52 Works

Needs and Stress in Fraternity and Sorority Life: Evidence of Social and Behavioral Differences Among Sorority and Fraternity Members

Gabriel Serna, Dawn Wiese & Stephen Simo

Data from: Plant defense negates pathogen manipulation of vector behavior

Baiming Liu, Evan L. Preisser, Xiaobin Shi, Huaitong Wu, Chuanyou Li, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu & Youjun Zhang
1. Although many vector-borne plant pathogens can alter vector behavior to the pathogen's benefit, how plants might counter such manipulation is unknown. 2. In the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (‘TYLCV’)-Bemisia tabaci-tomato interaction, TYLCV-mediated changes in Bemisia feeding improves viral uptake and transmission. We tested how jasmonic acid (‘JA’), a central regulator of plant anti-herbivore defenses, affected the ability of TYLCV to (A) manipulate Bemisia behavior; and (B) infect plants. 3. Viruliferous Bemisia fed much...

Phylogeographic and phenotypic outcomes of brown anole colonization across the Caribbean provide insight into the beginning stages of an adaptive radiation

Jason J. Kolbe, Richard E. Glor, Marta López‐Darias, C. Verónica Gómez Pourroy, Alexis S. Harrison, Kevin De Queiroz, Liam J. Revell, Jonathan B. Losos & Robert Graham Reynolds
Some of the most important insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes of diversification and speciation have come from studies of island adaptive radiations, yet relatively little research has examined how these radiations initiate. We suggest that Anolis sagrei is a candidate for understanding the origins of the Caribbean Anolis adaptive radiation and how a colonizing anole species begins to undergo allopatric diversification, phenotypic divergence and, potentially, speciation. We undertook a genomic and morphological analysis...

Data from: Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator

Michael E. Byrne, Enric Cortés, Jeremy J. Vaudo, Guy C. McN. Harvey, Mark Sampson, Bradley M. Wetherbee & Mahmood Shivji
Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the...

Data from: Extreme site fidelity as an optimal strategy in an unpredictable and homogeneous environment

Brian D. Gerber, Mevin B. Hooten, Christopher P. Peck, Mindy B. Rice, James H. Gammonley, Anthony D. Apa & Amy J. Davis
1. Animal site fidelity structures space-use, population demography, and ultimately gene flow. Understanding the adaptive selection for site fidelity patterns provides a mechanistic understanding to both spatial and population processes. This can be achieved by linking space-use with environmental variability (spatial and temporal) and demographic parameters. However, rarely is the environmental context that drives the selection for site fidelity behavior fully considered. 2. We use ecological theory to understand whether the spatial and temporal variability...

Species richness in North Atlantic fish: process concealed by pattern

Henrik Gislason, Jeremy Collie, Brian R. MacKenzie, Anders Nielsen, Maria De Fatima Borges, Teresa Bottari, Corina Chavez, Andrey V. Dolgov, Jakov Dulčić, Daniel Duplisea, Heino O. Fock, Didier Gascuel, Luís Gil De Sola, Jan Geert Hiddink, Remment Ter Hofstede, Igor Isajlović, Jónas Páll Jonasson, Ole Jørgensen, Kristján Kristinsson, Gudrun Marteinsdottir, Hicham Masski, Sanja Matić-Skoko, Mark R. Payne, Melita Peharda, Jakup Reinert … & Lilja Stefansdottir
Aim Previous analyses of marine fish species richness based on presence-absence data have shown changes with latitude and average species size, but little is known about the underlying processes. To elucidate these processes we use metabolic, neutral, and descriptive statistical models to analyse how richness responds to maximum species length, fish abundance, temperature, primary production, depth, latitude, and longitude, while accounting for differences in species catchability, sampling effort, and mesh size. Data Results from 53,382...

Data from: Universal target-enrichment baits for anthozoan (Cnidaria) phylogenomics: new approaches to long-standing problems

Andrea M. Quattrini, Brant C. Faircloth, Luisa F. Dueñas, Thomas C.L. Bridge, Mercer R. Brügler, Ivan F. Calixto-Botía, Danielle M. DeLeo, Sylvain Foret, Santiago Herrera, Simon M.Y. Lee, David J. Miller, Carlos Prada, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Juan A. Sánchez, Estefania Rodriguez, Catherine S. McFadden, Tom C. L. Bridge & Simon M. Y. Lee
Anthozoans (e.g., corals, anemones) are an ecologically important and diverse group of marine metazoans that occur from shallow to deep waters worldwide. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the ~7500 species within this class is hindered by the lack of phylogenetically informative markers that can be reliably sequenced across a diversity of taxa. We designed and tested 16,308 RNA baits to capture 720 Ultraconserved Element loci and 1,071 exon loci. Library preparation and...

Data from: Insecticides promote viral outbreaks by altering herbivore competition

Huipeng Pan, Evan L. Preisser, Dong Chu, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Yves Carrière, Xuguo Zhou & Youjun Zhang
While the management of biological invasions is often characterized by a series of single-species decisions, invasive species exist within larger food webs. These biotic interactions can alter the impact of control/eradication programs and may cause suppression efforts to inadvertently facilitate invasion spread and impact. We document the rapid replacement of the invasive Bemisia MEAM1 cryptic species by the cryptic MED species throughout China, and demonstrate that MED is more tolerant of insecticides and a better...

Data from: Revisiting Fisher: range size drives the correlation between variability and abundance of British bird eggs

Oriol Lapiedra & Trevor D. Price
We evaluate the correlation between intraspecific variation in egg size and population size in breeding British birds. Using information on abundance, range occupancy, migration status and phylogenetic relationships among species, we show that a wider geographical distribution rather than larger population size per se best predicts egg size variability. A similar result applies to wing length variability. Results from a phylogenetic path analysis suggest that geographical variation is the most parsimonious causal explanation for high...

Data from: Competition among native and invasive Phragmites australis populations: an experimental test of the effects of invasion status, genome size, and ploidy level.

Petr Pyšek, Jan Čuda, Petr Šmilauer, Hana Skálová, Zuzana Chumová, Carla Lambertini, Magdalena Lučanová, Hana Ryšavá, Pavel Trávníček, Kristýna Šemberová & Laura Meyerson
Among the traits whose relevance for plant invasions has recently been suggested are genome size (the amount of nuclear DNA) and ploidy level. So far, research on the role of genome size in invasiveness has been mostly based on indirect evidence by comparing species with different genome sizes, but how karyological traits influence competition at the intraspecific level remains unknown. We addressed these questions in a common‐garden experiment evaluating the outcome of direct intraspecific competition...

Data from: Intraspecific and biogeographic variation in foliar fungal communities and pathogen damage of native and invasive Phragmites australis

Warwick Allen, Aaron DeVries, Nicholas Bologna, Wesley Bickford, Kurt Kowalski, Laura Meyerson & James Cronin
Aim Recent research has highlighted that the relationship between species interactions and latitude can differ between native and invasive plant taxa, generating biogeographical heterogeneity in community resistance to plant invasions. In the first study with foliar pathogens, we tested whether co-occurring native and invasive lineages of common reed (Phragmites australis) exhibit nonparallel latitudinal gradients in foliar fungi communities, pathogen susceptibility and damage, and whether these biogeographic patterns can influence invasion success. Location North America. Time...

Even obligate symbioses show signs of ecological contingency: impacts of symbiosis for an invasive stinkbug are mediated by host plant context

Janelle Couret, Lynn Huynh-Griffin, Ivan Antolic-Soban, Tarik Acevedo-Gonzalez & Nicole Gerardo
Many species interactions are dependent on environmental context, yet the benefits of obligate, mutualistic microbial symbioses to their hosts are typically assumed to be universal across environments. We directly tested this assumption, focusing on the symbiosis between the sap-feeding insect Megacopta cribraria and its primary bacterial symbiont Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. We assessed host development time, survival, and body size in the presence and absence of the symbiont on two alternative host plants, and in the...

Data from: Scale‐dependent spatial patterns in benthic communities around a tropical island seascape

Eoghan A. Aston, Gareth J. Williams, J. A. Mattias Green, Andrew J. Davies, Lisa M. Wedding, Jamison M. Gove, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Timothy T. Jones & Jeanette Clark
Understanding and predicting patterns of spatial organization across ecological communities is central to the field of landscape ecology, and a similar line of inquiry has begun to evolve sub‐tidally among seascape ecologists. Much of our current understanding of the processes driving marine community patterns, particularly in the tropics, has come from small‐scale, spatially‐discrete data that are often not representative of the broader seascape. Here we expand the spatial extent of seascape ecology studies and combine...

Data from: El Niño drives a widespread ulcerative skin disease outbreak in Galapagos marine fishes

Robert W. Lamb, Franz Smith, Anaide W. Aued, Pelayo Salinas-De-León, Jenifer Suarez, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Roxanna Smolowitz, Cem Giray & Jon D. Witman
Climate change increases local climatic variation and unpredictability, which can alter ecological interactions and trigger wildlife disease outbreaks. Here we describe an unprecedented multi-species outbreak of wild fish disease driven by a climate perturbation. The 2015–16 El Niño generated a +2.5 °C sea surface temperature anomaly in the Galapagos Islands lasting six months. This coincided with a novel ulcerative skin disease affecting 18 teleost species from 13 different families. Disease signs included scale loss and...

Spatial scaling properties of coral reef benthic communities

Helen Ford, Jamison Gove, Andrew Davies, Nicholas Graham, John Healey, Eric Conklin & Gareth Williams
The spatial structure of ecological communities on tropical coral reefs across seascapes and geographies have historically been poorly understood. Here we addressed this for the first time using spatially expansive and thematically resolved benthic community data collected around five uninhabited central Pacific oceanic islands, spanning 6° latitude and 17° longitude. Using towed-diver digital image surveys over ~140 linear km of shallow (8 – 20 m depth) tropical reef, we highlight the autocorrelated nature of coral...

Data from: Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles

Marc Rius, Elaine E. Potter, John J. Stachowicz & J. David Aguirre
1. Biotic resistance is the ability of communities to inhibit the establishment, spread or impact of novel species. However, the interactions that underlie biotic resistance depend heavily on the contexts in which species interact. Consequently, studies of biotic resistance that consider single processes, patches, species or life-history stages may provide an incomplete picture of the capacity for communities to resist invasion. 2. Many organisms have multiphasic life cycles, where individuals can occupy distinct niches at...

Data from: Lineage and latitudinal variation in Phragmites australis tolerance to herbivory: implications for invasion success

Jordan Croy, Laura Meyerson, Warwick Allen, Ganesh Bhattarai & James T. Cronin
Herbivores play a critical role in plant invasions either by facilitating or inhibiting species establishment and spread. However, relatively few studies with invasive plant species have focused on the role of plant tolerance and how it varies geographically to influence invasion success. We conducted a common garden study using two lineages (native and invasive) of the grass Phragmites australis that are prevalent in North American wetlands. Using 31 populations collected across a broad geographic range,...

Data from: Optimized fishing through periodically harvested closures

Paul G. Carvalho, Stacy D. Jupiter, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Jordan Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Rebecca Weeks, Austin Humphries & Crow White
1. Periodically harvested closures are a widespread, centuries-old form of fisheries management that protects fish between pulse harvests and can generate high harvest efficiency by reducing fish wariness of fishing gear. However, the ability for periodic closures to also support high fisheries yields and healthy marine ecosystems is uncertain, despite increased promotion of periodic closures for managing fisheries and conserving ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. 2. We developed a bioeconomic fisheries model that considers changes in...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Data from: Migrating songbirds on stopover prepare for, and recover from, oxidative challenges posed by long-distance flight

Megan M. Skrip, Ulf Bauchinger, Wolfgang Goymann, Leonida Fusani, Massimiliano Cardinale, Rebecca R. Alan & Scott R. McWilliams
Managing oxidative stress is an important physiological function for all aerobic organisms, particularly during periods of prolonged high metabolic activity, such as long-distance migration across ecological barriers. However, no previous study has investigated the oxidative status of birds at different stages of migration and whether that oxidative status depends on the condition of the birds. In this study, we compared (1) energy stores and circulating oxidative status measures in (a) two species of Neotropical migrants...

Data from: Modeling spatiotemporal abundance of mobile wildlife in highly variable environments using boosted GAMLSS hurdle models

Adam Smith, Benjamin Hofner, Juliet S. Lamb, Jason Osenkowski, Taber Allison, Giancarlo Sadoti, Scott McWilliams & Peter Paton
1. Modeling organism distributions from survey data involves numerous statistical challenges, including zero-inflation, overdispersion, and selection and incorporation of environmental covariates. In environments with high spatial and temporal variability, addressing these challenges often requires numerous assumptions regarding organism distributions and their relationships to biophysical features. These assumptions may limit the resolution or accuracy of predictions resulting from survey-based distribution models. 2. We propose an iterative modeling approach that incorporates a negative binomial hurdle, followed by...

Cryptic lineages respond differently to coral bleaching

Matías Gómez-Corrales & Carlos Prada
Coral cover is decreasing worldwide largely as a result of a rise in seawater temperatures that triggers coral bleaching and induces coral mortality. How coral reefs will respond to climate change will be a function of genetic variation and how it is partitioned within and among species. A critical initial step is to accurately delineate species and quantify their physiological potential to cope with heat stress. Cryptic species are morphologically similar but genetically distinct and...

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Experimental evolution: assortative mating and sexual selection, independent of local adaptation, lead to reproductive isolation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei

Dean M. Castillo, Melissa K. Burger, Curtis M. Lively & Lynda F. Delph
Using experimental evolution, we investigated the contributions of ecological divergence, sexual selection, and genetic drift to the evolution of reproductive isolation in Caenorhabditis remanei. The nematodes were reared on two different environments for 100 generations. They were assayed for fitness on both environments after 30, 64, and 100 generations, and hybrid fitnesses were analyzed after 64 and 100 generations. Mating propensity within and between populations was also analyzed. The design allowed us to determine whether...

Data from: City slickers: poor performance does not deter Anolis lizards from using artificial substrates in human-modified habitats

Jason J. Kolbe, Andrew C. Battles & Kevin J. Avilés-Rodríguez
1. As animals move through their environments they encounter a variety of substrates, which have important effects on their locomotor performance. Habitat modification can alter the types of substrates available for locomotion. In particular, many types of artificial substrates have been added to urban areas, but effects of these novel surfaces on animal locomotion are little-known. 2. In this study, we assessed locomotor performance of two Anolis lizard species (A. cristatellus and A. stratulus) on...

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