282 Works

The signal detection problem of aposematic prey revisited: integrating prior social and personal experience

Rose Thorogood & Liisa Hämäläinen
Data collected during three separate experiments using the "novel world" (Alatalo & Mappes, Nature 1996) approach to test how social information changes predator discrimination of novel aposematic prey from a cryptic palatable alternative. Experiments were conducted with great tits (Parus major), captured from the wild and released afterwards, at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi, Finland (62.6° N, 26.3° E) during three winters (2013-2014, 2016-2017, 2017-2018). Social information was provided by video playback of...

Data from: Fullerene-like structures of Cretaceous crinoids reveal topologically limited skeletal possibilities

Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill & Aaron Hunter
In general there are few cases where numbers or types of possible phenotypes are known, although vast state spaces have been postulated. Rarely applied in this context, graph theory and topology enable enumeration of possible phenotypes and evolutionary transitions. Here, we generate polyhedral calyx graphs for the Late Cretaceous, stemless crinoids Marsupites testudinarius and Uintacrinus socialis (Uintacrinoidea Zittel 1879) revealing structural similarities to carbon fullerenes and fulleroids (respectively). The Uintacrinus calyx incorporates numerous plates (e.g....

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) global positioning system (GPS) locations for instruments and features associated with wave monitoring and sedimentation-erosion table installations in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

B.R. Evans, I. Möller & T. Spencer
The dataset details global positioning system (GPS) locations recorded for instruments and locations of interest associated with equipment installed for the monitoring of wave energy, surface elevation changes and sedimentation at five UK saltmarsh sites. Two of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a salt marsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Rod Sedimentation-Erosion Tables (rSETs)...

Above-ground carbon density derived from LiDAR data over oil palm plantations in Malaysian Borneo, 2014

M.H. Nunes, R.M. Ewers, E.C. Turner & D.A. Coomes
This data set provides above-ground carbon density derived from LiDAR data over oil palm plantations in the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project site located in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo in 2014. This includes the number of trees in plots and the average forest canopy per hectare at different heights. Data were collected during a project which was included in the NERC Human-modified tropical forest (HMTF) Programme.

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) global positioning system (GPS) locations of survey quadrats in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

B.R. Evans, T. Spencer & I. Möller
The dataset details global positioning system (GPS) locations recorded for survey quadrats at six UK saltmarsh sites. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a salt marsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Each site comprised 22 quadrats on the unvegetated mudflat and 22 quadrats on the salt marsh. The locations indicated by this dataset...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) sedimentation and erosion monitoring over saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

T. Spencer, B.R. Evans & I. Möller
The dataset details surface elevation and sedimentation measurements across five UK saltmarsh sites. Two of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Rod Sedimentation-Erosion Tables (rSETs) were installed at different distances from the vegetated margin. Three rSETs were deployed for each Essex site and four for the Morecambe sites....

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) wave monitoring over saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

I. Möller, B.R. Evans & T. Spencer
The dataset details derived wave parameters from bottom-mounted pressure monitoring installations across five UK salt marshes. Two of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area. The sensors were deployed in transects oriented approximately shore-normal and straddling the vegetated-unvegetated margin. This data was collected as part of Coastal Biodiversity and...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) projected area of vegetation in saltmarsh habitats

B.R. Evans, I. Möller & T. Spencer
The dataset contains estimates of the projected area of vegetation derived from the analysis of side-on photographs through the vegetation canopy and recorded for survey quadrats at six UK saltmarsh sites. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Each site comprised 22 quadrats in the vegetated area...

Microclimate proxy measurements from a logging gradient in Malaysian Borneo

B. Blonder, S. Both, D.A. Coomes, D.M.O. Elias, T. Jucker, J. Kvasnica, N. Majalap, Y.S. Malhi, T. Riutta & M. Svátek
Temperatures recorded 5cm above the forest floor in a gridded design (1 to 13m distance) within three, 1 hectare forest plots in Sabah, Borneo. The dataset also includes air temperature data from a nearby weather station at the same temporal resolution, and spatially-interpolated measurements of topography and canopy structure in each forest plot at a 1m resolution. iButton temperature measurement 5cm above the forest floor in gridded design (1-13m distance) within three 1-ha forest plots...

Behavioural experiments in the laboratory with stickleback fish - Fish personality data

I. Furtbaer, D. Mamuneas, C. James, A. Manica & A. King
The data consist of eight datasets on stickleback fish personality data. Data are on catch order, mean time spent out of cover, proportion of time fish spent out of cover, sex differences for the catch order, sex differences for the catch order on two occasions and sex differences in the proportion of time spent out of cover. A laboratory population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were filmed and timed using a high definition camera. The...

Derived global responses of annual river flow to catchment forestation through time, between 1900 and 2018

L. Bentley & D.A. Coomes
This dataset reports the responses of annual river flow to forestation in 43 catchments and contains 770 data points. Data shows the change in river flow following forestation at annual time scales, along control river flow measurements and associated metadata from primary and secondary sources. Data collection, processing and interpretation were performed by Laura Bentley and David A. Coomes between January 2018 and October 2019. Forestation was defined as a change in land cover from...

Data from: A unified rheological model for cells and cellularised materials

Alessandra Bonfanti, Jonathan Fouchard, Nargess Khalilgharibi, Guillaume Charras & Alexandre Kabla
The mechanical response of single cells and tissues exhibits a broad distribution of time scales that gives often rise to a distinctive power-law rheology. Such complex behaviour cannot be easily captured by traditional rheological approaches, making material characterisation and predictive modelling very challenging. Here, we present a novel model combining conventional viscoelastic elements with fractional calculus that successfully captures the macroscopic relaxation response of epithelial monolayers. The parameters extracted from the fitting of the relaxation...

A major locus controls a biologically active pheromone component in Heliconius melpomene

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Jamie Musgrove, Diana Abondano Almeida, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Marek Kučka, Yingguang Frank Chan, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
Understanding the production, response, and genetics of signals used in mate choice can inform our understanding of the evolution of both intraspecific mate choice and reproductive isolation. Sex pheromones are important for courtship and mate choice in many insects, but we know relatively little of their role in butterflies. The butterfly Heliconius melpomene uses a complex blend of wing androconial compounds during courtship. Electroantennography in H. melpomene and its close relative H. cydno showed that...

Data from: The ecology and evolution of seed predation by Darwin's finches on Tribulus cistoides on the Galápagos Islands

Sofía Carvajal-Endara, Andrew P. Hendry, Nancy C. Emery, Corey P. Neu, Diego Carmona, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, T. Jonathan Davies, Jaime A. Chaves & Marc T. J Johnson
Predator-prey interactions play a key role in the evolution of species traits through antagonistic coevolutionary arms-races. The evolution of beak morphology in the Darwin’s finches in response to competition for seed resources is a classic example of evolution by natural selection. The seeds of Tribulus cistoides are an important food source for the largest ground finch species (Geospiza fortis, G. magnirostris, and G. conirostris) in dry months, and the hard spiny morphology of the fruits...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Cuttlefish show flexible and future-dependent foraging cognition

Pauline Billard, Alexandra Schnell, Nicola Clayton & Christelle Jozet-Alves
Some animals optimise their foraging activity by learning and memorising food availability, in terms of quantity and quality, and adapt their feeding behaviour accordingly. Here we investigated whether cuttlefish flexibly adapt their foraging behaviour according to the availability of their preferred prey. In Experiment 1, cuttlefish switched from a selective to an opportunistic foraging strategy (or vice versa) when the availability of their preferred prey at night was predictable versus unpredictable. In Experiment 2, cuttlefish...

Data from: Why do zoos attract crows? A comparative study from Europe and Asia

László Kövér, Szabolcs Lengyel, Makiko Takenaka, Alice Kirchmeir, Florian Uhl, Rachel Miller & Christine Schwab
Crows have successfully colonized many cities and urban zoos have been important in this process. To evaluate why zoos attract crows, we quantified crow numbers and behaviour in three zoos in Europe (Debrecen, Edinburgh, Vienna) and one in Asia (Sapporo). Data were collected in 445 surveys over 297 days in summer 2014 and winter 2014-15. We found that crow numbers were highest in Vienna, intermediate in Debrecen and Edinburgh and lowest in Sapporo, increased significantly...

Data from: Whole-chromosome hitchhiking driven by a male-killing endosymbiont

Simon Martin, Kumar Singh, Ian Gordon, Kennedy Omufwoko, Steve Collins, Ian Warren, Hannah Munby, Oskar Brattström, Walther Traut, Dino Martins, David Smith, Chris Jiggins, Chris Bass & Richard French-Constant
Neo-sex chromosomes are found in many taxa, but the forces driving their emergence and spread are poorly understood. The female-specific neo-W chromosome of the African monarch (or queen) butterfly Danaus chrysippus presents an intriguing case study because it is restricted to a single ‘contact zone’ population, involves a putative colour patterning supergene, and co-occurs with infection by the the male-killing endosymbiont Spiroplasma. We investigated the origin and evolution of this system using whole genome sequencing....

Collective decision-making appears more egalitarian in populations where group fission costs are higher

James Herbert-Read, Amy Wade, Indar Ramnarine & Christos Ioannou
Collective decision-making is predicted to be more egalitarian in conditions where the costs of group fission are higher. Here we ask whether Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) living in high or low predation environments, and thereby facing differential group fission costs, make collective decisions in line with this prediction. Using a classic decision-making scenario, we found that fish from high predation environments switched their positions within groups more frequently than fish from low predation environments. Because...

To mate, or not to mate: the evolution of reproductive diapause facilitates insect radiation into African savannahs in the Late Miocene

Sridhar Halali, Paul M Brakefield, Steve C Collins & Oskar Brattström
1. Many tropical environments experience cyclical seasonal changes, frequently with pronounced wet and dry seasons, leading to a highly uneven temporal distribution of resources. Short-lived animals inhabiting such environments often show season-specific adaptations to cope with alternating selection pressures. 2. African Bicyclus butterflies show strong seasonal polyphenism in a suite of phenotypic and life-history traits, and their adults are thought to undergo reproductive diapause associated with the lack of available larval host plants during the...

Sex-independent senescence in a cooperatively breeding mammal

Jack Thorley
1. Researchers studying mammals have frequently interpreted earlier or faster rates of ageing in males as resulting from polygyny and the associated higher costs of reproductive competition. 2. Yet few studies conducted on wild populations have compared sex-specific senescence trajectories outside of polygynous species, making it difficult to make generalised inferences on the role of reproductive competition in driving senescence, particularly when other differences between males and females might also contribute to sex-specific changes in...

Assessing the potential for indirect interactions between tropical tree species via shared insect seed predators

Harriet Downey, Owen T. Lewis, Michael B. Bonsall, Alan Ward & Sofia Gripenberg.
Natural enemies of plants have the potential to influence the dynamics of plant populations and the structure of plant communities. In diverse tropical forests research on the effects of plant enemies has largely focused on the diversity-enhancing effects of highly specialised enemies, while the community-level effects of enemies with broader diets have rarely been considered. We investigated the community of insect seed predators interacting with seven tree species in the family Lauraceae on Barro Colorado...

Data from: Global biogeographic patterns in bipolar moss species

Elisabeth Machteld Biersma, Jennifer A. Jackson, Jaakko Hyvonen, Satu Koskinen, Katrin Linse, Howard Griffiths & Peter Convey
A bipolar disjunction is an extreme, yet common, biogeographic pattern in non-vascular plants, yet its underlying mechanisms (vicariance or long-distance dispersal), origin and timing remain poorly understood. Here, combining a large-scale population dataset and multiple dating analyses, we examine the biogeography of four bipolar Polytrichales mosses, common to the Holarctic (temperate and polar Northern Hemisphere regions) and the Antarctic region (Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, southern South America) and other Southern Hemisphere (SH) regions. Our data reveal contrasting...

Intergroup aggression in meerkats

Mark Dyble, Thomas Houslay, Marta Manser & Tim Clutton-Brock
Violent conflicts between groups have been observed among many species of group living mammals and can have important fitness consequences, with individuals being injured or killed and with losing groups surrendering territory. Here, we explore between-group conflict among meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a highly social and cooperatively breeding mongoose. We show that interactions between meerkat groups are frequently 18 aggressive and sometimes escalate to fighting and lethal violence and that these interactions have consequences for group...

Repeated sex chromosome evolution in vertebrates supported by expanded avian sex chromosomes

Hanna Sigeman, Bengt Hansson, Suvi Ponnikas, Pallavi Chauhan, Elisa Dierickx & M. De L. Brooke
Sex chromosomes have evolved from the same autosomes multiple times across vertebrates, suggesting that selection for recombination suppression has acted repeatedly and independently on certain genetic backgrounds. Here, we perform comparative genomics of a bird clade (larks and their sister lineage; Alaudidae and Panuridae) where multiple sex chromosome–autosome fusions appear to have formed expanded sex chromosomes. We detected the largest known avian sex chromosome (195.3 Mbp) and show that it originates from fusions between parts...

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