205 Works

Data from: Female behavior and the interaction of male and female genital traits mediate sperm transfer during mating.

Christopher R. Friesen, Emily J. Uhrig, Robert T. Mason, Patricia L.R. Brennan, C. R. Friesen, E. J. Uhrig & R. T. Mason
Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal...

Data from: Closing a gap in tropical forest biomass estimation: taking crown mass variation into account in pantropical allometries

Pierre Ploton, Nicholas Barbier, Stéphane Takoudjou Momo, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, Faustin Boyemba Bosela, Georges Chuyong, Gilles Dauby, Vincent Droissart, Adeline Fayolle, Rosa Calisto Goodman, Mathieu Henry, Narcisse Guy Kamdem, John Katembo Mukirania, David Kenfack, Moses Libalah, Alfred Ngomanda, Vivien Rossi, Bonaventure Sonké, Nicolas Texier, Duncan Thomas, Donatien Zebaze, Pierre Couteron, Uta Berger & Raphaël Pélissier
Accurately monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks is an outstanding challenge. Allometric models that consider tree diameter, height and wood density as predictors are currently used in most tropical forest carbon studies. In particular, a pantropical biomass model has been widely used for approximately a decade, and its most recent version will certainly constitute a reference in the coming years. However, this reference model shows a systematic bias for the largest trees. Because large trees are...

Data from: Interactive influences of climate change and agriculture on aquatic habitat in a Pacific Northwestern watershed

Sandra J. DeBano, David. E. Wooster, Jonathan R. Walker, Laura E. McMullen, Donald A. Horneck & David E. Wooster
Climate change and agricultural intensification are two potential stressors that may pose significant threats to aquatic habitats in the inland Pacific Northwest over the next century. Climate change may impact running water through numerous pathways, including effects on water temperature and stream flow. In certain regions of the Pacific Northwest, agricultural activities, such as crop production, may become more profitable if water projects result in more irrigation water. If so, riparian buffers in these areas...

Data from: Recombinant DNA modification of gibberellin metabolism alters growth rate and biomass allocation in Populus

Haiwei Lu, Venkatesh Viswanath, Cathleen Ma, Elizabeth Etherington, Palitha Dharmawardhana, Olga Shevchenko, Steven H. Strauss, David W. Pearce, Stewart B. Rood & Victor Busov
Overexpression of genes that modify gibberellin (GA) metabolism and signaling have been previously shown to produce trees with improved biomass production but highly disturbed development. To examine if more subtle types of genetic modification of GA could improve growth rate and modify tree architecture, we transformed a model poplar genotype (Populus tremula × P. alba) with eight genes, including two cisgenes (intact copies of native genes), four intragenes (modified copies of native genes), and two...

Data from: Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy

Burke T. Greer, Christopher Still, Glenn T. Howe, Christina Tague & Dar A. Roberts
Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic...

Data from: Evaluating carbon storage, timber harvest, and habitat possibilities for a western Cascades (US) forest landscape

Jeffrey Kline, Mark Harmon, Thomas Spies, Anita Morzillo, Robert Pabst, Brenda McComb, Frank Schnekenburger, Keith Olsen, Blair Csuti, Jody Vogeler, Jeffrey D. Kline, Thomas A. Spies, Brenda C. McComb, Anita T. Morzillo, Mark E. Harmon, Robert J. Pabst, Keith A. Olsen & Jody C. Vogeler
Forest policymakers and managers have long sought ways to evaluate the capability of forest landscapes to jointly produce timber, habitat, and other ecosystem services in response to forest management. Currently, carbon is of particular interest as policies for increasing carbon storage on federal lands are being proposed. However, a challenge in joint production analysis of forest management is adequately representing ecological conditions and processes that influence joint production relationships. We used simulation models of vegetation...

Data from: Experimental insight into the process of parasite community assembly

Sarah A. Budischak, Eric P. Hoberg, Art Abrams, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
1.Community assembly is a fundamental process that has long been a central focus in ecology. Extending community assembly theory to communities of co-infecting parasites, we used a gastrointestinal nematode removal experiment in free-ranging African buffalo to examine community assembly patterns and processes. 2.We first asked whether reassembled communities differ from undisturbed communities by comparing anthelmintic-treated and control hosts. Next, we examined the temporal dynamics of assembly using a cross-section of communities that reassembled for different...

Data from: Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient

Ryan P. Kelly, James L. O'Donnell, Natalie C. Lowell, Andrew O. Shelton, Jameal F. Samhouri, Shannon M. Hennessey, Blake E. Feist & Gregory D. Williams
Despite decades of work in environmental science and ecology, estimating human influences on ecosystems remains challenging. This is partly due to complex chains of causation among ecosystem elements, exacerbated by the difficulty of collecting biological data at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we demonstrate the utility of environmental DNA (eDNA) for quantifying associations between human land use and changes in an adjacent ecosystem. We analyze metazoan eDNA sequences from water sampled in nearshore...

Data from: Timber harvest and tree size near nests explains variation in nest site occupancy but not productivity in northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis)

Sabrina A. Rodriguez, Patricia L. Kennedy & Timothy H. Parker
Conservation concern for the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) reflects evidence that goshawks may abandon nest sites or suffer from reduced nesting success in response to some forms of timber harvest. However, this evidence is mixed and has yet to be reviewed systemically and quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the extent to which timber harvest and tree size explain variation in goshawk productivity and site occupancy. Goshawk productivity was not significantly explained by...

Data from: Forest fragmentation and loss reduce richness, availability, and specialization in tropical hummingbird communities

Adam S. Hadley, Sarah J. K. Frey, W. Douglas Robinson & Matthew G. Betts
Hummingbirds are important pollinators of many native Neotropical plants but their abundance and diversity in landscapes dominated by intensive human uses such as agriculture have rarely been examined, despite such land-uses prevailing in the tropics. We examined how tropical deforestation affects hummingbird community structure in premontane forest patches embedded in a tropical countryside of Coto Brus Canton, Costa Rica. We captured hummingbirds in fourteen landscapes representing a gradient in patch size and forest amount, and...

Data from: Variable competitive effects of fungicide resistance in field experiments with a plant pathogenic fungus

Christina H. Hagerty, Ryan C. Graebner, Kathryn E. Sackett & Christopher C. Mundt
Classic evolutionary theory suggests that mutations associated with antimicrobial and pesticide resistance result in a fitness cost in the absence of the selective antimicrobial agent or pesticide. There is experimental evidence to support fitness costs associated with resistance to anti-microbial compounds and pesticides across many biological disciplines, including human pathology, entomology, plant sciences, and plant pathology. However, researchers have also found examples of neutral and increased fitness associated with resistance, where the effect of a...

Data from: Contrasting genetic metrics and patterns among naturalized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in two Patagonian lakes differentially impacted by trout aquaculture

Cristian B. Canales-Aguirre, Lisa W. Seeb, James E. Seeb, Maria I. Cadiz, Selim S. Musleh, Ivan Arismendi, Gonzalo Gajardo, Ricardo Galleguillos & Daniel Gomez-Uchida
Different pathways of propagation and dispersal of non-native species into new environments may have contrasting demographic and genetic impacts on established populations. Repeated introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Chile in South America, initially through stocking and later through aquaculture escapes, provide a unique setting to contrast these two pathways. Using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms, we found contrasting genetic metrics and patterns among naturalized trout in Lake Llanquihue, Chile’s largest producer of...

Data from: Physconia labrata, a new species from western North America and Asia

Theodore L. Esslinger, Bruce McCune & Diane L. Haughland
A new species belonging to the lichen genus Physconia is described from Alaska and the Canadian and American Rocky Mountains and adjacent forested regions. It is also reported from China, Nepal, India and Siberia. The new species, Physconia labrata, is superficially similar to P. perisidiosa, but can be distinguished by having a blackened, corticate lower surface and a paraplectenchymatous upper cortex.

Data from: Cryptic species in the mountaintops: species delimitation and taxonomy of the Bembidion breve species group (Coleoptera: Carabidae) aided by genomic architecture of a century-old type specimen

John S. Sproul, David R. Maddison, John S Sproul & David R Maddison
The breve species group includes closely related Bembidion Latreille ground beetles commonly found at high elevation in the mountains of western North America. For several decades, the group has been considered to consist of two species. Here, we present evidence from morphological, molecular and geographic data that the group contains nine species: Bembidion ampliatum, B. breve, B. geopearlis, B. laxatum, B. lividulum, B. oromaia, B. saturatum, B. testatum and B. vulcanix. We describe three species...

Data from: Isotopic niche variation from the Holocene to today reveals minimal partitioning and individualistic dynamics among four sympatric desert mice

Rebecca C. Terry
1.Species interact with each other and their environment over a range of temporal scales, yet our understanding of resource partitioning and the mechanisms of species coexistence is largely restricted to modern time-scales of years to decades. Furthermore, the relative magnitudes of inter- versus intraspecific variation in resource use are rarely considered, despite the potential for the latter to influence a species’ ability to cope with changing environmental conditions. 2.Modern desert rodent communities are thought to...

Data from: 2D or Not 2D? Testing the utility of 2D vs. 3D landmark data in geometric morphometrics of the sculpin subfamily Oligocottinae (Pisces; Cottoidea)

Thaddaeus J Buser, Brian L Sidlauskas, Adam P Summers, Thaddaeus J. Buser, Brian L. Sidlauskas & Adam P. Summers
We contrast 2D vs. 3D landmark‐based geometric morphometrics in the fish subfamily Oligocottinae by using 3D landmarks from CT‐generated models and comparing the morphospace of the 3D landmarks to one based on 2D landmarks from images. The 2D and 3D shape variables capture common patterns across taxa, such that the pairwise Procrustes distances among taxa correspond and the trends captured by principal component analysis are similar in the xy plane. We use the two sets...

Data from: Predator foraging response to a resurgent dangerous prey

Aimee Tallian, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, Rick L. Wallen, Chris Geremia, Joel Ruprecht, C. Travis Wyman & Daniel R. MacNulty
Prey switching occurs when a generalist predator kills disproportionately more of an abundant prey species and correspondingly spares a rarer species. Although this behaviour is a classic stabilizing mechanism in food web models, little is known about its operation in free-living systems which often include dangerous prey species that resist predation. We used long-term (1995–2015) data from a large mammal system in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA, to understand how prey preference of a wild,...

Data from: Potentially adaptive mitochondrial haplotypes as a tool to identify divergent nuclear loci

Michael R. Garvin, William D. Templin, Anthony J. Gharrett, Nick DeCovich, Christine M. Kondzela, Jeffrey R. Guyon & Megan V. McPhee
1. Genetic tools are commonly used for conservation and management of at-risk species. Individuals are often sampled from mixtures composed of many populations, which creates a need to assign individuals to their source. This can be problematic when the genetic divergence among source populations is weak but can be improved using adaptive genetic loci, which should show stronger levels of divergence. 2. We previously reported a signature of positive selection in the mitochondrial-encoded ND5 subunit...

Data from: Invasiveness of plant pathogens depends on the spatial scale of host distribution

Alexey Mikaberidze, Christopher C. Mundt & Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Plant diseases often cause serious yield losses in agriculture. A pathogen’s invasiveness can be quantified by the basic reproductive number, R0. Since pathogen transmission between host plants depends on the spatial separation between them, R0 is strongly influenced by the spatial scale of the host distribution.We present a proof of principle of a novel approach to estimate the basic reproductive number, R0, of plant pathogens as a function of the size of a field planted...

Data from: Predator-guided sampling reveals biotic structure in the bathypelagic

Kelly J. Benoit-Bird, Brandon L. Southall & Mark A. Moline
We targeted habitat used differentially by deep-diving, air-breathing predators to empirically sample their prey’s distributions off southern California. Fine-scale measurements of the spatial variability of potential prey animals from the surface to 1200 m were obtained using conventional fisheries echosounders aboard a surface ship and uniquely integrated into a deep-diving autonomous vehicle. Significant spatial variability in the size, composition, total biomass, and spatial organization of biota was evident over all spatial scales examined and was...

Data from: Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

Nicky Rollings, Emily J. Uhrig, Randolf W. Krohmer, Heather L. Waye, Robert T. Mason, Mats Olsson, Camilla M. Whittington, Christopher R. Friesen & Randolph W. Krohmer
Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between...

Data from: Quantifying predator dependence in the functional response of generalist predators

Mark Novak, Christopher Wolf, Kyle E. Coblentz & Isaac D. Shepard
A long-standing debate concerns how functional responses are best described. Theory suggests that ratio dependence is consistent with many food web patterns left unexplained by the simplest prey-dependent models. However, for logistical reasons, ratio dependence and predator dependence more generally have seen infrequent empirical evaluation and then only so in specialist predators, which are rare in nature. Here we develop an approach to simultaneously estimate the prey-specific attack rates and predator-specific interference (facilitation) rates of...

Data from: Penalized likelihood methods improve parameter estimates in occupancy models

Rebecca A. Hutchinson, Jonathon J. Valente, Sarah C. Emerson, Matthew G. Betts & Thomas G. Dietterich
1. Occupancy models are employed in species distribution modelling to account for imperfect detection during field surveys. While this approach is popular in the literature, problems can occur when estimating the model parameters. In particular, the maximum likelihood estimates can exhibit bias and large variance for data sets with small sample sizes, which can result in estimated occupancy probabilities near 0 and 1 (‘boundary estimates’). 2. In this paper, we explore strategies for estimating parameters...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae

Shannon C. K. Straub, Michael J. Moore, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis, Aaron Liston, Tatyana Livshultz & Shannon C.K. Straub
Crown clade Apocynaceae comprise seven primary lineages of lianas, shrubs, and herbs with a diversity of pollen aggregation morphologies including monads, tetrads, and pollinia, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution and function of pollen packaging. Traditional molecular systematic approaches utilizing small amounts of sequence data have failed to resolve relationships along the spine of the crown clade, a likely ancient rapid radiation. The previous best estimate of the phylogeny was a five-way...

Data from: Degree of host susceptibility in the initial disease outbreak influences subsequent epidemic spread

Paul M. Severns, Laura K. Estep, Kathryn E. Sackett & Christopher C. Mundt
1. Disease epidemics typically begin as an outbreak of a relatively small, spatially explicit population of infected individuals (focus), in which disease prevalence increases and rapidly spreads into the uninfected, at-risk population. Studies of epidemic spread typically address factors influencing disease spread through the at-risk population, but the initial outbreak may strongly influence spread of the subsequent epidemic. 2. We initiated wheat stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici epidemics to assess the influence of...

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