45 Works

Data from: Parasitoid gene expression changes after adaptation to symbiont-protected hosts

Alice B. Dennis, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver & Christoph Vorburger
Reciprocal selection between aphids, their protective endosymbionts, and the parasitoid wasps that prey upon them offers an opportunity to study the basis of their coevolution. We investigated adaptation to symbiont-conferred defense by rearing the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum on aphids (Aphis fabae) possessing different defensive symbiont strains (Hamiltonella defensa). After ten generations of experimental evolution, wasps showed increased abilities to parasitize aphids possessing the H. defensa strain they evolved with, but not aphids possessing the...

Data from: Long-term monitoring data provide evidence of declining species richness in a river valued for biodiversity conservation

Mary C. Freeman, Megan M. Hagler, Phillip M. Bumpers, Kit Wheeler, Seth J. Wenger, Bryan J. Freeman & Byron J. Freeman
Free-flowing river segments provide refuges for many imperiled aquatic biota that have been extirpated elsewhere in their native ranges. These biodiversity refuges are also foci of conservation concerns because species persisting within isolated habitat fragments may be particularly vulnerable to local environmental change. We have analyzed long-term (14- and 20-year) survey data to assess evidence of fish species declines in two southeastern U.S. rivers where managers and stakeholders have identified potentially detrimental impacts of current...

Data from: Range-wide and regional patterns of population structure and genetic diversity in the gopher tortoise

Daniel Gaillard, Joshua R. Ennen, Brian R. Kreiser, Carl P. Qualls, Sarah C. Sweat, Roger Birkhead, Tracey D. Tuberville, Matthew Aresco, Earl D. McCoy, Henry R. Mushinsky, Thomas W. Hentges, D. Gaillard, B.R. Kreiser, C.P. Qualls, R. Birkhead, T.D. Tuberville, E.D. McCoy, H.R. Mushinsky & T.W. Hentges
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has experienced dramatic population declines throughout its distribution in the southeastern United States and is federally listed as threatened in the area west of the Tombigbee-Mobile Rivers. While there is molecular support for recognizing the listed portion of the range as genetically distinct, other research has suggested that additional population structure exists at both range-wide and regional scales. In this study, we sought to comprehensively define structure at both spatial...

Data from: Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease

Courtney C. Murdock, Michelle V. Evans, Taylor D. McClanahan, Kerri L. Miazgowicz & Blanka Tesla
Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of...

Data from: Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

Jonathan Corbi, Eric J. Baack, Jennifer M. Dechaine, Gerald Seiler & John M. Burke
Crop-wild hybridization occurs in numerous plant species, and could alter the genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of wild populations. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assessing/mitigating the risks associated with transgene escape. To date, crop-wild hybridization has generally been examined via short-term studies, typically within a single generation, focusing on few traits or genetic markers. Little is known about patterns of selection on crop-derived alleles over multiple generations, particularly at a...

Data from: Conflicting evolutionary histories of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in New World Myotis bats

Platt II., Roy N., Brant C. Faircloth, Kevin A.M. Sullivan, Troy J. Kieran, Travis C. Glenn, Michael W. Vandewege, Lee Jr., Thomas E., Robert J. Baker, Richard D. Stevens, David A. Ray, Thomas E Lee, Brant C Faircloth, Roy N Platt, Kevin A M Sullivan, Michael W Vandewege, Robert J Baker, David A Ray, Troy J Kieran, Travis C Glenn & Richard D Stevens
The rapid diversification of Myotis bats into more than 100 species is one of the most extensive mammalian radiations available for study. Efforts to understand relationships within Myotis have primarily utilized mitochondrial markers and trees inferred from nuclear markers lacked resolution. Our current understanding of relationships within Myotis is therefore biased towards a set of phylogenetic markers that may not reflect the history of the nuclear genome. To resolve this, we sequenced the full mitochondrial...

Data from: Genetic identification of source and likely vector of a widespread marine invader

Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield, Nicole M. Kollars, Allan E. Strand, James E. Byers, Sarah J. Shainker, Ryuta Terada, Thomas W. Greig, Marieke Hammann, David C. Murray, Florian Weinberger & Erik E. Sotka
The identification of native sources and vectors of introduced species informs its ecological and evolutionary history and may guide policies that seek to prevent future introductions. Population genetics represents a powerful set of tools to identify origins and vectors, but can mislead when the native range is poorly sampled or few molecular markers are used. Here, we traced the introduction of the Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) into estuaries in coastal western North America, the...

Data from: Naturally-occurring changes in social-cognitive factors modify change in physical activity during early adolescence

Rodney K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda, Kerry L. McIver, Ruth P. Saunders, Russell R. Pate & Rod K. Dishman
Purpose. To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in children's motives and beliefs are associated with the steep decline in physical activity observed from childhood to early adolescence. Methods. Latent growth modeling was applied in longitudinal tests of social-cognitive influences, and their interactions, on physical activity in a large cohort of boys and girls evaluated annually between 5th and 7th grades. Results. Measurement equivalence of motives and beliefs was confirmed between boys and girls. After adjustment for...

Data from: Big biology meets microclimatology: Defining thermal niches of ectotherms at landscape scales for conservation planning

Daniel J. Isaak, Seth J. Wenger & Michael K. Young
Temperature profoundly affects ecology, a fact ever more evident as the ability to measure thermal environments increases and global changes alter these environments. The spatial structure of thermalscapes is especially relevant to the distribution and abundance of ectothermic organisms but the ability to describe biothermal relationships at extents and grains relevant to conservation planning has been limited by small or sparse datasets. Here, we combine a large occurrence database of >23,000 aquatic species surveys with...

Data from: Accuracy of climate-based forecasts of pathogen spread

Annakate M. Schatz, Andrew M. Kramer & John M. Drake
Species distribution models (SDMs) are a tool for predicting the eventual geographical range of an emerging pathogen. Most SDMs, however, rely on an assumption of equilibrium with the environment, which an emerging pathogen, by definition, has not reached. To determine if some SDM approaches work better than others for modelling the spread of emerging, non-equilibrium pathogens, we studied time-sensitive predictive performance of SDMs for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a devastating infectious fungus of amphibians, using multiple methods...

Data from: Extensive genetic diversity is present within North American switchgrass germplasm

Joseph Evans, Millicent D. Sanciangco, Kin H. Lau, Emily Crisovan, Kerrie Barry, Chris Daum, Hope Hundley, Jerry Jenkins, Megan Kennedy, Govindarajan Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Ananta Acharya, Jeremy Schmutz, Malay Saha, Shawn M. Kaeppler, E. Charles Brummer, Michael D. Casler & C. Robin Buell
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial native North American grass present in two ecotypes: upland, found primarily in the northern range of switchgrass habitats, and lowland, found largely in the southern reaches of switchgrass habitats. Previous studies focused on a diversity panel of primarily northern switchgrass, so to expand our knowledge of genetic diversity in a broader set of North American switchgrass, exome capture sequence data were generated for 632 additional, primarily lowland individuals....

Data from: Competitive response of savanna tree seedlings to C4 grasses is negatively related to photosynthesis rate

Tracy A. Campbell & Ricardo M. Holdo
Savanna tree species vary in the magnitude of their response to grass competition, but the functional traits that explain this variation remain largely unknown. To address this gap, we grew seedlings of 10 savanna tree species with and without grasses in a controlled greenhouse experiment. We found strong interspecific differences in tree competitive response, which was positively related to photosynthesis rates, suggesting a trade-off between the ability to grow well under conditions of low and...

Data from: Predictors and immunological correlates of sublethal mercury exposure in vampire bats

Daniel J. Becker, Matthew M. Chumchal, Alexandra B. Bentz, Steven G. Platt, Gábor A. Czirják, Thomas R. Rainwater, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive heavy metal that often enters the environment from anthropogenic sources such as gold mining and agriculture. Chronic exposure to Hg can impair immune function, reducing the ability of animals to resist or recover from infections. How Hg influences immunity and susceptibility remains unknown for bats, which appear immunologically distinct from other mammals and are reservoir hosts of many pathogens of importance to human and animal health. We here quantify total...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: When environmental factors become stressors: interactive effects of vermetid gastropods and sedimentation on corals

Julie Zill, Michael A. Gil, Craig W. Osenberg & Julie A. Zill
Environmental stressors often interact, but most studies of multiple stressors have focused on combinations of abiotic stressors. Here we examined the potential interaction between a biotic stressor, the vermetid snail Ceraesignum maximum, and an abiotic stressor, high sedimentation, on the growth of reef-building corals. In a field experiment, we subjected juvenile massive Porites corals to four treatments: (i) neither stressor, (ii) sedimentation, (iii) vermetids or (iv) both stressors. Unexpectedly, we found no effect of either...

Data from: Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia

Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Paves & Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic...

Data from: Breakdown of a defensive symbiosis, but not endogenous defenses, at elevated temperatures

Matthew R. Doremus, Andrew H. Smith, Kyungsun L. Kim, Angela J. Holder, Jacob A. Russell & Kerry M. Oliver
Environmental factors, including temperature, can have large effects on species interactions, including mutualisms and antagonisms. Most insect species are infected with heritable bacterial symbionts with many protecting their hosts from natural enemies. However, many symbionts or their products are thermally sensitive hence their effectiveness may vary across a range of temperatures. In the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa, and its associated APSE bacteriophages confer resistance to this aphid's dominant parasitoid, Aphidius...

Data from: Influenza A virus: sampling of the unique shorebird habitat at Delaware Bay, USA

Rebecca L. Poulson, Page M. Luttrell, Morgan J. Slusher, Benjamin R. Wilcox, Lawrence J. Niles, Amanda D. Dey, Roy D. Berghaus, Scott Krauss, Robert G. Webster & David E. Stallknecht
Delaware (DE) Bay, in the northeastern United States, has long been recognized as a hotspot for avian influenza A virus (IAV); every spring, this coastal region serves as a brief stopover site for thousands of long-distance migrating shorebirds, en route to breeding grounds in the Arctic. During these stopovers, IAV have been consistently recovered from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that are likely to become infected as they feed by probing sand and cobble in search...

Data from: Contrasting complexity of adjacent habitats influences the strength of cascading predatory effects

James E. Byers, Zachary C. Holmes & Jennafer C. Malek
Although cascading effects of top predators can help structure communities, their influence may vary across habitats that differentially protect prey. Therefore, to understand how and to what degree habitat complexity can affect trophic interactions in adjacent habitats, we used a combination of a broad regional-scale survey, manipulative field trials, and an outdoor mesocosm experiment to quantify predator–prey interaction strengths across four trophic levels. Within estuaries of the southeastern USA, bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) hunt blue...

Data from: Early antiretroviral therapy and potent second-line drugs could decrease HIV incidence of drug resistance

Mingwang Shen, Yanni Xiao, Libin Rong, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Steve E. Bellan & Steven E. Bellan
Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of drug-sensitive HIV transmission but may increase the transmission of drug-resistant HIV. We used a mathematical model to estimate the long-term population-level benefits of ART and determine the scenarios under which earlier ART (treatment at 1 year post-infection, on average) could decrease simultaneously both total and drug-resistant HIV incidence (new infections). We constructed an infection-age-structured mathematical model that tracked the transmission rates over the course of...

Data from: Combined effects of night warming and light pollution on predator-prey interactions

Colleen R. Miller, Brandon T. Barton, Likai Zhu, Volker C. Radeloff, Kerry M. Oliver, Jason P. Harmon & Anthony R. Ives
Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness. However, for the more-visual...

Data from: Soil microbial communities alter leaf chemistry and influence allelopathic potential among coexisting plant species

Scott J. Meiners, Kelsey K. Phipps, Pendergast IV, Thomas H., Thomas Canam, Walter P. Carson & Thomas H. Pendergast
While both plant–soil feedbacks and allelochemical interactions are key drivers of plant community dynamics, the potential for these two drivers to interact with each other remains largely unexplored. If soil microbes influence allelochemical production, this would represent a novel dimension of heterogeneity in plant–soil feedbacks. To explore the linkage between soil microbial communities and plant chemistry, we experimentally generated soil microbial communities and evaluated their impact on leaf chemical composition and allelopathic potential. Four native...

Data from: Aphid symbionts and endogenous resistance traits mediate competition between rival parasitoids

Laura J. Kraft, James Kopco, Jason P. Harmon & Kerry M. Oliver
Insects use endogenous mechanisms and infection with protective symbionts to thwart attacks from natural enemies. Defenses that target specific enemies, however, potentially mediate competition between rivals and thereby impact community composition. Following its introduction to North America to control pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the parasitoid Aphidius ervi competitively displaced other parasitoids, except for the native Praon pequodorum. The pea aphid exhibits tremendous clonal variation in resistance to A. ervi, primarily through infection with the heritable...

Data from: Conservation genetics of the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi): river valleys are critical features for snakes at northern range limits

Christopher M. Somers, Carly F. Graham, Jessica A. Martino, Timothy R. Frasier, Stacey L. Lance, Laura E. Gardiner & Ray G. Poulin
On the North American Great Plains, several snake species reach their northern range limit where they rely on sparsely distributed hibernacula located in major river valleys. Independent colonization histories for the river valleys and barriers to gene flow caused by the lack of suitable habitat between them may have produced genetically differentiated snake populations. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 microsatellite loci to examine the population structure of two species of conservation concern in...

Data from: Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species

Ellen Cheng, Karen E. Hodges, Rahel Sollmann & L. Scott Mills
Understanding population dynamics requires reliable estimates of population density, yet this basic information is often surprisingly difficult to obtain. With rare or difficult-to-capture species, genetic surveys from noninvasive collection of hair or scat has proved cost-efficient for estimating densities. Here, we explored whether noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) also offers promise for sampling a relatively common species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777), in comparison with traditional live trapping. We optimized a protocol for single-session...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Georgia
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Montana
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • University of Glasgow
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Regina
  • Mississippi State University
  • North Dakota State University
  • Michigan State University
  • University of Kansas
  • Abilene Christian University
  • Plymouth University