Ha, Miranda Hart, Jacob Hopkins, Baoming Ji, Nancy Collins Johnson, Wittaya Kaonongbua, Justine Karst, Roger T. Koide, Louis J. Lamit, James Meadow, Brook G. Milligan, John C. Moore, , Bridget Piculell, Blake Ramsby … & Jason D. Hoeksema
Plants form belowground associations with mycorrhizal fungi in one of the most common symbioses on Earth. However, few large-scale generalizations exist for the structure and function of mycorrhizal symbioses, as the nature of this relationship varies from mutualistic to parasitic and is largely context-dependent. We announce the public release of MycoDB, a database of 4,010 studies (from 438 unique publications) to aid in multi-factor meta-analyses elucidating the ecological and evolutionary context in which mycorrhizal fungi...

Data from: Specificity of multi-modal aphid defenses against two rival parasitoids

Adam J. Martinez, Kyungsun L. Kim, Jason P. Harmon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects are often attacked by multiple natural enemies, imposing dynamic selective pressures for the development and maintenance of enemy-specific resistance. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have emerged as models for the study of variation in resistance against natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps. Internal defenses against their most common parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi, are sourced through two known mechanisms– 1) endogenously encoded resistance or 2) infection with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa. Levels of resistance can...

Data from: Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour

Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Matthew H. Snider
Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioral and life-history variation among hosts. Although it’s well-known that host behavior can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behavior, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behavior on parasites and parasites on behavior to understand whether behavior-parasite feedback could play a role...

Data from: Development of microsatellite markers for buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides; Poaceae), a drought-tolerant turfgrass alternative

Jacob J. Hadle, Lauren A. Konrade, Rochelle R. Beasley, Stacey L. Lance, Kenneth L. Jones & James B. Beck
Premise of the study: Buchloë dactyloides is an important component of Great Plains prairies and a popular drought-tolerant turfgrass alternative in North America. This species comprises an autopolyploid series, and microsatellite primers were developed in order to understand the distribution of genetic variation among cytotypes and across its large geographic range. Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite loci were designed and successfully amplified in six B. dactyloides populations. Within-population genetic diversity was comparatively high, consistent with...

Data from: Reproductive isolation and introgression between sympatric Mimulus species

Amanda M. Kenney & Andrea L. Sweigart
Incompletely isolated species provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain distinct species in the face of ongoing gene flow. Here, we use field surveys and reduced representation sequencing to characterize the patterns of reproductive isolation, admixture and genomic divergence between populations of the outcrossing wildflower Mimulus guttatus and selfing M. nasutus. Focusing on a single site where these two species have come into secondary contact, we find that phenological...

Data from: Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

Lillian L. M. Shapiro, Courtney C. Murdock, Gregory R. Jacobs, Rachel J. Thomas & Matthew B. Thomas
Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing...

Data from: Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

Thomas R. Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, Katherine L. Thompson, Shishir K. Biswas, Zak Clare-Salzler, John M. Kimani, Stephen G. Kiama, Jeramiah J. Smith, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Ashley W. Seifert
Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer’ mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size,...

Data from: Shifts in outcrossing rates and changes to floral traits are associated with the evolution of herbicide resistance in the common morning glory

Adam Kuester, Eva Fall, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Human-mediated selection can strongly influence the evolutionary response of natural organisms within ecological timescales. But what traits allow for, or even facilitate, adaptation to the strong selection humans impose on natural systems? Using a combination of laboratory and greenhouse studies of 32 natural populations of the common agricultural weed, Ipomoea purpurea, we show that herbicide-resistant populations self-fertilise more than susceptible populations. We likewise show that anther–stigma distance, a floral trait associated with self-fertilisation in this...

Data from: Diversity of seeds captured by interception exceeds diversity of seeds deposited in traps

Judy L. Stone, Ryan Malloy & Greg Murray
Seed dispersal, a key process in terrestrial landscapes, is increasingly important in the face of habitat fragmentation and global climate change. Seed dispersal is also notoriously difficult to characterize, especially in species rich and spatially complex tropical forests. We contrasted assemblages of biotically dispersed seeds collected from four sites using two methods: deposition into seed traps and interception by the capture of frugivorous birds. We also compared seed deposition and interception with local fruit production....

Data from: The contribution of marine aggregate-associated bacteria to the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria in oysters: an agent-based model

Andrew M. Kramer, J. Evan Ward, Fred C. Dobbs, Melissa L. Pierce & John M. Drake
Bivalves process large volumes of water, leading to their accumulation of bacteria, including potential human pathogens (e.g., vibrios). These bacteria are captured at low efficiencies when freely suspended in the water column, but they also attach to marine aggregates, which are captured with near 100% efficiency. For this reason, and because they are often enriched with heterotrophic bacteria, marine aggregates have been hypothesized to function as important transporters of bacteria into bivalves. The relative contribution...

Data from: MonotomidGen – A matrix-based interactive key to the New World genera of Monotomidae (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea)

Thomas C. McElrath, Olivia F. Boyd & Joseph V. McHugh
A matrix-based Lucid key is presented for the twelve genera of Monotomidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) represented in the New World. A general overview is given for the features and technical specifications of an original interactive key for the identification of these genera. The list of terminal taxa included with the key provides a current summary of monotomid generic diversity for the Nearctic and Neotropical regions.

Data from: Inbreeding depression and drift load in small populations at demographic disequilibrium

Rachel B. Spigler, Konstantinos Theodorou & Shu-Mei Chang
Inbreeding depression is a major driver of mating system evolution and has critical implications for population viability. Theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to predicting how inbreeding depression varies with population size. Lower inbreeding depression is predicted in small populations at equilibrium, primarily due to higher inbreeding rates facilitating purging and/or fixation of deleterious alleles (drift load), but predictions at demographic and genetic disequilibrium are less clear. In this study, we experimentally evaluate how...

Data from: Does movement behaviour predict population densities? a test with 25 butterfly species

Cheryl B. Schultz, B. Guy Pe'er, Christine Damiani, Leone Brown & Elizabeth E. Crone
Diffusion, which approximates a correlated random walk, has been used by ecologists to describe movement, and forms the basis for many theoretical models. However, it is often criticized as too simple a model to describe animal movement in real populations. We test a key prediction of diffusion models, namely, that animals should be more abundant in land cover classes through which they move more slowly. This relationship between density and diffusion has rarely been tested...

Data from: Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo

Brian Henrichs, Marinda C. Oosthuizen, Milana Troskie, Erin Gorsich, Carmen Gondhalekar, Brianna Beechler, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Anna E. Jolles & Brianna R. Beechler
1. Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. 2. A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free-ranging hosts. 3. This four year...

Data from: The role of neuropeptide F in a transition to parental care

Christopher B. Cunningham, Kathryn VanDenHeuvel, Daven B. Khana, Elizabeth C. McKinney & Allen J. Moore
The genetics of complex social behaviour can be dissected by examining the genetic influences of component pathways, which can be predicted based on expected evolutionary precursors. Here, we examine how gene expression in a pathway that influences the motivation to eat is altered during parental care that involves direct feeding of larvae. We examine the expression of neuropeptide F, and its receptor, in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, which feeds pre-digested carrion to its begging...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of an Allee effect in microbial populations

RajReni B. Kaul, Andrew M. Kramer, Fred C. Dobbs & John M. Drake
Microbial populations can be dispersal limited. However, microorganisms that successfully disperse into physiologically ideal environments are not guaranteed to establish. This observation contradicts the Baas-Becking tenet: ‘Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects’. Allee effects, which manifest in the relationship between initial population density and probability of establishment, could explain this observation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that small populations of Vibrio fischeri are subject to an intrinsic demographic Allee effect. Populations subjected to predation by...

Data from: Postural stability margins as a function of support surface slopes

Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder, Seymon M. Slobounov, John Henry Challis & Karl Maxim Newell
This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe) Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe) Up) and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure—CoP (displacement, area and length) had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat) platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both...

Data from: Likelihood-based parameter estimation for high-dimensional phylogenetic comparative models: overcoming the limitations of 'distance-based' methods

Eric W. Goolsby
Recently, a suite of distance-based multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods has been proposed for studying the evolution of high-dimensional traits, such as morphometric coordinates, gene expression data, and function-valued traits. These methods allow for the statistical comparison of evolutionary rates, assessment of phylogenetic signal, and tests of correlated high-dimensional trait evolution. Simulations reveal that distance-based comparative methods exhibit low statistical power and high Type I error under various evolutionary scenarios. Distance-based methods are also limited to...

Data from: Malaria transmission potential could be reduced with current and future climate change

Courtney C. Murdock, Eleanore D. Sternberg & Matthew B. Thomas
Several studies suggest the potential for climate change to increase malaria incidence in cooler, marginal transmission environments. However, the effect of increasing temperature in warmer regions where conditions currently support endemic transmission has received less attention. We investigate how increases in temperature from optimal conditions (27 °C to 30 °C and 33 °C) interact with realistic diurnal temperature ranges (DTR: ± 0 °C, 3 °C, and 4.5 °C) to affect the ability of key vector...

Data from: RADcap: sequence capture of dual-digest RADseq libraries with identifiable duplicates and reduced missing data

Sandra L. Hoffberg, Troy J. Kieran, Julian M. Catchen, Alison Devault, Brant C. Faircloth, Rodney Mauricio & Travis C. Glenn
Molecular ecologists seek to genotype hundreds to thousands of loci from hundreds to thousands of individuals at minimal cost per sample. Current methods, such as restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and sequence capture, are constrained by costs associated with inefficient use of sequencing data and sample preparation. Here, we introduce RADcap, an approach that combines the major benefits of RADseq (low cost with specific start positions) with those of sequence capture (repeatable sequencing of...

Data from: The evolution of adult light emission color in North American fireflies

David W. Hall, Sarah E. Sander, Jennifer C. Pallansch & Kathrin F. Stanger-Hall
Firefly species (Lampyridae) vary in the color of their adult bioluminescence. It has been hypothesized that color is selected to enhance detection by conspecifics. One mechanism to improve visibility of the signal is to increase contrast against ambient light. High contrast implies that fireflies active early in the evening will emit yellower luminescence to contrast against ambient light reflected from green vegetation, especially in habitats with high vegetation cover. Another mechanism to improve visibility is...

Data from: Invasion of novel habitats uncouples haplo-diplontic life cycles

Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield, Nicole M. Kollars, James E. Byers, Thomas W. Greig, Mareike Hammann, David C. Murray, Courtney J. Murren, Allan E. Strand, Ryuta Terada, Florian Weinberger & Erik E. Sotka
Baker's Law predicts uniparental reproduction will facilitate colonization success in novel habitats. While evidence supports this prediction among colonizing plants and animals, few studies have investigated shifts in reproductive mode in haplo-diplontic species in which both prolonged haploid and diploid stages separate meiosis and fertilization in time and space. Due to this separation, asexual reproduction can yield the dominance of one of the ploidy stages in colonizing populations. We tested for shifts in ploidy and...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Georgia
  • Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Missouri
  • Oregon State University
  • University of North Carolina
  • University of Alberta
  • Australian National University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Tasmania