57 Works

Data from: Individual variation in the transmission of ultraviolet radiation in the young adult eye.

Billy Hammond, Lisa Hammond-Renzi, Billy R. Hammond & Lisa Renzi-Hammond
Objectives: Data obtained mostly from animal models and ex vivo samples show that a small portion of ultraviolet light (UV, 300-400 nm) penetrates the cornea and crystalline lens and impinges on the human retina. UV transmission to the retina appears to be unique to the young and some older pseudophakes. In this study, we determine the variation in UV transmission in a relatively homogenous sample of young adults. Methods: 42 subjects were tested (M =...

Data from: Assessing the contributions of intraspecific and environmental sources of infection in urban wildlife: Salmonella enterica and white ibis as a case study

Daniel J. Becker, Claire S. Teitelbaum, Maureen H. Murray, Shannon E. Curry, Catharine N. Welch, Taylor Ellison, Henry C. Adams, R. Scott Rozier, Erin K. Lipp, Sonia M. Hernandez, Sonia Altizer & Richard J. Hall
Conversion of natural habitats into urban landscapes can expose wildlife to novel pathogens and alter pathogen transmission pathways. Because transmission is difficult to quantify for many wildlife pathogens, mathematical models paired with field observations can help select among competing transmission pathways that might operate in urban landscapes. Here we develop a mathematical model for the enteric bacteria Salmonella enterica in urban-foraging white ibis (Eudocimus albus) in south Florida as a case study to determine (i)...

Data from: An experimental test of the relationship between yolk testosterone and the social environment in a colonial passerine

Alexandra B. Bentz, Victoria A. Andreasen & Kristen J. Navara
Maternal hormones can be transferred to offspring during prenatal development in response to the maternal social environment, and may adaptively alter offspring phenotype. For example, numerous avian studies show that aggressive competition with conspecifics tends to result in females allocating more testosterone to their egg yolks, and this may cause offspring to have more competitive phenotypes. However, deviations from this pattern of maternal testosterone allocation are found, largely in studies of colonial species, and have...

Data from: Necrobiome framework for bridging decomposition ecology of autotrophically and heterotrophically derived organic matter

Mark Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan & Jennifer L. Pechal
Decomposition contributes to global ecosystem function by contributing to nutrient recycling, energy flow and limiting biomass accumulation. The decomposer organisms influencing this process form diverse, complex, and highly dynamic communities that often specialize on different plant or animal resources. Despite performing the same net role, there is a need to conceptually synthesize information on the structure and function of decomposer communities across the spectrum of dead plant and animal resources. A lack of synthesis has...

Data from: Simultaneous radiation of bird and mammal lice following the K-Pg boundary

Kevin P. Johnson, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Andrew D. Sweet, Bret M. Boyd, Tandy Warnow & Julie M. Allen
The diversification of parasite groups often occurs at the same time as the diversification of their hosts. However, most studies demonstrating this concordance only examine single host-parasite groups. Multiple diverse lineages of ectoparasitic lice occur across both birds and mammals. Here we describe the evolutionary history of lice based on analyses of 1,107 single copy orthologous genes from sequenced genomes of 46 species of lice. We identify three major diverse groups of lice: one exclusively...

Data from: Transcriptomic analysis of skin pigmentation variation in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

Sergio F. Nigenda-Morales, Yibo Hu, James Beasley, Hugo A. Ruiz-Piña, David Valenzuela-Galván, Robert K. Wayne & James C. Beasley
Skin and coat pigmentation are two of the best-studied examples of traits under natural selection given their quantifiable fitness interactions with the environment (e.g. camouflage) and signaling with other organisms (e.g. warning coloration). Previous morphological studies have found that skin pigmentation variation in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is associated with variation in precipitation and temperatures across its distribution range following Gloger’s rule (lighter pigmentation in temperate environments). To investigate the molecular mechanism associated with...

Data from: Phylotranscriptomic analysis and genome evolution of the Cypripedioideae (Orchidaceae)

Sarah A. Unruh, Michael R. McKain, Yung-I Lee, Tomohisa Yukawa, Melissa K. McCormick, Richard P. Shefferson, Ann Smithson, James H. Leebens-Mack & J. Chris Pires
Premise of Study: The slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae) are a morphologically distinct subfamily of Orchidaceae. They also have some of the largest genomes in the orchids, which may be due to polyploidy or some other mechanism of genome evolution. We generated ten transcriptomes and incorporated existing RNA-seq data to infer a multi-locus nuclear phylogeny of the Cypripedioideae and to determine if a whole genome duplication event (WGD) correlated to the large genome size of this subfamily....

Data from: Fine‐scale geographic patterns of gene flow and reproductive character displacement in drosophila subquinaria and d. recens

Kelly A. Dyer, Emily R. Bewick, Brooke E. White, Michael J. Bray & Devon P. Humphreys
When two species are incompletely isolated, strengthening premating isolation barriers in response to the production of low fitness hybrids may complete the speciation process. Here we use the sister species Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens to study the conditions under which this reinforcement of species boundaries occurs in natural populations. We first extend the region of known sympatry between these species, and then we conduct a fine-scale geographic survey of mate discrimination coupled with estimates...

Data from: On the relationship between body condition and parasite infection in wildlife: a review and meta‐analysis

Cecilia A. Sánchez, Daniel J. Becker, Claire S. Teitelbaum, Paola Barriga, Leone M. Brown, Ania Aleksandra Majewska, Richard J. Hall & Sonia Altizer
Body condition metrics are widely used to infer animal health and to assess costs of parasite infection. Since parasites harm their hosts, ecologists might expect negative relationships between infection and condition in wildlife, but this assumption is challenged by studies showing positive or null condition–infection relationships. Here, we outline common condition metrics used by ecologists in studies of parasitism, and consider mechanisms that cause negative, positive, and null condition–infection relationships in wildlife systems. We then...

Data from: Size-assortative choice and mate availability influences hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans)

Joseph W. Hinton, John L. Gittleman, Frank T. Van Manen & Michael J. Chamberlain
Anthropogenic hybridization of historically isolated taxa has become a primary conservation challenge for many imperiled species. Indeed, hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) poses a significant challenge to red wolf recovery. We considered 7 hypotheses to assess factors influencing hybridization between red wolves and coyotes via pair-bonding between the two species. Because long-term monogamy and defense of all-purpose territories are core characteristics of both species, mate choice has long-term consequences. Therefore,...

Data from: Migratory monarchs that encounter resident monarchs show life-history differences and higher rates of parasite infection

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Mark D. Hunter, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Keith A. Hobson, D. Ryan Norris, Hillary Streit, Jacobus C. De Roode & Sonia Altizer
Environmental change induces some wildlife populations to shift from migratory to resident behaviours. Newly formed resident populations could influence the health and behaviour of remaining migrants. We investigated migrant-resident interactions among monarch butterflies and consequences for life history and parasitism. Eastern North American monarchs migrate annually to Mexico, but some now breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern U.S. and experience high infection prevalence of protozoan parasites. Using stable isotopes (2H, 13C) and cardenolide...

Data from: Hotspot mutations and ColE1 plasmids contribute to the fitness of Salmonella Heidelberg in poultry litter

Adelumola Oladeinde, Kimberly Cook, Alex Orlek, Greg Zock, Kyler Herrington, Nelson Cox, Jodie Plumblee Lawrence & Carolina Hall
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) is a clinically-important serovar linked to food-borne illness, and commonly isolated from poultry. Investigations of a large, multistate outbreak in the USA in 2013 identified poultry litter (PL) as an important extra-intestinal environment that may have selected for specific S. Heidelberg strains. Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and chicken excreta that contains chicken gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria, undigested feed, feathers, and other materials of chicken...

Data from: Genetic dissection of hybrid male sterility across stages of spermatogenesis

Denise J. Schwahn, Richard J. Wang, Michael A. White & Bret A. Payseur
Hybrid sterility is a common form of reproductive isolation between nascent species. Although hybrid sterility is routinely documented and genetically dissected in speciation studies, its developmental basis is rarely examined, especially in generations beyond the F1. To identify phenotypic and genetic determinants of hybrid male sterility from a developmental perspective, we characterized testis histology in 312 F2 hybrids generated by intercrossing inbred strains of Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus, two subspecies of house...

Data from: Male body size predicts reproductive success but not within-clutch paternity patterns in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

K. Nicole White, Betsie B. Rothermel, Kelly R. Zamudio & Tracey D. Tuberville
In many vertebrates, body size is an important driver of variation in male reproductive success. Larger, more fit individuals are more likely to dominate mating opportunities, skewing siring success and resulting in lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity. The mating system of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has been characterized as both female-defense and scramble-competition polygyny. Mating systems are typically not fixed and can be influenced by factors such as population density, demographic structure,...

Data from: Linking the vectorial capacity of multiple vectors to observed patterns of West Nile virus transmission

Joseph R. McMillan, Rebekah A. Blakney, Daniel G. Mead, William T. Koval, Sarah M. Coker, Lance A. Waller, Uriel Kitron & Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec
1. Theoretical models suggest that increased vector species participation in pathogen transmission significantly increases the prevalence of vector and host infections. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this. 2. We linked transmission potential of multiple vectors species to observed patterns of enzootic pathogen transmission by conducting longitudinal field surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) infections in Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian host communities in the southeastern U.S. We then used...

Data from: Impacts of biomass production at civil airports on grassland bird conservation and aviation strike risk

Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault & James A. Martin
Growing concerns about climate change, foreign oil dependency, and environmental quality have fostered interest in perennial native grasses (e.g. switchgrass [Panicum virgatum]) for bioenergy production while also maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, biomass cultivation in marginal landscapes such as airport grasslands may have detrimental effects on aviation safety as well as conservation efforts for grassland birds. In 2011–2013 we investigated effects of vegetation composition and harvest frequency on seasonal species richness and habitat use...

Data from: Private land conservation has landscape-scale benefits for wildlife in agroecosystems

John M. Yeiser, John J. Morgan, Danna L. Baxley, Richard B. Chandler & James A. Martin
Private lands contain much of the world's biodiversity. Conservation of private land, especially agricultural land, is urgent yet challenging because of the diverse priorities of landowners. Local effects of farmland conservation programmes have been evaluated thoroughly, but population-level response to these programmes may depend on effects that extend beyond targeted land parcels. We investigated the landscape-scale effects of a grassland conservation initiative, the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP), on a socially and economically important gamebird,...

Data from: Estimating environmental suitability

John M. Drake & Robert L. Richards
Methods for modeling species’ distributions in nature are typically evaluated empirically with respect to data from observations of species occurrence and, occasionally, absence at surveyed locations. Such models are relatively “theory‐free.” In contrast, theories for explaining species’ distributions draw on concepts like fitness, niche, and environmental suitability. This paper proposes that environmental suitability be defined as the conditional probability of occurrence of a species given the state of the environment at a location. Any quantity...

Data from: Context-dependent costs and benefits of tuberculosis resistance traits in a wild mammalian host

Hannah F. Tavalire, Brianna R. Beechler, Peter E. Buss, Erin E. Gorsich, Eileen G. Hoal, Nikki Le Roex, Johannie M. Spaan, Robert S. Spaan, Paul D. Van Helden, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Anna E. Jolles
Disease acts as a powerful driver of evolution in natural host populations, yet individuals in a population often vary in their susceptibility to infection. Energetic trade-offs between immune and reproductive investment lead to the evolution of distinct life-history strategies, driven by the relative fitness costs and benefits of resisting infection. However, examples quantifying the cost of resistance outside of the laboratory are rare. Here, we observe two distinct forms of resistance to bovine tuberculosis (bTB),...

Data from: Formation of a recent hybrid zone offers insight to the geographic puzzle and maintenance of species boundaries in musk turtles

Peter A. Scott, Travis C. Glenn & Leslie J. Rissler
Speciation is the result of an accumulation of reproductive barriers between populations, pinpointing these factors is often difficult. However, hybrid zones can form when these barriers are not complete, especially when lineages come into contact in intermediate or modified habitats. We examine a hybrid zone between two closely related riverine turtle species, Sternotherus depressus and S. peltifer, and use ddRAD sequencing to to understand how this hybrid zone formed and elucidate genomic patterns of reproductive...

Data from: Predictable gene expression related to behavioral variation in parenting

Kyle M. Benowitz, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Christopher B. Cunningham & Allen J. Moore
Differential gene expression has been associated with transitions between behavioral states for a wide variety of organisms and behaviors. Heterochrony, genetic toolkits, and predictable pathways underlying behavioral transitions have been hypothesized to explain the relationship between transcription and behavioral changes. Less studied is how variation in transcription is related to variation within a behavior, and if the genes that are associated with this variation are predictable. Here we adopt an evolutionary systems biology perspective to...

Data from: Animal-mediated organic matter transformation: aquatic insects as a source of microbially bioavailable organic nutrients and energy

Thomas B. Parr, Krista A. Capps, Shreeram P. Inamdar & Kari A. Metcalf
1. Animal communities are essential drivers of energy and elemental flow in ecosystems. However, few studies have investigated the functional role of animals as sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the subsequent utilization of that DOM by the microbial community. 2. In a small forested headwater stream, we tested the effects of taxonomy, feeding traits, and body size on the quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) excreted...

Data from: Flow-ecology relationships are spatially structured and differ among flow regimes

Lindsey A. Bruckerhoff, Douglas R. Leasure & Daniel D. Magoulick
1. In streams, hydrology is a predominant driver of ecological structure and function. Providing adequate flows to support aquatic life, or environmental flows, is therefore a top management priority in stream systems. 2. Flow regime classification is a widely accepted approach for establishing environmental flow guidelines. However, it is surprisingly difficult to quantify relationships between hydrology and ecology (flow-ecology relationships) while describing how these relationships vary across classified flow regimes. Developing such relationships is complicated...

Data from: Rapid change in host specificity in a field population of the biological control organism Pasteuria penetrans

Chang Liu, Amanda Kyle Gibson, Patricia Timper, Levi T. Morran & R. Scott Tubbs
In biological control, populations of both the biological control agent and the pest have the potential to evolve, and even to coevolve. This feature marks the most powerful and unpredictable aspect of biological control strategies. In particular, evolutionary change in host specificity of the biological control agent could increase or decrease its efficacy. Here, we tested for change in host specificity in a field population of the biological control organism Pasteuria penetrans. Pasteuria penetrans is...

Geographic patterns in morphometric and genetic variation for coyote populations with emphasis on southeastern coyotes

Joseph W Hinton, Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Danny Caudill, Melissa L Karlin, Margaret Walch, Bridgett VonHoldt, Michael J Chamberlain, Kyla M. West, John C. Kilgo, John Joseph Mayer & Karl V. Miller
Prior to 1900, coyotes (Canis latrans) were restricted to the western and central regions of North America, but by the early 2000s coyotes became ubiquitous throughout the eastern United States. Information regarding morphological and genetic structure of coyote populations in the southeastern United States is limited, and where data exist, they are rarely compared to those from other regions of North America. We assessed geographic patterns in morphology and genetics of coyotes with special consideration...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Georgia
  • Indiana University Bloomington
  • University of Florida
  • Cornell University
  • University of Alberta
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Missouri
  • Emory University
  • University of Kansas
  • University of Montana