32 Works

Species richness in North Atlantic fish: process concealed by pattern

Henrik Gislason, Jeremy Collie, Brian R. MacKenzie, Anders Nielsen, Maria De Fatima Borges, Teresa Bottari, Corina Chavez, Andrey V. Dolgov, Jakov Dulčić, Daniel Duplisea, Heino O. Fock, Didier Gascuel, Luís Gil De Sola, Jan Geert Hiddink, Remment Ter Hofstede, Igor Isajlović, Jónas Páll Jonasson, Ole Jørgensen, Kristján Kristinsson, Gudrun Marteinsdottir, Hicham Masski, Sanja Matić-Skoko, Mark R. Payne, Melita Peharda, Jakup Reinert … & Lilja Stefansdottir
Aim Previous analyses of marine fish species richness based on presence-absence data have shown changes with latitude and average species size, but little is known about the underlying processes. To elucidate these processes we use metabolic, neutral, and descriptive statistical models to analyse how richness responds to maximum species length, fish abundance, temperature, primary production, depth, latitude, and longitude, while accounting for differences in species catchability, sampling effort, and mesh size. Data Results from 53,382...

The effects of dietary linoleic acid and hydrophilic antioxidants on basal, peak, and sustained metabolism in flight trained European Starlings

Wales Carter, Kristen DeMoranville, Barbara Pierce & Scott McWilliams
Dietary micronutrients have the ability to strongly influence animal physiology and ecology. For songbirds, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants are hypothesized to be particularly important micronutrients because of their influence on an individual’s capacity for aerobic metabolism and recovery from extended bouts of exercise. However, the influence of specific fatty acids and hydrophilic antioxidants on whole-animal performance remain largely untested. We used diet manipulations to directly test the effects of dietary PUFA, specifically...

Phylogeographic and phenotypic outcomes of brown anole colonization across the Caribbean provide insight into the beginning stages of an adaptive radiation

Jason J. Kolbe, Richard E. Glor, Marta López‐Darias, C. Verónica Gómez Pourroy, Alexis S. Harrison, Kevin De Queiroz, Liam J. Revell, Jonathan B. Losos & Robert Graham Reynolds
Some of the most important insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes of diversification and speciation have come from studies of island adaptive radiations, yet relatively little research has examined how these radiations initiate. We suggest that Anolis sagrei is a candidate for understanding the origins of the Caribbean Anolis adaptive radiation and how a colonizing anole species begins to undergo allopatric diversification, phenotypic divergence and, potentially, speciation. We undertook a genomic and morphological analysis...

Even obligate symbioses show signs of ecological contingency: impacts of symbiosis for an invasive stinkbug are mediated by host plant context

Janelle Couret, Lynn Huynh-Griffin, Ivan Antolic-Soban, Tarik Acevedo-Gonzalez & Nicole Gerardo
Many species interactions are dependent on environmental context, yet the benefits of obligate, mutualistic microbial symbioses to their hosts are typically assumed to be universal across environments. We directly tested this assumption, focusing on the symbiosis between the sap-feeding insect Megacopta cribraria and its primary bacterial symbiont Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. We assessed host development time, survival, and body size in the presence and absence of the symbiont on two alternative host plants, and in the...

Data from: Artificial light at night increases growth and reproductive output in Anolis lizards

Christopher Thawley & Jason Kolbe
Since the invention of electric lighting, artificial light at night (ALAN) has become a defining, and evolutionarily novel, feature of human-altered environments especially in cities. ALAN imposes negative impacts on many organisms, including disrupting endocrine function, metabolism, and reproduction. However, we do not know how generalized these impacts are across taxa that exploit urban environments. We exposed brown anole lizards, an abundant and invasive urban exploiter, to relevant levels of ALAN in the lab and...

Fruit syndromes in Viburnum: correlated evolution of color, nutritional content, and morphology in bird-dispersed fleshy fruits

Miranda Sinnott-Armstrong, Chong Lee, Wendy Clement & Michael Donoghue
Premise A key question in plant dispersal via animal vectors is where and why fruit colors vary between species and how color relates to other fruit traits. To better understand the factors shaping the evolution of fruit color diversity, we tested for the existence of syndromes of traits (color, morphology, and nutrition) in the fruits of Viburnum. We placed these results in a larger phylogenetic context and reconstructed ancestral states to assess how Viburnum fruit...

Data from: Extreme site fidelity as an optimal strategy in an unpredictable and homogeneous environment

Brian D. Gerber, Mevin B. Hooten, Christopher P. Peck, Mindy B. Rice, James H. Gammonley, Anthony D. Apa & Amy J. Davis
1. Animal site fidelity structures space-use, population demography, and ultimately gene flow. Understanding the adaptive selection for site fidelity patterns provides a mechanistic understanding to both spatial and population processes. This can be achieved by linking space-use with environmental variability (spatial and temporal) and demographic parameters. However, rarely is the environmental context that drives the selection for site fidelity behavior fully considered. 2. We use ecological theory to understand whether the spatial and temporal variability...

Data from: Scale‐dependent spatial patterns in benthic communities around a tropical island seascape

Eoghan A. Aston, Gareth J. Williams, J. A. Mattias Green, Andrew J. Davies, Lisa M. Wedding, Jamison M. Gove, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Timothy T. Jones & Jeanette Clark
Understanding and predicting patterns of spatial organization across ecological communities is central to the field of landscape ecology, and a similar line of inquiry has begun to evolve sub‐tidally among seascape ecologists. Much of our current understanding of the processes driving marine community patterns, particularly in the tropics, has come from small‐scale, spatially‐discrete data that are often not representative of the broader seascape. Here we expand the spatial extent of seascape ecology studies and combine...

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates

Jan Geert Hiddink, Simon Jennings, Marija Sciberras, Stefan Bolam, Giulia Cambie, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Michel Kaiser, Adriaan Rijnsdorp, Jeremy S. Collie, Michel J. Kaiser, Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp & Robert A. McConnaughey
1. Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity...

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, Brodie III., Edmund D. & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Universal target-enrichment baits for anthozoan (Cnidaria) phylogenomics: new approaches to long-standing problems

Andrea M. Quattrini, Brant C. Faircloth, Luisa F. Dueñas, Thomas C.L. Bridge, Mercer R. Brügler, Ivan F. Calixto-Botía, Danielle M. DeLeo, Sylvain Foret, Santiago Herrera, Simon M.Y. Lee, David J. Miller, Carlos Prada, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Catalina Ramírez-Portilla, Juan A. Sánchez, Estefania Rodriguez, Catherine S. McFadden, Tom C. L. Bridge & Simon M. Y. Lee
Anthozoans (e.g., corals, anemones) are an ecologically important and diverse group of marine metazoans that occur from shallow to deep waters worldwide. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the ~7500 species within this class is hindered by the lack of phylogenetically informative markers that can be reliably sequenced across a diversity of taxa. We designed and tested 16,308 RNA baits to capture 720 Ultraconserved Element loci and 1,071 exon loci. Library preparation and...

Data from: Archipelagic genetics in a widespread Caribbean anole

Robert Graham Reynolds, Tanner R. Strickland, Jason J. Kolbe, Bryan G. Falk, Gad Perry, Liam J. Revell, Jonathan B. Losos & R. Graham Reynolds
Aim We examine the influence of fluctuating sea levels in a land-bridge archipelago on the apportioning of intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence in the widespread Puerto Rican crested anole (Anolis cristatellus). We compare three alternative scenarios for genetic diversification in an archipelagic species that contrast the relative influences of periodic isolation versus island connectedness driven by fluctuating sea levels. Our approach combines information from geography and population genetics to assess the influence of island size,...

Data from: Individual and non-additive effects of exotic sap-feeders on root functional and mycorrhizal traits of a shared conifer host

Robert N. Schaeffer, Claire M. Wilson, Laura Radville, Mauri Barrett, Elizabeth Whitney, Sofia Roitman, Esther R. Miller, Benjamin E. Wolfe, Carol S. Thornber, Colin M. Orians & Evan L. Preisser
Forest pests drive tree mortality through disruption of functional traits linked to nutrient acquisition, growth, and reproduction. The impacts of attack by individual or multiple aboveground herbivores on root functional traits critical to tree health have received little attention. This is especially true for exotic herbivores, organisms often found in disturbed forests. We excavated whole-root systems from eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) individuals experimentally infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale...

Data from: Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator

Michael E. Byrne, Enric Cortés, Jeremy J. Vaudo, Guy C. McN. Harvey, Mark Sampson, Bradley M. Wetherbee & Mahmood Shivji
Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the...

Data from: Predation risk perception, food density and conspecific cues shape foraging decisions in a tropical lizard

Maximilian Drakeley, Oriol Lapiedra & Jason J. Kolbe
When foraging, animals can maximize their fitness if they are able to tailor their foraging decisions to current environmental conditions. When making foraging decisions, individuals need to assess the benefits of foraging while accounting for the potential risks of being captured by a predator. However, whether and how different factors interact to shape these decisions is not yet well understood, especially in individual foragers. Here we present a standardized set of manipulative field experiments in...

Data from: Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles

M. Rius, Elaine E. Potter, John J. Stachowicz, J. David Aguirre & Marc Rius
1. Biotic resistance is the ability of communities to inhibit the establishment, spread or impact of novel species. However, the interactions that underlie biotic resistance depend heavily on the contexts in which species interact. Consequently, studies of biotic resistance that consider single processes, patches, species or life-history stages may provide an incomplete picture of the capacity for communities to resist invasion. 2. Many organisms have multiphasic life cycles, where individuals can occupy distinct niches at...

Data from: Global population genetic dynamics of a highly migratory, apex predator shark

Andrea M. Bernard, Kevin A. Feldheim, Michael R. Heithaus, Sabine P. Wintner, Bradley M. Wetherbee & Mahmood S. Shivji
Knowledge of genetic connectivity dynamics in the world's large-bodied, highly migratory, apex predator sharks across their global ranges is limited. One such species, the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), occurs worldwide in warm temperate and tropical waters, uses remarkably diverse habitats (nearshore to pelagic) and possesses a generalist diet that can structure marine ecosystems through top-down processes. We investigated the phylogeography and the global population structure of this exploited, phylogenetically enigmatic shark by using 10 nuclear...

Data from: Post Permo-Triassic terrestrial vertebrate recovery southwestern United States

David A. Tarailo & David E. Fastovsky
Recovery of marine biodiversity following the Permo-Triassic extinction is thought to have been delayed relative to other mass extinctions. Terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity is said to have taken as much as 15 Myr longer to recover than the marine. The present study tests, at the scale of an individual fossil community, whether a disparity in biodiversity existed in the American Southwest, between the Moenkopi Formation, containing an early Middle Triassic (Anisian) terrestrial tetrapod fauna, and the...

Data from: Pythons, parasites and pests: anthropogenic impacts on Sarcocystis (Sarcocystidae) transmission in a multi-host system

Anne Devan-Song, Sonja Luz, Abraham Mathew, Mary-Ruth Low & David P. Bickford
Parasites are essential components of ecosystems and can be instrumental in maintaining host diversity and populations; however, their role in trophic interactions has often been overlooked. Three apicomplexan parasite species of Sarcocystis (S. singaporensis, S. zamani, and S. villivillosi) use the reticulated python as their definitive hosts and several species within the Rattus genus as intermediate hosts, and they form a system useful for studying interactions between host–parasite and predator–prey relationships, as well as anthropogenic...

Data from: Experimental evolution: assortative mating and sexual selection, independent of local adaptation, lead to reproductive isolation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei

Dean M. Castillo, Melissa K. Burger, Curtis M. Lively & Lynda F. Delph
Using experimental evolution, we investigated the contributions of ecological divergence, sexual selection, and genetic drift to the evolution of reproductive isolation in Caenorhabditis remanei. The nematodes were reared on two different environments for 100 generations. They were assayed for fitness on both environments after 30, 64, and 100 generations, and hybrid fitnesses were analyzed after 64 and 100 generations. Mating propensity within and between populations was also analyzed. The design allowed us to determine whether...

Data from: Episodic disturbance from boat anchoring is a major contributor to, but does not alter the trajectory of, long-term coral reef decline

Graham E. Forrester, Rebecca L. Flynn, Linda M. Forrester & Lianna L. Jarecki
Isolating the relative effects of episodic disturbances and chronic stressors on long-term community change is challenging. We assessed the impact of an episodic disturbance associated with human visitation (boat anchoring) relative to other drivers of long-term change on coral reefs. A one-time anchoring event at Crab Cove, British Virgin Islands, in 2004 caused rapid losses of coral and reef structural complexity that were equal to the cumulative decline over 23 years observed at an adjacent...

Data from: Revisiting Fisher: range size drives the correlation between variability and abundance of British bird eggs

Oriol Lapiedra, Trevor D. Price, O. Lapiedra & T. D. Price
We evaluate the correlation between intraspecific variation in egg size and population size in breeding British birds. Using information on abundance, range occupancy, migration status and phylogenetic relationships among species, we show that a wider geographical distribution rather than larger population size per se best predicts egg size variability. A similar result applies to wing length variability. Results from a phylogenetic path analysis suggest that geographical variation is the most parsimonious causal explanation for high...

Data from: Migrating songbirds on stopover prepare for, and recover from, oxidative challenges posed by long-distance flight

Megan M. Skrip, Ulf Bauchinger, Wolfgang Goymann, Leonida Fusani, Massimiliano Cardinale, Rebecca R. Alan & Scott R. McWilliams
Managing oxidative stress is an important physiological function for all aerobic organisms, particularly during periods of prolonged high metabolic activity, such as long-distance migration across ecological barriers. However, no previous study has investigated the oxidative status of birds at different stages of migration and whether that oxidative status depends on the condition of the birds. In this study, we compared (1) energy stores and circulating oxidative status measures in (a) two species of Neotropical migrants...

Data from: Plant defense negates pathogen manipulation of vector behavior

Baiming Liu, Evan L. Preisser, Xiaobin Shi, Huaitong Wu, Chuanyou Li, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu & Youjun Zhang
1. Although many vector-borne plant pathogens can alter vector behavior to the pathogen's benefit, how plants might counter such manipulation is unknown. 2. In the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (‘TYLCV’)-Bemisia tabaci-tomato interaction, TYLCV-mediated changes in Bemisia feeding improves viral uptake and transmission. We tested how jasmonic acid (‘JA’), a central regulator of plant anti-herbivore defenses, affected the ability of TYLCV to (A) manipulate Bemisia behavior; and (B) infect plants. 3. Viruliferous Bemisia fed much...

Data from: City slickers: poor performance does not deter Anolis lizards from using artificial substrates in human-modified habitats

Jason J. Kolbe, Andrew C. Battles & Kevin J. Avilés-Rodríguez
1. As animals move through their environments they encounter a variety of substrates, which have important effects on their locomotor performance. Habitat modification can alter the types of substrates available for locomotion. In particular, many types of artificial substrates have been added to urban areas, but effects of these novel surfaces on animal locomotion are little-known. 2. In this study, we assessed locomotor performance of two Anolis lizard species (A. cristatellus and A. stratulus) on...

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