40 Works

Data from: Local and regional stressors interact to drive a salinization-induced outbreak of predators on oyster reefs

David L. Kimbro, J. Wilson White, Hanna Tillotson, Nikkie Cox, Megan Christopher, Owen Stokes-Cawley, Samantha Yuan, Tim J. Pusack, Christopher D. Stallings & Timothy J. Pusack
Predator outbreaks are predicted to increasingly decimate economically and ecologically important prey populations because global climate change and food-web modifications frequently facilitate predators and stress prey. Natural systems are organized hierarchically, with processes operating at multiple scales giving rise to patterns of biodiversity, so predicting and managing outbreaks requires a framework that accounts for the effects of both local and regional stressors. Here, we used the comparative experimental approach to investigate whether the collapse of...

Data from: 2D or Not 2D? Testing the utility of 2D vs. 3D landmark data in geometric morphometrics of the sculpin subfamily Oligocottinae (Pisces; Cottoidea)

Thaddaeus J Buser, Brian L Sidlauskas, Adam P Summers, Thaddaeus J. Buser, Brian L. Sidlauskas & Adam P. Summers
We contrast 2D vs. 3D landmark‐based geometric morphometrics in the fish subfamily Oligocottinae by using 3D landmarks from CT‐generated models and comparing the morphospace of the 3D landmarks to one based on 2D landmarks from images. The 2D and 3D shape variables capture common patterns across taxa, such that the pairwise Procrustes distances among taxa correspond and the trends captured by principal component analysis are similar in the xy plane. We use the two sets...

Data from: Distinguishing distribution dynamics from temporary emigration using dynamic occupancy models

Jonathon J. Valente, Rebecca A. Hutchinson & Matthew G. Betts
1. Dynamic occupancy models are popular for estimating dynamic distribution rates (colonization and extinction) from repeated presence/absence surveys of unmarked animals. This approach assumes closure among repeated samples within primary periods, allowing estimation of dynamic rates between these periods. However, the impact of temporary emigration (reversible changes in sampling availability) on dynamic rate estimates, has not been tested. 2. Using simulated data, we investigated the degree to which temporary emigration could mislead researchers interested in...

Data from: Learning from the past to prepare for the future: felids face continued threat from declining prey richness

Christopher James Sandom, Soren Faurby, Jens C. Svenning, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Amy Hinks, Ewan A. Macdonald, Bill Ripple, Jake Williams, David Macdonald, C. J. Sandom, S. Faurby, W. J. Ripple, J.-C. Svenning, D. Burnham, A. Dickman, A. E. Hinks, E. A. Macdonald, J. Williams & D. W. Macdonald
Many contemporary species of large-felids (>15 kg) feed upon prey that are endangered, raising concern that prey population declines (defaunation) will further threaten felids. We assess the threat that defaunation presents by investigating a late Quaternary (LQ), ‘present-natural’ counterfactual scenario. Our present-natural counterfactual is based on predicted ranges of mammals today in the absence of any impacts of modern humans (Homo sapiens) through time. Data from our present-natural counterfactual are used to understand firstly how...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis in dogs implicates 99 loci as risk variants for anterior cruciate ligament rupture

Lauren A. Baker, Brian Kirkpatrick, Guilherme J.M. Rosa, Daniel Gianola, Bruno Valente, Julia P. Sumner, Wendy Baltzer, Zhengling Hao, Emily E. Binversie, Nicola Volstad, Alexander Piazza, Susannah J. Sample, Peter Muir & Guilherme J. M. Rosa
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is common condition that can be devastating and life changing, particularly in young adults. A non-contact mechanism is typical. Second ACL ruptures through rupture of the contralateral ACL or rupture of a graft repair is also common. Risk of rupture is increased in females. ACL rupture is also common in dogs. Disease prevalence exceeds 5% in several dog breeds, ~100 fold higher than human beings. We provide insight into the...

Data from: Impacts of temperature and lunar day on gene expression profiles during a monthly reproductive cycle in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis

Camerron M. Crowder, Eli Meyer, Tung-Yung Fan & Virginia M. Weis
Reproductive timing in brooding corals has been correlated to temperature and lunar irradiance, but the mechanisms by which corals transduce these environmental variables into molecular signals are unknown. To gain insight into these processes, global gene expression profiles in the coral Pocillopora damicornis were examined (via RNA-Seq) across lunar phases and between temperature treatments, during a monthly planulation cycle. The interaction of temperature and lunar day together had the largest influence on gene expression. Mean...

Data from: Cryptic species in the mountaintops: species delimitation and taxonomy of the Bembidion breve species group (Coleoptera: Carabidae) aided by genomic architecture of a century-old type specimen

John S. Sproul, David R. Maddison, John S Sproul & David R Maddison
The breve species group includes closely related Bembidion Latreille ground beetles commonly found at high elevation in the mountains of western North America. For several decades, the group has been considered to consist of two species. Here, we present evidence from morphological, molecular and geographic data that the group contains nine species: Bembidion ampliatum, B. breve, B. geopearlis, B. laxatum, B. lividulum, B. oromaia, B. saturatum, B. testatum and B. vulcanix. We describe three species...

Data from: Quantifying predator dependence in the functional response of generalist predators

Mark Novak, Christopher Wolf, Kyle E. Coblentz & Isaac D. Shepard
A long-standing debate concerns how functional responses are best described. Theory suggests that ratio dependence is consistent with many food web patterns left unexplained by the simplest prey-dependent models. However, for logistical reasons, ratio dependence and predator dependence more generally have seen infrequent empirical evaluation and then only so in specialist predators, which are rare in nature. Here we develop an approach to simultaneously estimate the prey-specific attack rates and predator-specific interference (facilitation) rates of...

Data from: Serum biochemistry panels in African buffalo: Defining reference intervals and assessing variability across season, age and sex

Claire E. Couch, Morgan A. Movius, Anna E. Jolles, M. Elena D. Gorman, Johanna D. Rigas, Brianna R. Beechler & M. Elena Gorman
Serum biochemical parameters can be utilized to evaluate the physiological status of an animal, and relate it to the animal’s health. In order to accurately interpret individual animal biochemical results, species-specific reference intervals (RI) must be established. Reference intervals for biochemical parameters differ between species, and physiological differences including reproductive status, nutritional resource availability, disease status, and age affect parameters within the same species. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish RI for...

Data from: Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA

John S. Sproul & David R. Maddison
Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3–6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58–159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens...

Data from: Environmental structure and energetic consequences in groups of young mice

Delia S. Shelton, Paul M. Meyer & Karen M. Ocasio
Microenvironments can have considerable physiological consequences for the inhabitants by influencing the movements of individual members. The microenvironment can permit more diverse aggregation patterns or restrict movements to certain dimensions. Here, we tested whether aspects of the microenvironment that influenced aggregation patterns also influenced the energetics of groups of young animals. We tested the effects of enclosure configuration on the group temperature and respiration of infant mice (Mus musculus). We monitored the huddle temperature and...

Data from: Community water improvement, household water insecurity, and women’s psychological distress: an intervention and control study in Ethiopia

Edward G. J. Stevenson, Argaw Ambelu, Bethany A. Caruso, Yihenew Tesfaye, Matthew C. Freeman, E. G. J. Stevenson, A. Ambelu, B. A. Caruso, Y. Tesfaye & M. C. Freeman
Background: Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to ‘improved’ sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of...

Data from: Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

Nicky Rollings, Emily J. Uhrig, Randolf W. Krohmer, Heather L. Waye, Robert T. Mason, Mats Olsson, Camilla M. Whittington, Christopher R. Friesen & Randolph W. Krohmer
Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between...

Data from: Topsoil removal through scarification improves natural regeneration in high-graded Nothofagus old-growth forests

Daniel P. Soto & Klaus J. Puettmann
1.High grading by removing the majority of trees with superior timber quality has led to loss of productivity and biodiversity in forests. Typically, after high grading, little attention is given to tree regeneration. Thus, undesirable understory vegetation often dominates for a long time, leading to stagnation in forest recovery and so-called arrested succession. In such settings, managing understory vegetation using topsoil removal through scarification has been proposed as a restoration tool to encourage tree regeneration....

Data from: Primary rainforest amount at the landscape scale mitigates bird biodiversity loss and biotic homogenization

Urs G. Kormann, Adam S. Hadley, Teja Tscharntke, Matthew G. Betts, W. Douglas Robinson & Christoph Scherber
1.Tropical conservation strategies traditionally focus on large tracts of pristine forests, but given rapid primary forest decline, understanding the role of secondary forest remnants for biodiversity maintenance is critical. Until now, the interactive effects of changes in forest amount, configuration and disturbance history (secondary vs. primary forest) on the conservation value of tropical landscapes has remained unknown, hampering the incorporation of these global change drivers into local and global conservation planning. 2.We disentangled effects of...

Data from: Dynamic occupancy modeling reveals a hierarchy of competition among fishers, grey foxes, and ringtails

David S. Green, Sean M. Matthews, Robert C. Swiers, Richard L. Callas, J. Scott Yaeger, Stuart L. Farber, Michael K. Schwartz, Roger A. Powell & J. Scott Yaeger
1. Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence are particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. 2. We studied the effects of removing 9 fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and ringtails (Bassariscus...

Data from: Physconia labrata, a new species from western North America and Asia

Theodore L. Esslinger, Bruce McCune & Diane L. Haughland
A new species belonging to the lichen genus Physconia is described from Alaska and the Canadian and American Rocky Mountains and adjacent forested regions. It is also reported from China, Nepal, India and Siberia. The new species, Physconia labrata, is superficially similar to P. perisidiosa, but can be distinguished by having a blackened, corticate lower surface and a paraplectenchymatous upper cortex.

Data from: Forest fragmentation and loss reduce richness, availability, and specialization in tropical hummingbird communities

Adam S. Hadley, Sarah J. K. Frey, W. Douglas Robinson & Matthew G. Betts
Hummingbirds are important pollinators of many native Neotropical plants but their abundance and diversity in landscapes dominated by intensive human uses such as agriculture have rarely been examined, despite such land-uses prevailing in the tropics. We examined how tropical deforestation affects hummingbird community structure in premontane forest patches embedded in a tropical countryside of Coto Brus Canton, Costa Rica. We captured hummingbirds in fourteen landscapes representing a gradient in patch size and forest amount, and...

Data from: A computer vision for animal ecology

Ben G. Weinstein
1. A central goal of animal ecology is to observe species in the natural world. The cost and challenge of data collection often limit the breadth and scope of ecological study. Ecologists often use image capture to bolster data collection in time and space. However, the ability to process these images remains a bottleneck. 2. Computer vision can greatly increase the efficiency, repeatability, and accuracy of image review. Computer vision uses image features, such as...

Data from: Predator foraging response to a resurgent dangerous prey

Aimee Tallian, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, Rick L. Wallen, Chris Geremia, Joel Ruprecht, C. Travis Wyman & Daniel R. MacNulty
Prey switching occurs when a generalist predator kills disproportionately more of an abundant prey species and correspondingly spares a rarer species. Although this behaviour is a classic stabilizing mechanism in food web models, little is known about its operation in free-living systems which often include dangerous prey species that resist predation. We used long-term (1995–2015) data from a large mammal system in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA, to understand how prey preference of a wild,...

Data from: Isotopic niche variation from the Holocene to today reveals minimal partitioning and individualistic dynamics among four sympatric desert mice

Rebecca C. Terry
1.Species interact with each other and their environment over a range of temporal scales, yet our understanding of resource partitioning and the mechanisms of species coexistence is largely restricted to modern time-scales of years to decades. Furthermore, the relative magnitudes of inter- versus intraspecific variation in resource use are rarely considered, despite the potential for the latter to influence a species’ ability to cope with changing environmental conditions. 2.Modern desert rodent communities are thought to...

Data from: Variable competitive effects of fungicide resistance in field experiments with a plant pathogenic fungus

Christina H. Hagerty, Ryan C. Graebner, Kathryn E. Sackett & Christopher C. Mundt
Classic evolutionary theory suggests that mutations associated with antimicrobial and pesticide resistance result in a fitness cost in the absence of the selective antimicrobial agent or pesticide. There is experimental evidence to support fitness costs associated with resistance to anti-microbial compounds and pesticides across many biological disciplines, including human pathology, entomology, plant sciences, and plant pathology. However, researchers have also found examples of neutral and increased fitness associated with resistance, where the effect of a...

Data from: First circumglobal assessment of Southern Hemisphere humpback whale mitochondrial genetic variation and implications for management

Howard C. Rosenbaum, Francine Kershaw, Martin Mendez, Cristina Pomilla, Matthew S. Leslie, Ken P. Findlay, Peter B. Best, Timothy Collins, Michel Vely, Marcia H. Engel, Robert Baldwin, Gianna Minton, Michael Meyer, Lillian Florez-Gonzalez, M. Michael Poole, Nan Hauser, Claire Garrigue, Muriel Brasseur, John Bannister, Megan Anderson, Carlos Olavarria & C. Scott Baker
The description of genetic population structure over a species’ geographic range can provide insights into its evolutionary history and also support effective management efforts. Assessments for globally distributed species are rare, however, requiring significant international coordination and collaboration. The global distribution of demographically discrete populations for the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae is not fully known, hampering the definition of appropriate management units. Here, we present the first circumglobal assessment of mitochondrial genetic population structure across...

Data from: Disentangling the pathways of land use impacts on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazon streams

Rafael P. Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, David Mouillot, Cecília G. Leal, Robert M. Hughes, Philip R. Kaufmann, Sébastien Villéger, Paulo S. Pompeu, Daniele Kasper, Felipe R. De Paula, Silvio F. B. Ferraz & Toby A. Gardner
Agricultural land use is a primary driver of environmental impacts on streams. However, the causal processes that shape these impacts operate through multiple pathways and at several spatial scales. This complexity undermines the development of more effective management approaches, and illustrates the need for more in-depth studies to assess the mechanisms that determine changes in stream biodiversity. Here we present results of the most comprehensive multi-scale assessment of the biological condition of streams in the...

Data from: New taxa and a case of ephemeral spore production in Lecideaceae from western North America

Bruce McCune, Marc J. Curtis & Joseph Di Meglio
Cyclohymenia epilithica is a newly described genus and species from Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. It occurs on noncalcareous rock in the oceanic forests west of the crest of the Cascade Range. Unlike most other North American species in the Lecideaceae, it is restricted to shady habitats in cool, wet, temperate climates. It is distinguished from other members of the family by its thick, pale gray green, epilithic thallus; immersed apothecia that superficially appear like perithecia...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40

Affiliations

  • Oregon State University
    40
  • Utah State University
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • University of Washington
    2
  • University of California System
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • Federal University of Lavras
    2
  • Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Göttingen
    2
  • Purdue University West Lafayette
    2
  • University of South Florida
    2
  • Environmental Protection Agency
    2
  • Lancaster University
    2
  • Stockholm Environment Institute
    2