28 Works

Conflicting signal in transcriptomic markers leads to a poorly resolved backbone phylogeny of Chalcidoid wasps

Junxia Zhang, Amelia R.I. Lindsey, Ralph S. Peters, John M. Heraty, Keith R. Hopper, John H. Werren, Ellen O. Martinson, James B. Woolley, Matt J. Yoder & Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are a megadiverse superfamily of wasps with astounding variation in both morphology and biology. Most species are parasitoids and important natural enemies of insects in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we explored a transcriptome-based phylogeny of Chalcidoidea and found that poorly resolved relationships could only be marginally improved by adding more genes (a total of 5,591) and taxa (a total of 65), proof-checking for errors of homology and contamination, and decreasing missing data....

Data from: Chronology of reproductive investment determines predation risk aversion in a felid-ungulate system

Daniel Crawford, Michael J Cherry, Brian D Kelly, Elina P Garrison, David Shindle, L Mike Conner, Richard B Chandler & Karl V Miller
Fear of predators can behaviorally mediate prey population dynamics, particularly when predation risk influences reproductive investment. However, the costs of reproductive investment may mitigate predation risk aversion relative to periods when the link between reproductive output and prey behavior is weaker. We posit that intensity of reproductive investment in ungulates may predict their response to predation risk such that the sexes increase risk exposure during biological seasons that are pivotal to reproductive success, such as...

Fitness consequences of a non-recombining sex-ratio drive chromosome can explain its prevalence in the wild

Kelly Dyer & David Hall
Understanding the pleiotropic consequences of gene drive systems on host fitness is essential to predict their spread through a host population. Here we study Sex-ratio (SR) X-chromosome drive in the fly Drosophila recens, where SR causes the death of Y-bearing sperm in male carriers. SR males only sire daughters, which all carry SR, thus giving the chromosome a transmission advantage. The prevalence of the SR chromosome appears stable, suggesting pleiotropic costs. It was previously shown...

Data from: American marten and fisher do not segregate in space and time during winter in a mixed-forest system

Elizabeth Croose, Florent Bled, Nicholas L. Fowler, & Jerrold L. Belant
Understanding the mechanisms of coexistence between ecologically similar species is an important issue in ecology. Carnivore coexistence may be facilitated by spatial segregation, temporal avoidance, and differential habitat selection. American martens Martes americana and fishers Pekania pennanti are medium‐sized mustelids that occur sympatrically across portions of North America, yet mechanisms of coexistence between the two species are not fully understood. We assessed spatial and temporal partitioning in martens and fishers in the Upper Peninsula of...

Data from: City sicker? a meta-analysis of wildlife health and urbanization

Maureen H. Murray, Cecilia A. Sanchez, Daniel J. Becker, Kaylee A. Byers, Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks & Meggan E. Craft
Urban development can alter resource availability, land use, and community composition, in turn influencing wildlife health. Generalizable relationships between wildlife health and urbanization have yet to be quantified, and could vary across health metrics and animal taxonomy. We present a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 516 records spanning 81 wildlife species from 106 studies comparing the toxicant loads, parasitism, body condition, or stress of urban and non-urban wildlife populations in 30 countries. We find a significantly negative...

Predaceous Toxorhynchites mosquitoes require a living gut microbiota to develop

Kerri Coon, Luca Valzania, Mark R. Brown & Michael R. Strand
Most species of mosquitoes are detritivores that feed on decaying plant and animal materials in their aquatic environment. Studies of several detritivorous mosquito species indicate they host relatively low diversity communities of microbes that are acquired from the environment while feeding. Our recent results also indicate that detritivorous species require a living gut microbiota in order to grow beyond the first instar. Less well known is that some mosquitoes, including those belonging to the genus...

GenBank 16S rDNA Sequences for Ca. Annandia pinicola, Ca. Gillettellia cooleyia, Ca. Hartigia pinicola, Ca. Profftia spp., Ca. Pseudomonas adelgestsugas from Taiwan, and Ca. Vallotia spp.

Carol von Dohlen, Usha Spaulding, Kistie B. Patch, Kathryn Weglarz, Robert G. Foottit, Nathan P. Havill & Gaelen R. Burke

Data from: Spatial transitions in tree cover are associated with soil hydrology, but not with grass biomass, fire frequency, or herbivore biomass in Serengeti savannahs

Ricardo Holdo, Daphne Onderdonk, Annabelle Barr, Meshak Mwita & T. Michael Anderson
1. Although there is a well-known association between tree cover and soil texture in savannahs, the hydrological drivers of tree cover variation have not been systematically explored, particularly in parallel with factors such as fire, herbivory, and tree-grass interactions. The relationship between hydrological factors and tree cover is important for resolving the relative contribution of bottom-up vs. top-down factors in structuring savannah vegetation. 2. We quantified soil moisture dynamics across eight 1-km transects spanning tree...

Deer movement and resource selection during Hurricane Irma: implications for extreme climatic events and wildlife

Heather Abernathy, Daniel Crawford, Elina Garrison, Richard Chandler, L. Mike Conner, Karl Miller & Michael Cherry
Extreme climatic events (ECEs) are increasing in frequency and intensity and this necessitates understanding their influence on organisms. Animal behavior may mitigate the effects of ECEs, but field studies are rare because ECEs are infrequent and unpredictable. Hurricane Irma made landfall in southwestern Florida where we were monitoring white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus seminolus) with GPS collars. We report on an opportunistic case study of behavioral responses exhibited by a large mammal during an ECE, mitigation...

Data from: The tomato pan-genome uncovers new genes and a rare allele regulating fruit flavor

Lei Gao, Itay Gonda, Honghe Sun, Qiyue Ma, Kan Bao, Denise M. Tieman, Elizabeth A. Burzynski-Chang, Tara L. Fish, Kaitlin A. Stromberg, Gavin L. Sacks, Theodore W. Thannhauser, Majid R. Foolad, Maria Jose Diez, Joaquin Canizares, Yimin Xu, Esther Van Der Knaap, Sanwen Huang, Harry J. Klee, James J. Giovannoni & Zhangjun Fei
Modern tomatoes have narrow genetic diversity limiting their improvement potential. We present a tomato pan-genome constructed using genome sequences of 725 phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions, revealing 4,873 genes absent from the reference genome. Presence/absence variation analyses reveal substantial gene loss and intense negative selection of genes and promoters during tomato domestication and improvement. Lost or negatively selected genes are enriched for important traits, especially disease resistance. We identify a rare allele in TomLoxC promoter...

Data from: Meta-analysis of yield response of foliar fungicide-treated hybrid corn in the United States and Ontario, Canada

Kiersten A. Wise, Damon L. Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price, Alison Robertson & Albert Tenuta
Background: Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return...

Data from: Detrital traits affect substitutability of a range-expanding foundation species across latitude

Rachel S. Smith, Todd Z. Osborne, Ilka C. Feller & James E. Byers
Climate-driven range shifts of foundation species could alter ecosystem processes and community composition by providing different resources than resident foundation species. Along the US Atlantic coast, the northward expanding foundation species, black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, is replacing the dominant salt marsh foundation species, marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. These species have distinct detrital attributes that ostensibly provide different resources to epifauna. We experimentally examined how detritus of these species affects decomposition and community composition in different...

Data from: The contrasting hidden consequences of parasitism: effects of a hematophagous nematode (Uncinaria sp.) in the development of a marine mammal swimming behavior.

Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Josefina Gutierrez & Mauricio Seguel
1. Parasites are an important part of ecosystems, playing a critical role in their equilibrium. However, the consequences of parasitism beyond the direct effects associated with disease and mortality are not completely understood. This gap in knowledge is in part due to the difficulties to isolate the effect of single parasite species on physiological and behavioral traits in natural systems. 2. The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis)-hookworm (Uncinaria sp.) interaction offers an ideal system...

Data from: What factors explain the geographic range of mammalian parasites?

James Byers, John Schmidt, Paula Pappalardo, Sarah Haas & Patrick Stephens
Free-living species vary substantially in the extent of their spatial distributions. However, distributions of parasitic species have not been comprehensively compared in this context. We investigated which factors most influence the geographic extent of mammal parasites. Using the Global Mammal Parasite Database we analyzed 17,818 individual geospatial records on 1,806 parasite species (encompassing viruses, bacteria, protozoa, arthropods, and helminths) that infect 396 carnivore, ungulate, and primate host species. As a measure of the geographic extent...

Data from: Improved detection of influenza A virus from blue-winged teals by sequencing directly from swab material

Lucas M. Ferreri, Lucia Ortiz, Ginger Geiger, Gonzalo P. Barriga, Rebecca Poulson, Ana Gonzalez-Reiche, Jo Anne Crum, David Stallknecht, David Moran, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Daniela Rajao & Daniel R. Perez
The greatest diversity of influenza A virus (IAV) is found in wild aquatic birds of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. In these birds, IAV replication occurs mostly in the intestinal tract. Fecal, cloacal and/or tracheal swabs are typically collected and tested by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) and/or by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs in order to determine the presence of IAV. Virus isolation may impose bottlenecks that select variant populations that are different from those...

Data from: Comparing methods for mapping global parasite diversity

Paula Pappalardo, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Andrew Park, Shan Huang, John Schmidt & Patrick Stephens
Aim Parasites are a major component of global ecosystems, yet spatial variation in parasite diversity is poorly known, largely because their occurrence data are limited and thus difficult to interpret. Using a recently compiled database of parasite occurrences, we compare different models which we use to infer parasite geographic ranges and parasite species richness across the globe. Innovation To date, most studies exploring spatial patterns of parasite diversity assumed, with little validation, that the geographic...

Data from: Rational time investment during collective decision making in Temnothorax ants

Takao Sasaki, Benjamin Stott & Stephen Pratt
The study of rational choice in humans and other animals typically focuses on decision outcomes, but rationality also applies to decision latencies. For example, the smaller the difference in quality between two options, the faster a rational actor should decide between them. This is because the consequences of choosing the inferior option are less severe if the options are similar. Experiments have shown, however, that humans irrationally spend more time choosing between similar options. In...

Data from: Experimental N and P additions alter stream macroinvertebrate community composition via taxon‐level responses to shifts in detrital resource stoichiometry

Lee M. Demi, Jonathan P. Benstead, Amy D. Rosemond & John C. Maerz
1. Increases in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability are changing animal communities, partly by altering stoichiometric imbalances between consumers and their food. Testing relationships between resource stoichiometry and consumer assemblage structure requires ecosystem-level manipulations that have been lacking to date. 2. We analyzed patterns of macroinvertebrate community composition in five detritus-based headwater streams subject to experimental whole-stream N and P additions that spanned a steep gradient in dissolved N:P ratio (2:1, 8:1, 16:1, 32:1,...

Data from: Earth history and the passerine superradiation

Carl H. Oliveros, Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alström, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andrés M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson … & Brant C. Faircloth
Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We analyzed DNA data from 4,060 nuclear loci and 137 passerine families using concatenation and coalescent approaches to infer a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis that clarifies relationships...

Data from: Predicting functional responses in agro-ecosystems from animal movement data to improve management of invasive pests

Mark Wilber, Sarah Chinn, James Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Ryan Brook, Stephen Ditchkoff, Justin Fischer, Steve Hartley, Lindsey Holstrom, John Kilgo, Jesse Lewis, Ryan Miller, Nathan Snow, Kurt VerCauteren, Samantha Wisely, Colleen Webb & Kim Pepin
Functional responses describe how changing resource availability affects consumer resource use, thus providing a mechanistic approach to prediction of the invasibility and potential damage of invasive alien species (IAS). However, functional responses can be context-dependent, varying with resource characteristics and availability, consumer attributes, and environmental variables. Identifying context-dependencies can allow invasion and damage risk to be predicted across different ecoregions. Understanding how ecological factors shape the functional response in agro-ecosystems can improve predictions of hotspots...

Data from: Testing adaptive hypotheses on the evolution of larval life history in acorn and stalked barnacles

Christine Ewers-Saucedo & Paula Pappalardo
Despite strong selective pressure to optimize larval life history in marine environments, there is a wide diversity with regard to developmental mode, size and time larvae spend in the plankton. In the present study, we assessed if adaptive hypotheses explain the distribution of the larval life history of thoracican barnacles within a strict phylogenetic framework. We collected environmental and larval trait data for 170 species from the literature, and utilized a complete thoracican synthesis tree...

Data from: Reduced density and visually complex apiaries reduce parasite load and promote honey production and overwintering survival in honey bees

Travis L. Dynes, Jennifer A. Berry, Keith S. Delaplane, Berry J. Brosi & Jaap C. De Roode
1. Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are kept at much greater densities than naturally occurring feral or wild colonies, which may have detrimental effects on colony health and survival, disease spread, and drifting behavior (bee movement between natal and non-natal colonies). 2. We assessed the effects of a straightforward apiary management intervention (altering the density and visual appearance of colonies) on colony health. Specifically, we established three “high density / high drift” (“HD”) and...

Data from: Preservation-induced morphological change in salamanders and failed DNA extraction from a decades-old museum specimen: implications for Plethodon ainsworthi

Todd Pierson, Troy Kieran, Adam Clause & Nikole Castleberry
Natural history collections are important data repositories, but different chemical treatments of specimens can influence morphological measurements and DNA extraction, complicating taxonomic and conservation decisions dependent upon these data. One such example is the Bay Springs Salamander (Plethodon ainsworthi), the only United States amphibian categorized as Extinct by the IUCN. Recent research has proposed that P. ainsworthi is an invalid taxon, arguing that the 55-year-old type specimens’ morphological distinctiveness from syntopic P. mississippi is a...

Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith, Sally Koerner, Alan Knapp, Meghan Avolio, Francis Chaves, Elsie Denton, John Dietrich, David Gibson, Jesse Gray, Ava Hoffman, David Hoover, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrea Silletti, Kevin Wilcox, Qiang Yu & John Blair
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Data from: Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith & Andrea Silletti
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Georgia
  • University of Florida
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • Virginia Tech
  • Colorado State University
  • University of California, Riverside
  • Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission