21 Works

Data from: Genome-wide patterns of divergence and gene flow across a butterfly radiation

Nicola J. Nadeau, Simon H. Martin, Krzysztof M. Kozak, Camilo Salazar, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, John W. Davey, Simon W. Baxter, Mark L. Blaxter, James Mallet & Chris D. Jiggins
The Heliconius butterflies are a diverse recent radiation comprising multiple levels of divergence with on-going gene flow between species. The recently sequenced genome of Heliconius melpomene allowed us to investigate the genomic evolution of this group using dense RAD marker sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 54 individuals robustly supported reciprocal monophyly of H. melpomene and H. cydno and refuted previous phylogenetic hypotheses that H. melpomene may be paraphylectic with respect to H. cydno. H. timareta also...

Data from: The predictive adaptive response: modeling the life history evolution of the butterfly, Bicyclus anynana, in seasonal environments.

Joost Van Den Heuvel, Marjo Saastamoinen, Paul M. Brakefield, Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Bas J. Zwaan, Daryl P. Shanley & Joost Van Den Heuvel
A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are valuable model systems for testing the existence and form of PAR. Previous manipulations of the larval and the adult environments of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana have shown that...

Data from: RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

Marie A. Pointer, Jason M. Kamilar, Vera Warmuth, Stephen G. B. Chester, Frédéric Delsuc, Nicholas I. Mundy, Robert J. Asher & Brenda B. Bradley
BACKGROUND: When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary 'tuning knobs', supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the...

Data from: Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance

Claire N. Spottiswoode & Martin Stevens
Coevolutionary arms races are a powerful force driving evolution, adaptation, and diversification. They can generate phenotypic polymorphisms which render it harder for a coevolving parasite or predator to exploit any one individual of a given species. In birds, egg polymorphisms should be an effective defense against mimetic brood parasites, and are extreme in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) and its parasite the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). Here we use models of avian visual perception...

Data from: With a little help from my kin: barn swallow nestlings modulate solicitation of parental care according to nestmates’ need

Andrea Romano, Manuela Caprioli, Giuseppe Boncoraglio, Nicola Saino, Diego Rubolini & G. Boncoraglio
In altricial species, offspring competing for access to limiting parental resources (e.g. food) are selected to achieve an optimal balance between the costs of scrambling for food, the benefits of being fed and the indirect costs of subtracting food to relatives. Since the marginal benefits of acquiring additional food decrease with decreasing levels of need, satiated offspring should be prone to favour access to food by their needy kin, thus enhancing their own indirect fitness,...

Data from: The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans

Xi-Ping Dong, Stefan Bengston, Neil J. Gostling, John A. Cunningham, Thomas H. P. Harvey, Artem Kouchinsky, Anatoly K. Val'kov, John E. Repetski, Marco Stampanoni, Federica Marone & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to...

Data from: Shared spatial effects on quantitative genetic parameters: accounting for spatial autocorrelation and home range overlap reduces estimates of heritability in wild red deer

Katie V. Stopher, Craig A. Walling, Alison Morris, Fiona E. Guinness, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Josephine M. Pemberton & Daniel H. Nussey
Social structure, limited dispersal and spatial heterogeneity in resources are ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations. As a result, relatives share environments as well as genes, and environmental and genetic sources of similarity between individuals are potentially confounded. Quantitative genetic studies in the wild therefore typically account for easily captured shared environmental effects (e.g. parent, nest or region). Fine-scale spatial effects are likely to be just as important in wild vertebrates, but have been largely ignored....

Data from: Inbreeding and inbreeding depression of early life traits in a cooperative mammal

Johanna F. Nielsen, Sinead English, William P. Goodall-Copestake, Jinliang Wang, Craig A. Walling, Andrew W. Bateman, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Josephine M. Pemberton
Mating between relatives often results in negative fitness consequences or inbreeding depression. However, the expression of inbreeding in populations of wild cooperative mammals and the effects of environmental, maternal and social factors on inbreeding depression in these systems are currently not well understood. This study uses pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients from a long-term study of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa to reveal that 44% of the population have detectably non-zero (F>0) inbreeding coefficients. 15% of...

Data from: Fine-scale spatiotemporal patterns of genetic variation reflect budding dispersal coupled with strong natal philopatry in a cooperatively breeding mammal

Hazel J. Nichols, Neil R. Jordan, Gabriel A. Jamie, Michael A. Cant & Joseph I. Hoffman
The relatedness structure of animal populations is thought to be a critically important factor underlying the evolution of mating systems and social behaviours. While previous work has shown that population structure is shaped by many biological processes, few studies have investigated how these factors vary over time. Consequently, we explored the fine-scale spatiotemporal genetic structure of an intensively studied population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) over a ten-year period. Overall population structure was...

Data from: Re-mating across years and intra-lineage polygyny are associated with greater than expected levels of inbreeding in wild red deer

Katie V. Stopher, Daniel H. Nussey, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Fiona Guinness, Alison Morris, Josephine M. Pemberton, T. H. Clutton-Brock, F. Guinness, A. Morris & J. M. Pemberton
The interaction between philopatry and non-random mating has important consequences for the genetic structure of populations, influencing co-ancestry within social groups but also inbreeding. Here, using genetic paternity data, we describe mating patterns in a wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) which are associated with marked consequences for co-ancestry and inbreeding in the population. Around a fifth of females mate with a male with whom they have mated previously, and further, females frequently mate...

Data from: Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods

Stephanie E. Pierce, Per E. Ahlberg, John R. Hutchinson, Julia L. Molnar, Sophie Sanchez, Paul Tafforeau & Jennifer A. Clack
The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae - in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra - have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, as most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix,...

Data from: Multiple regression modelling for estimating endocranial volume in extinct Mammalia

Laura C. Soul, Roger B. J. Benson & Vera Weisbecker
The profound evolutionary success of mammals has been linked to behavioral and life-history traits, many of which have been tied to brain size. However, studies of the evolution of this key trait have yet to explore the full potential of the fossil record, being limited by the difficulty of obtaining endocranial data from fossils. Using measurements of endocranial volume, length, height, and width of the braincase in 503 adult specimens from 199 extant species, representing...

Data from: Deep sequencing reveals extensive variation in the gut microbiota of wild mosquitoes from Kenya.

Jewelna Osei-Poku, Charles M. Mbogo, William J. Palmer, Francis M. Jiggins, C. M. Mbogo, J. Osei-Poku, W. J. Palmer & F. M. Jiggins
The mosquito midgut is a hostile environment that vector-borne parasites must survive in order to be transmitted. Commensal bacteria in the midgut can reduce the ability of mosquitoes to transmit disease, either by having direct anti-parasite effects or by stimulating basal immune responses of the insect host. As different bacteria have different effects on parasite development, the composition of the bacterial community in the mosquito gut is likely to affect the probability of disease transmission....

Data from: The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence

Simon M. Reader, Yfke Hager, Kevin N. Laland, K. N. Laland, Y. Hager & S. M. Reader
There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single ‘general intelligence’ factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of...

Data from: Selection and microevolution of coat pattern are cryptic in a wild population of sheep

Jacob Gratten, Jill G. Pilkington, Emily A. Brown, Timothy H. Clutton-Brock, Josephine M. Pemberton & Jon Slate
Understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations is a core aim of evolutionary genetics. Insight can be gained by quantifying selection at the level of the genotype, as opposed to the phenotype. Here, we show that in a natural population of Soay sheep which is polymorphic for coat pattern, recessive genetic variants at the causal gene, agouti signalling protein (ASIP), are associated with reduced lifetime fitness. This was due primarily to a reduction...

Data from: Population responses to perturbations: the importance of trait-based analysis illustrated through a microcosm experiment

Arpat Ozgul, Tim Coulson, Alan Reynolds, Tom C. Cameron & Tim G. Benton
Environmental change continually perturbs populations from a stable state, leading to transient dynamics that can last multiple generations. Several long-term studies have reported changes in trait distributions along with demographic response to environmental change. Here we conducted an experimental study on soil mites and investigated the interaction between demography and an individual trait over a period of nonstationary dynamics. By following individual fates and body sizes at each life-history stage, we investigated how body size...

Data from: Kin selection, not group augmentation, predicts helping in an obligate cooperatively breeding bird

Lucy E. Browning, Samantha C. Patrick, Lee A. Rollins, Simon C. Griffith, Andrew F. Russell, S. C. Patrick, S. C. Griffith, L. A. Rollins & A. F. Russell
Kin selection theory has been the central model for understanding the evolution of cooperative breeding, where non-breeders help bear the cost of rearing young. Recently the dominance of this idea has been questioned; particularly in obligate cooperative breeders where breeding without help is uncommon and seldom successful. In such systems, the direct benefits gained through augmenting current group size have been hypothesised to provide a tractable alternative (or addition) to kin selection. However, clear empirical...

Data from: Building genetic networks using relatedness information: a novel approach for the estimation of dispersal and characterization of group structure in social animals

Lee Ann Rollins, Lucy E. Browning, Clare E. Holleley, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon C. Griffith
Natal dispersal is an important life history trait driving variation in individual fitness and, therefore, a proper understanding of the factors underlying dispersal behaviour is critical to many fields including population dynamics, behavioural ecology and conservation biology. However, individual dispersal patterns remain difficult to quantify despite many years of research using direct and indirect methods. Here, we quantify dispersal in a single intensively-studied population of the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) using genetic networks...

Data from: Evaluating female remating rates in light of spermatophore degradation in Heliconius butterflies: pupal-mating monandry versus adult-mating polyandry

James R. Walters, Christine Stafford, Thomas J. Hardcastle & Chris D. Jiggins
1) Butterflies are frequently used in comparative studies of sexual selection because of their diverse mating systems. In Heliconius, the two major clades in the genus are characterized by contrasting pupal-mating and adult-mating strategies. Adult-mating females are considered to be promiscuous while pupal-mating females are thought to be monandrous. 2) Counting spermatophores in female Lepidoptera is a common method for assessing patterns of female remating. However, in pupal-mating Heliconius butterflies spermatophores can become completely degraded...

Data from: Validating methods for estimating endocranial volume in individual red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Corina J. Logan & Tim H. Clutton-Brock
Comparing brain sizes is a key method in comparative cognition and evolution. Brain sizes are commonly validated by interspecific comparisons involving animals of varying size, which does not provide a realistic index of their accuracy for intraspecific comparisons. Intraspecific validation of methods for measuring brain size should include animals of the same age and sex to ensure that individual differences can be detected in animals of similar size. In this study we compare three methods...

Data from: Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers

Nian Wang, Marian Thomson, William J. A. Bodles, Robert M. M. Crawford, Harriet V. Hunt, Alan Watson Featherstone, Jaume Pellicer & Richard J. A. Buggs
New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridisation. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 67X short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) – a diploid that is the keystone woody species of sub-arctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present...

Registration Year

  • 2012

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Exeter
  • Macquarie University
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Milan
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
  • State University of New York at Oswego
  • Newcastle University
  • Royal Veterinary College