453 Works

Data from: The smallest known Devonian tetrapod shows unexpectedly derived features, Part 2 of 2

Per Ahlberg & Jennifer Clack
A new genus and species of Devonian tetrapod, Brittagnathus minutus gen. et sp. nov., is described from a single complete right lower jaw ramus recovered from the Acanthostega mass-death deposit in the upper part of the Britta Dal Formation (upper Famennian) of Stensiö Bjerg, Gauss Peninsula, East Greenland. Visualisation by propagation phase contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) allows a complete digital dissection of the specimen. With a total jaw ramus length of 44.8 mm, Brittagnathus is...

Data on three Baltic species of Corynosoma Lühe, 1905 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from Baltic grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida)

Sonja Leidenberger, Sven Boström & Matthew T. Wayland
We analyzed Baltic Corynosoma material (C. magdaleni Montreuil, 1958, C. semerme (Forssell, 1904) Lühe, 1911 and C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) Lühe, 1904) from grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) for the variation of hook morphology and for finding possible morphotypes, by using the proboscis profiler (Wayland 2010) and Meristogram (Wayland 2016).

The effects of tropical secondary forest regeneration on avian phylogenetic diversity.

Emma Hughes, David Edwards, Catherine Sayer, Philip Martin & Gavin Thomas
1. The conversion of tropical forests to farmland is a key driver of the current extinction crisis. With the present rate of deforestation unlikely to subside, secondary forests that regenerate on abandoned agricultural land may provide an option for safeguarding biodiversity. While species richness (SR) may recover as secondary forests get older, the extent to which phylogenetic diversity (PD)—the total amount of evolutionary history present in a community—is conserved is less clear. Maximising PD has...

Data from: Rubber agroforestry in Thailand provides some biodiversity benefits without reducing yields

Eleanor Warren-Thomas, Luke Nelson, Watinee Juthong, Sara Bumrungsri, Oskar Brattström, Laetitia Stroesser, Bénédicte Chambon, Éric Penot, Uraiwan Tongkaemkew, David P. Edwards & Paul M. Dolman
Monocultural rubber plantations have replaced tropical forest, causing biodiversity loss. While protecting intact or semi-intact biodiverse forest is paramount, improving biodiversity value within the 11.4 million hectares of existing rubber plantations could offer important conservation benefits, if yields are also maintained. Some farmers practice agroforestry with high-yielding clonal rubber varieties to increase and diversify incomes. Here, we ask whether such rubber agroforestry improves biodiversity value or affects rubber yields relative to monoculture. We surveyed birds,...

Global Diversification Dynamics Since the Jurassic: Low Dispersal and Habitat-Dependent Evolution Explain Hotspots of Diversity and Shell Disparity in River Snails (Viviparidae)

Björn Stelbrink, Romy Richter, Frank Köhler, Frank Riedel, Ellen Strong, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Christian Albrecht, Torsten Hauffe, Timothy Page, David Aldridge, Arthur Bogan, Li-Na Du, Marivene Manuel-Santos, Ristiyanti Marwoto, Alena Shirokaya & Thomas Von Rintelen
The Viviparidae, commonly known as River Snails, is a dominant group of freshwater snails with a nearly worldwide distribution that reaches its highest taxonomic and morphological diversity in Southeast Asia. The rich fossil record is indicative of a probable Middle Jurassic origin on the Laurasian supercontinent where the group started to diversify during the Cretaceous. However, it remains uncertain when and how the biodiversity hotspot in Southeast Asia was formed. Here, we used a comprehensive...

Is mere exposure enough? the effects of bilingual environments on infant cognitive development

Dean D'Souza, Daniel Brady, Jennifer Haensel & Hana D'Souza
Bilinguals purportedly outperform monolinguals in nonverbal tasks of cognitive control (the ‘bilingual advantage’). The most common explanation is that managing two languages during language production constantly draws upon, and thus strengthens, domain general inhibitory mechanisms (Green, 1998). However, this theory cannot explain why a bilingual advantage has been found in preverbal infants (Kovacs & Mehler, 2009). An alternative explanation is needed. We propose that exposure to more varied, less predictable (language) environments drive infants to...

Human influences on antipredator behaviour in Darwin’s finches

Kiyoko Gotanda
1) Humans exert dramatic influences upon the environment, creating novel selective pressures to which organisms must adapt. On the Galapagos, humans have established a permanent presence and have altered selective pressures through influences such as invasive predators and urbanization, affecting iconic species such as Darwin’s finches. 2) Here, I ask two key questions: (i) does antipredator behaviour (e.g. flight initiation distance – FID) change depending on whether invasive predators are historically absent, present, or eradicated?...

Complexity within an oil palm monoculture: the effects of habitat variability and rainfall on adult dragonfly (Odonata) communities.

Sarah H. Luke, Andreas Dwi Advento, Rory A. Dow, Anak Agung Ketut Aryawan, Holly Barclay, Amy E. Eycott, Julie K. Hinsch, Candra Kurniawan, Mohammad Naim, Darren J. Mann, Pujianto Pujianto, Dedi Purnomo, T. Dzulfikar S. Rambe, Eleanor M. Slade, Soeprapto Soeprapto, Sudharto Ps, Suhardi Suhardi, Ribka Sionita Tarigan, Resti Wahyuningsih, Rudy Harto Widodo, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Jake L. Snaddon, William A. Foster & Edgar C. Turner
Recent expansion of oil palm agriculture has resulted in loss of forest habitat and forest-dependent species. However, large numbers of species – particularly insects – can persist within plantations. This study focuses on Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies): a charismatic indicator taxon, and a potentially valuable pest control agent. We surveyed adult Odonata populations biannually over three years within an industrial oil palm plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia. We assessed the effects of rainfall (including an El...

Optimising nature conservation outcomes for a given region-wide level of food production

Tom Finch, Rhys Green, Dario Massimino, Will Peach & Andrew Balmford
The land sharing-sparing framework aims to quantify the trade-off between food production and biodiversity conservation, but it has been criticised for offering, for reasons of simplicity, an unrealistically limited set of different land uses. Here, we develop the framework to evaluate a much larger suite of land-use strategies in which the areas and yields of three land-use compartments, natural habitat, high-yield farmland, and lower-yield farmland, are varied simultaneously. For two regions of England, we use...

Genetic variance for behavioural ‘predictability’ of stress response

Pamela M. Prentice, Alastair J. Wilson, Thomas M. Houslay & Jullien G. A. Martin
Genetic factors underpinning phenotypic variation are required if natural selection is to result in adaptive evolution. However, evolutionary and behavioural ecologists typically focus on variation among individuals in their average trait values, and seek to characterise genetic contributions to this. As a result, less attention has been paid to if and how genes could contribute towards within-individual variance, or trait “predictability”. In fact, phenotypic ‘predictability’ can vary among individuals, and emerging evidence from livestock genetics...

Data from: BCI training to move a virtual hand reduces phantom limb pain: a randomized crossover trial

Takufumi Yanagisawa, Ryohei Fukuma, Ben Seymour, Masataka Tanaka, Koichi Hosomi, Okito Yamashita, Haruhiko Kishima, Yukiyasu Kamitani & Youichi Saitoh
Objective: To determine whether training with a brain–computer interface (BCI) to control an image of a phantom hand, which moves based on cortical currents estimated from magnetoencephalographic signals, reduces phantom limb pain. Methods: Twelve patients with chronic phantom limb pain of the upper limb due to amputation or brachial plexus root avulsion participated in a randomized single-blinded crossover trial. Patients were trained to move the virtual hand image controlled by the BCI with a real...

Genetic dissection of assortative mating behavior

Richard M. Merrill, Pasi Rastas, Simon H. Martin, Maria C. Melo, Sarah Barker, John Davey, W. Owen McMillan & Chris D. Jiggins
The evolution of new species is made easier when traits under divergent ecological selection are also mating cues. Such ecological mating cues are now considered more common than previously thought, but we still know little about the genetic changes underlying their evolution, or more generally about the genetic basis for assortative mating behaviors. Both tight physical linkage and the existence of large effect preference loci will strengthen genetic associations between behavioral and ecological barriers, promoting...

Data from: Disentangling serology to elucidate henipa‐ and filovirus transmission in Madagascar fruit bats

Cara E. Brook, Hafaliana C. Ranaivoson, Christopher C. Broder, Andrew A. Cunningham, Jean-Michel Heraud, Alison J. Peel, Louise Gibson, James L. N. Wood, C. Jessica Metcalf & Andrew P. Dobson
Bats are reservoirs for emerging human pathogens, including Hendra and Nipah henipaviruses and Ebola and Marburg filoviruses. These viruses demonstrate predictable patterns in seasonality and age structure across multiple systems; previous work suggests that they may circulate in Madagascar's endemic fruit bats, which are widely consumed as human food. We aimed to (a) document the extent of henipa‐ and filovirus exposure among Malagasy fruit bats, (b) explore seasonality in seroprevalence and serostatus in these bat...

Data from: Single-cell virus sequencing of influenza infections that trigger innate immunity

Alistair B. Russell, Elizaveta Elshina, Jacob R. Kowalsky, Aartjan J. W. Te Velthuis & Jesse D. Bloom
Influenza-infected cells vary widely in their expression of viral genes, and only occasionally activate innate immunity. Here we develop a new method to assess how the genetic variation in viral populations contributes to this heterogeneity. We do this by determining the transcriptome and full-length sequences of all viral genes in single cells infected with a nominally "pure" stock of influenza virus. Most cells are infected by virions with defects, some of which increase the frequency...

Data from: Quantifying Susceptibility of Marine Invertebrate Biocomposites to Dissolution in Reduced pH

Matthew Chadwick, Elizabeth M. Harper, Anaëlle Lemasson, John I. Spicer & Lloyd S. Peck
Ocean acidification threatens many ecologically and economically important marine calcifiers. The increase in shell dissolution under the resulting reduced pH is an important and increasingly recognised threat. The biocomposites that make up calcified hardparts have a range of taxon-specific compositions and microstructures, and it is evident that these may influence susceptibilities to dissolution. Here, we show how dissolution (thickness loss) under both ambient and predicted end-century pH (≈7.6) varies between seven different bivalve mollusc and...

Data from: Systemic neurotransmitter responses to clinically approved and experimental neuropsychiatric drugs

Hamid R. Noori, Lewis H. Mervin, Vahid Bokharaie, Özlem Durmus, Lisamon Egenrieder, Stefan Fritze, Britta Gruhlke, Guilia Reinhardt, Hans-Hendrik Schabel, Sabine Staudenmaier, Nikos K. Logothetis, Andreas Bender & Rainer Spanagel
Neuropsychiatric disorders are the third leading cause of global disease burden. Current pharmacological treatment for these disorders is inadequate, with often insufficient efficacy and undesirable side effects. One reason for this is that the links between molecular drug action and neurobehavioral drug effects are elusive. We use a big data approach from the neurotransmitter response patterns of 258 different neuropsychiatric drugs in rats to address this question. Data from experiments comprising 110,674 rats are presented...

Data from: Evolution of longevity improves immunity in Drosophila

Daniel K. Fabian, Kathrin Garschall, Peter Klepsatel, Gonçalo Santos-Matos, Élio Sucena, Martin Kapun, Bruno Lemaitre, Robert Arking, Christian Schloetterer & Thomas Flatt
Much has been learned about the genetics of aging from studies in model organisms, but still little is known about naturally occurring alleles that contribute to variation in longevity. For example, analysis of mutants and transgenes has identified insulin signaling as a major regulator of longevity, yet whether standing variation in this pathway underlies microevolutionary changes in lifespan and correlated fitness traits remains largely unclear. Here we have analyzed the genomes of a set of...

Data from: The consequences of land sparing for birds in the United Kingdom

Anthony Lamb, Tom Finch, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Malcolm Ausden, Andrew Balmford, Claire Feniuk, Graham Hirons, Dario Massimino & Rhys E. Green
1. Land sparing has been proposed as a strategy to reconcile biodiversity conservation with agricultural production, with empirical studies on five continents indicating that most species would benefit if food demand was met through high-yield farming combined with the protection or restoration of natural habitat. 2. Most such studies come from landscapes covered by large areas of natural habitat and without a long history of intense human modification. However, much of Europe, consists of human-dominated...

Data from: Evolution at two time frames: polymorphisms from an ancient singular divergence event fuel contemporary parallel evolution

Steven M. Van Belleghem, Carl Vangestel, Katrien De Wolf, Zoë De Corte, Markus Möst, Pasi Rastas, Luc De Meester & Frederik Hendrickx
When environments change, populations may adapt surprisingly fast, repeatedly and even at microgeographic scales. There is increasing evidence that such cases of rapid parallel evolution are fueled by standing genetic variation, but the source of this genetic variation remains poorly understood. In the saltmarsh beetle Pogonus chalceus, short-winged ‘tidal’ and long-winged ‘seasonal’ ecotypes have diverged in response to contrasting hydrological regimes and can be repeatedly found along the Atlantic European coast. By analyzing genomic variation...

Data from: Development of G: a test in an amphibious fish

Joseph M. Styga, Thomas M. Houslay, Alastair J. Wilson & Ryan L. Earley
Heritable variation in, and genetic correlations among, traits determine the response of multivariate phenotypes to natural selection. However, as traits develop over ontogeny, patterns of genetic (co)variation and integration captured by the G matrix may also change. Despite this, few studies have investigated how genetic parameters underpinning multivariate phenotypes change as animals pass through major life history stages. Here, using a self-fertilizing hermaphroditic fish species, mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus), we test the hypothesis that G...

A time-series of strains in response to wind measured on 19 trees in Danum Valley, Malaysia

Toby Jackson
Strain data measured on the trunks of 19 trees in the Danum Valley, Malaysia. It also contains wind speed data measured using anemometers attached to emergent trees nearby. This data can be used to extract the fundamental swaying frequencies of these trees, and to quantify the relationship between wind speed and bending strain and so estimate wind damage risk. This data would be useful for anyone studying the interaction between wind and trees. The tallest...

Correlated and geographically predictable Neanderthal and Denisovan legacies are difficult to reconcile with a simple model based on inter-breeding.

William Amos
Although the presence of archaic hominin legacies in humans is taken for granted, little attention has been given as to how the data fit with how humans colonised the world. Here I show that Neanderthal and Denisovan legacies are strongly correlated and that, like heterozygosity, distance from Africa predicts legacy size. Simulations confirm that, once created, legacy size is extremely stable: it may reduce through admixture with lower legacy populations but cannot increase detectably through...

Data from: Macronutrient intake and simulated infection threat independently affect life history traits of male decorated crickets

Kristin Duffield, Kylie Hampton, Thomas Houslay, James Rapkin, John Hunt, Ben Sadd & Scott Sakaluk
Nutritional geometry has advanced our understanding of how macronutrients (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates) influence the expression of life history traits and their corresponding trade-offs. For example, recent work has revealed that reproduction and immune function in male decorated crickets are optimized at very different protein:carbohydrate (P:C) dietary ratios. However, it is unclear how an individual’s macronutrient intake interacts with its perceived infection status to determine investment in reproduction or other key life history traits. Here,...

An interpolated biogeographic framework for tropical Africa using plant species distributions and the physical environment

Cicely Marshall, Jan Wieringa & William Hawthorne
Aim: Existing phytogeographic frameworks for tropical Africa lack either spatial completeness, unit definitions smaller than the regional scale, or a quantitative approach. We investigate whether physical environmental variables can be used to interpolate floristically defined vegetation units, presenting an interpolated, hierarchical, quantitative phytogeographic framework for tropical Africa, which is compared to previously defined regions. Location: Tropical mainland Africa 24°N to 24°S. Taxon: 31,046 vascular plant species and infraspecific taxa. Methods: We calculate a betasim dissimilarity...

Max Weber and Anglophone Historiography

Richard Bourke
The distinguished ancient historian Moses Finley is reported to have planned at the end of his life to re-read the writings of Max Weber, half a century after he first encountered his corpus. This level of engagement is surely exceptional among anglophone historians. It is a notorious fact that, beginning with R. H. Tawney, historians in Britain and the United States have subjected Weber’s work to skewed interpretations or familiarised themselves with only a fraction...

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