198 Works

Data from: Species identification and likely catch time period of whale bones from South Georgia

Angela L. Sremba, Anthony R. Martin, C. Scott Baker & C. Scott Baker
Skeletal remains of baleen whales killed during the onset of 20th century commercial whaling lie scattered across the shores and abandoned whaling stations of the subantarctic island of South Georgia. Here we report on genetic species identification of whale bones collected from South Georgia using standard historical DNA protocols. We amplified and sequenced short fragments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 281 available bone samples. Of these, 231 provided mtDNA sequences of sufficient...

Data from: Patterns of genetic differentiation in Colorado potato beetle correlate with contemporary, not historic, potato land cover

Michael S. Crossley, Silvia I. Rondon & Sean D. Schoville
Changing landscape heterogeneity can influence connectivity and alter genetic variation in local populations, but there can be a lag between ecological change and evolutionary responses. Temporal lag effects might be acute in agroecosystems, where land cover has changed substantially in the last two centuries. Here, we evaluate how patterns of an insect pest's genetic differentiation are related to past and present agricultural land cover change over a 150-year period. We quantified change in the amount...

Data from: Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy

Burke T. Greer, Christopher Still, Glenn T. Howe, Christina Tague & Dar A. Roberts
Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic...

Data from: The million-year wait for macroevolutionary bursts

Josef C Uyeda, Thomas F Hansen, Stevan J Arnold, Jason Pienaar, S. J. Arnold, J. Pienaar & T. F. Hansen
We lack a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary pattern and process because short-term and long-term data have rarely been combined into a single analytical framework. Here we test alternative models of phenotypic evolution using a dataset of unprecedented size and temporal span (nearly 8,000 data points). The data are body-size measurements taken from historical studies, the fossil record, and among-species comparative data representing mammals, squamates, and birds. By analyzing this unusually large dataset, we identify stochastic...

Data from: Can observation skills of citizen scientists be estimated using species accumulation curves?

Steve Kelling, Alison Johnston, Wesley M. Hochachka, Marshall Iliff, Daniel Fink, Jeff Gerbracht, Carl Lagoze, Frank A. La Sorte, Travis Moore, Andrea Wiggins, Weng-Keen Wong, Chris Wood & Jun Yu
Volunteers are increasingly being recruited into citizen science projects to collect observations for scientific studies. An additional goal of these projects is to engage and educate these volunteers. Thus, there are few barriers to participation resulting in volunteer observers with varying ability to complete the project’s tasks. To improve the quality of a citizen science project’s outcomes it would be useful to account for inter-observer variation, and to assess the rarely tested presumption that participating...

Data from: A characterization of autumn nocturnal migration detected by weather surveillance radars in the northeastern US

Andrew Farnsworth, Benjamin Mark Van Doren, Wesley M. Hochachka, Daniel Sheldon, Kevin Winner, Jed Irvine, Jeffrey Geevarghese, Steve Kelling & Benjamin M. Van Doren
Billions of birds migrate at night over North America each year. However, few studies have described the phenology of these movements, such as magnitudes, directions, and speeds, for more than one migration season and at regional scales. In this study, we characterize density, direction, and speed of nocturnally migrating birds using data from 13 weather surveillance radars in the autumns of 2010 and 2011 in the northeastern US. After screening radar data to remove precipitation,...

Data from: Plant diversity and endemism in the California Floristic Province

Dylan O. Burge, James H. Thorne, Susan P. Harrison, Bart C. O'Brien, Jon P. Rebman, James R. Shevock, Edward R. Alverson, Linda K. Hardison, José Delgadillo-Rodríguez, Steven A. Junak, Thomas A. Oberbauer, Hugo Riemann, Sula E. Vanderplank & Teri Barry
The California Floristic Province (CFP) is an area of high biodiversity and endemism corresponding roughly to the portion of western North America having a Mediterranean-type climate. High levels of diversity and endemism in the CFP are attributed to the unique geo-climatic setting of the region. In recent years, much has been learned about the origins of plant diversity in western North America. This work, however, has been hindered by a focus on political rather than...

Data from: Behavioural responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

Carla Freitas, Esben Moland Olsen, Even Moland, Lorenzo Ciannelli & Halvor Knutsen
Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a...

Data from: Species delimitation in the ground beetle subgenus Liocosmius (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidion), including standard and next-generation sequencing of museum specimens

David R. Maddison & Kenneth W. Cooper
The species of subgenus Liocosmius Casey of genus Bembidion Latreille are delimited and documented using DNA sequences from eight genes, morphological data, and geography. The subgenus consists of six known species, three of which are described as new: Bembidion orion Cooper and Maddison (California), B. darlingtonielum Cooper and Maddison (California), and B. cooperi Maddison (New Mexico and Arizona). The group ranges from British Columbia south to Baja California, and east to Colorado and New Mexico,...

Data from: An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidion)

David R. Maddison & David Maddison
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the...

Data from: Trophic omnivory across a productivity gradient: intraguild predation theory and the structure and strength of species interactions

Mark Novak & M. Novak
Intraguild predation theory centres on two predictions: (i) for an omnivore and an intermediate predator (IG-prey) to coexist on shared resources, the IG-prey must be the superior resource competitor, and (ii) increasing resource productivity causes the IG-prey's equilibrium abundance to decline. I tested these predictions with a series of species-rich food webs along New Zealand's rocky shores, focusing on two predatory whelks, Haustrum haustorium, a trophic omnivore, and Haustrum scobina, the IG-prey. In contrast to...

Data from: Microevolutionary processes generate phylogenomic discordance at ancient divergences

Jeffrey C. Oliver
Stochastic population processes may cause differences between species histories and gene histories. These processes are assumed to only influence the most recent divergences in the tree of life; however, there may be under-appreciated potential for microevolutionary processes to impact deep divergences. I used multispecies coalescent models to determine the impact of stochastic processes on deep phylogenomic histories. Here I show phylogenomic discordance between gene histories and species histories is expected at deep divergences for many...

Data from: Quantifying past and present connectivity illuminates a rapidly changing landscape for the African elephant

Clinton W. Epps, Samuel K. Wasser, Jonah L. Keim, Benezeth M. Mutayoba & Justin S. Brashares
There is widespread concern about impacts of land-use change on connectivity among animal and plant populations, but those impacts are difficult to quantify. Moreover, lack of knowledge regarding ecosystems before fragmentation may obscure appropriate conservation targets. We use occurrence and population genetic data to contrast connectivity for a long-lived mega-herbivore over historical and contemporary time frames. We test whether (i) historical gene flow is predicted by persistent landscape features rather than human settlement, (ii) contemporary...

Data from: Characterizing neutral and adaptive genomic differentiation in a changing climate: the most northerly freshwater fish as a model

Kathleen G. OMalley, Felix Vaux & Andrew N. Black
Arctic freshwater ecosystems have been profoundly affected by climate change. Given that the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is often the only fish species inhabiting these ecosystems, it represents a valuable model for studying the impacts of climate change on species life history diversity and adaptability. Using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach, we identified 5976 neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and found evidence for reduced gene flow between allopatric morphs from two high Arctic lakes, Linne´vatn (Anadromous, Normal,...

Data from: Testing conceptual models of early plant succession across a disturbance gradient

Cynthia C. Chang, Charles B. Halpern, Joseph A. Antos, Meghan L. Avolio, Abir Biswas, James E. Cook, Roger Del Moral, Dylan G. Fischer, Andrés Holz, Robert J. Pabst, Mark E. Swanson & Donald B. Zobel
1.Studies of succession have a long history in ecology, but rigorous tests of general, unifying principles are rare. One barrier to these tests of theory is the paucity of longitudinal studies that span the broad gradients of disturbance severity that characterize large, infrequent disturbances. The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 produced a heterogeneous landscape of disturbance conditions, including primary to secondary successional habitats, affording a unique opportunity to explore how...

Data from: Ancient and contingent body shape diversification in a hyperdiverse fish radiation

Michael D. Burns & Brian L. Sidlauskas
Landmark DataTPS file containing landmark dataChapter 1_Disparity Data.TPSPhylogenetic TreeA nexus file containing the phylogenetic tree used in the phylogenetic comparative methods.Chapter 1_trees_final.nexusPrincipal Component scoresPrincipal Component scores used to construct the morphospace and also used in the mvMORPH analysis.Chapter 1_data_all PCs.csvPhylogeneticEM dataData used for PhylogeneticEM analysisChapter 1_PhylogeneticEM_data.csvConevol scriptScript used to run Conevol analysis in RChapter 1_Conevol.txtMVmorph scriptScript used to perform MVmorph analysis in RChapter 1_MVmorph.txtMVmorph_uncertainty scriptScript used to perform MVmorph analysis while accounting for uncertainty in...

Data from: Context-dependent costs and benefits of tuberculosis resistance traits in a wild mammalian host

Hannah F. Tavalire, Brianna R. Beechler, Peter E. Buss, Erin E. Gorsich, Eileen G. Hoal, Nikki Le Roex, Johannie M. Spaan, Robert S. Spaan, Paul D. Van Helden, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Anna E. Jolles
Disease acts as a powerful driver of evolution in natural host populations, yet individuals in a population often vary in their susceptibility to infection. Energetic trade-offs between immune and reproductive investment lead to the evolution of distinct life-history strategies, driven by the relative fitness costs and benefits of resisting infection. However, examples quantifying the cost of resistance outside of the laboratory are rare. Here, we observe two distinct forms of resistance to bovine tuberculosis (bTB),...

Data from: Phenological responses of 215 moth species to interannual climate variation in the Pacific Northwest from 1895 through 2013

Julie A. Maurer, Jon H. Shepard, Lars G. Crabo, Paul C. Hammond, Richard S. Zack & Merrill A. Peterson
Climate change has caused shifts in the phenology and distributions of many species but comparing responses across species is challenged by inconsistencies in the methodology and taxonomic and temporal scope of individual studies. Natural history collections offer a rich source of data for examining phenological shifts for a large number of species. We paired specimen records from Pacific Northwest insect collections to climate data to analyze the responses of 215 moth species to interannual climate...

Data from: Why less complexity produces better forecasts: an independent data evaluation of kelp habitat models

Edward J. Gregr, Daniel M. Palacios, Allison Thompson, Kai M.A. Chan & Kai M. A. Chan
Understanding how species are distributed in the environment is increasingly important for natural resource management, particularly for keystone and habitat forming species, and those of conservation concern. Habitat suitability models are fundamental to developing this understanding; however their use in management continues to be limited due to often-vague model objectives and inadequate evaluation methods. Along the Northeast Pacific coast, canopy kelps (Macrocystis pyrifera and Nereocystis luetkeana) provide biogenic habitat and considerable primary production to nearshore...

Data from: Herbicides and herbivory interact to drive plant community and crop-tree establishment

Thomas D. Stokely, Jake Verschuyl, Joan C. Hagar & Matthew G. Betts
Land management practices often directly alter vegetation structure and composition, but the degree to which ecological processes such as herbivory interact with management to influence biodiversity is less well understood. We hypothesized that large herbivores compound the effects of intensive forest management on early-seral plant communities and plantation establishment (i.e., tree survival and growth), and the degree of such effects is dependent on the intensity of management practices. We established 225 m2 wild ungulate (deer...

Data from: Towards a predictive model of species interaction beta diversity

Catherine H. Graham, Benjamin G. Weinstein & Ben G. Weinstein
Species interactions are fundamental to community dynamics and ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress in describing species interactions, we lack the ability to predict changes in interactions across space and time. We outline a Bayesian approach to separate the probability of species co‐occurrence, interaction and detectability in influencing interaction betadiversity. We use a multi‐year hummingbird–plant time series, divided into training and testing data, to show that including models of detectability and occurrence improves forecasts of mutualistic...

Data from: Seasonal dynamics of spatial distribution and overlap between Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) and capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the Barents Sea

Johanna Fall, Lorenzo Ciannelli, Georg Skaret & Edda Johannesen
The trophic link between cod (Gadus sp.) and capelin (Mallotus sp.) is important in many panarctic ecosystems. Since the early 2000s, the Northeast Arctic cod stock (G. morhua) in the Barents Sea has increased greatly, and the sea has been exceptionally warm. Such changes have potentially large effects on species distributions and overlap, which in turn could affect the strength of species interactions. Due to its high latitude location, the Barents Sea has strong seasonal...

Data from: Systematic revision of Symbiodiniaceae highlights the antiquity and diversity of coral endosymbionts

Todd C. LaJeunesse, John Everett Parkinson, Paul W. Gabrielson, Hae Jin Jeong, James Davis Reimer, Christian R. Voolstra & Scott R. Santos
The advent of molecular data has transformed the science of organizing and studying life on Earth. Genetics-based evidence provides fundamental insights into the diversity, ecology, and origins of many biological systems, including the mutualisms between metazoan hosts and their micro-algal partners. A well-known example is the dinoflagellate endosymbionts (“zooxanthellae”) that power the growth of stony corals and coral reef ecosystems. Once assumed to encompass a single panmictic species, genetic evidence has revealed a divergent and...

Data from: Phylogenetic relationships and convergent evolution of ocean-shore ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidion and relatives)

David R. Maddison & Munetoshi Maruyama
Through phylogenetic analysis of seven genes, we show that there have been at least six independent entries into intertidal habitats in the history of bembidiine carabids, in the ancestors of: (i) Orzolina Machado, (ii) Bembidion (Desarmatocillenus Netolitzky), (iii) Bembidion laticeps (LeConte) + palosverdes Kavanaugh & Erwin, (iv) Bembidion laterale (Samouelle), (v) Bembidion umi Sasakawa and Bembidion quadriimpressum (Motschulsky) (which may represent two separate entries), and (vi) B. nigropiceum (Marsham). The following lineages are widely separated...

Data from: Response of Prochilodus nigricans to flood pulse variation in the central Amazon

Peter B. Bayley, Leandro Castello, Vandick S. Batista & Nidia N. Fabré
The influence of the flood pulse on fish populations has been posited, but infrequently tested or quantified. Here, we tested the effect of habitat on population size, using Prochilodus nigricans as a case study species. Floodplain habitat was based on the littoral zone area occupied by P. nigricans to feed. The magnitude of this habitat in each hydrological year, the moving littoral (ML), was expressed as the sum of daily littoral areas during the advancing...

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