174 Works

Écrire un archipel fracturé : Hamouro et les tensions postcoloniales dans les Comores

Srilata Ravi
Constitué de quatre petites îles, Grande Comore, Anjouan, Mohéli, et Mayotte l’archipel des Comores se trouve fracturé par le statut politique de Mayotte, ancienne colonie française rattachée à Madagascar et aujourd’hui, 101e département de la France. En dépit de cette séparation politique, les îles sont intimement liées par leur identité musulmane et elles sont toutes rattachées à l’Afrique centrale, à Madagascar et à Zanzibar par les migrations anciennes. Alors que Mayotte bénéficie de son appartenance...

Demographic fluctuations lead to rapid and cyclic shifts in genetic structure among populations of an alpine butterfly, Parnassius smintheus

Maryam Jangjoo, Stephen Matter, Jens Roland & Nusha Keyghobadi
Many populations, especially in insects, fluctuate in size and periods of particularly low population size can have strong effects on genetic variation. Effects of demographic bottlenecks on genetic diversity of single populations are widely documented. Effects of bottlenecks on genetic structure among multiple inter-connected populations are less studied, as are genetic changes across multiple cycles of demographic collapse and recovery. We take advantage of a long-term dataset comprising demographic, genetic, and movement data from a...

Additive negative effects of decadal warming and nitrogen addition on grassland community stability

Qian Wu, Haiyan Ren, Zhongwu Wang, Zhiguo Li, Yinghao Liu, Zhen Wang, Yuanheng Li, Ruiyang Zhang, Mengli Zhao, Scott X. Chang & Guodong Han
Much recent research has explored how global warming and increased nitrogen (N) deposition, two important components of global environmental changes, influence the structure and functioning of natural ecosystems. However, how ecosystem dynamics respond to the combination of long-term warming and N enrichment remains largely unexplored. We investigated the impact of warming and N addition on the temporal stability of plant communities in a decade-long field experiment, conducted in a desert steppe in northern China, using...

Data from: Age and sex as compounding factors in the relationship between cardiac mitochondrial function and type 2 diabetes in the Nile Grass rat

Jillian Schneider, Woo Hyun Han, Rebecca Matthew, Yves Sauvé & Hélène Lemieux
Our study revisits the role of cardiac mitochondrial adjustments during the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while considering age and sex as potential confounding factors. We used the Nile Grass rats (NRs) as the animal model. After weaning, animals were fed either a Standard Rodent Chow Diet (SRCD group) or a Mazuri Chinchilla Diet (MCD group) consisting of high-fiber and low-fat content. Both males and females in the SRCD group, exhibited increased body...

Data from: Continent-wide population genomic structure and phylogeography of North America’s most destructive conifer defoliator, the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana)

Lisa Lumley, Esther Pouliot, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Bryan Brunet, Roger Levesque, Felix Sperling & Michel Cusson
The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, is presumed to be panmictic across vast regions of North America. We examined the extent of panmixia by genotyping 3650 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in 1975 individuals from 128 collections across the continent. We found three spatially structured subpopulations: Western (Alaska, Yukon), Central (southeastern Yukon to the Manitoba-Ontario border) and Eastern (Manitoba-Ontario border and Atlantic). Additionally, the most diagnostic genetic differentiation between the Central and Eastern subpopulations was chromosomally...

Data from: Cell death and survival due to cytotoxic exposure modeled as a two-state Ising system

Sahar Arbabi Moghadam, Vahid Rezania & Jack Tuszynski
Cancer chemotherapy agents are assessed for their therapeutic utility primarily by their ability to cause apoptosis of cancer cells and their potency is given by an IC50 value. Chemotherapy uses both target-specific and systemic-action drugs and drug combinations to treat cancer. It is important to judiciously choose a drug type, its dosage, and schedule for optimized drug selection and administration. Consequently, the precise mathematical formulation of cancer cells response to chemotherapy may assist in the...

Interrelated ecological impacts of climate change on an apex predator

Kristin L. Laidre, Stephen Atkinson, Eric V. Regehr, Harry L. Stern, Erik W. Born, Øystein Wiig, Nicholas J. Lunn & Markus Dyck
Climate change has broad ecological implications for species that rely on sensitive habitats. For some top predators, loss of habitat is expected to lead to cascading behavioral, nutritional, and reproductive changes that ultimately accelerate population declines. In the case of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), declining Arctic sea ice reduces access to prey and lengthens seasonal fasting periods. We used a novel combination of physical-capture, biopsy darting, and visual aerial observation data to project reproductive...

Multiscale drivers of phytoplankton communities in north-temperate lakes

Ron Zurawell, Charlie Loewen, Faye Wyatt, Colleen Mortimer & Rolf Vinebrooke
Multiple factors operating across different spatial and temporal scales affect beta-diversity—the variation in community composition among sites. Disentangling the relative influence of co-occurring ecological drivers over broad biogeographic gradients and time is critical to developing mechanistic understandings of community responses to natural environmental heterogeneity as well as predicting the effects of anthropogenic change. We partitioned taxonomic beta-diversity in phytoplankton communities across 75 north-temperate lakes and reservoirs in Alberta, Canada, using data-driven, spatially-constrained null models to...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Density-dependent space use affects interpretation of camera trap detection rates

Kate Broadley, Cole Burton, Stan Boutin, Tal Avgar & Stan Boutin
Camera-traps (CTs) are an increasingly popular tool for wildlife survey and monitoring. Estimating relative abundance in unmarked species is often done using detection rate as an index of relative abundance, which assumes a positive linear relationship with true abundance. This assumption may be violated if movement behavior varies with density, but the degree to which movement is density-dependent across taxa is unclear. The potential confounding of population-level relative abundance indices by movement depends on how...

The morphological diversity of the quadrate bone in squamate reptiles as revealed by high-resolution computed tomography and geometric morphometrics

Alessandro Palci, Michael Caldwell, Mark Hutchinson, Takuya Konishi & Michael Lee
We examined the morphological diversity of the quadrate bone in squamate reptiles (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians). The quadrate is the principal splanchnocranial element involved in suspending the lower jaw from the skull, and its shape is of particular interest because it is potentially affected by several factors, such as phylogenetic history, allometry, ecology, skull kinesis and hearing capabilities (e.g. presence or absence of a tympanic ear). Due to its complexity, the quadrate bone is also...

Data from: Corridors or risk? movement along, and use of, linear features vary predictably among large mammal predator and prey species

Melanie Dickie, Michael Cody & Tal Avgar
1. Space-use behaviour reflects trade-offs in meeting ecological needs and can have consequences for individual survival and population demographics. The mechanisms underlying space-use can be understood by simultaneously evaluating habitat selection and movement patterns, and fine-resolution locational data are increasing our ability to do so. 2. We use high-resolution location data and an integrated step-selection analysis to evaluate caribou, moose, bear, and wolf habitat selection and movement behavior in response to anthropogenic habitat modification, though...

Data from: Roads elicit negative movement and habitat-selection responses by wolverines (Gulo gulo luscus)

Matthew A. Scrafford, Tal Avgar, Rick Heeres, Mark S. Boyce, Matthew A Scrafford & Mark S Boyce
Wildlife behavior when crossing roads is likely to mirror natural responses to predation risk including not responding, pausing, avoiding, or increasing speed during crossing. We generated coarse-scale behavioral predictions based on these expectations that could be assessed with GPS radiotelemetry. We evaluated our predictions using an integrated step-selection analysis of wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus) space use in relation to spatially and temporally dynamic vehicle traffic on industrial roads in northern Alberta. We compared support for...

Data from: Alternative reproductive tactics and lifetime reproductive success in a polygynandrous mammal

Adele Balmer, Bertram Zinner, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Shirley Raveh, F. Stephen Dobson, Jamieson C Gorrell, F Stephen Dobson & David W Coltman
The widespread occurrence of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) highlights the diverse ways in which sexual selection can operate within a population. We studied ARTs in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), evaluating paternity, lifetime reproductive success, and life histories. Reproductively mature male Columbian ground squirrels displayed either a territorial or satellite (non-territorial) tactic. Territorial males secured a higher proportion of copulations, were more likely to mate at earlier positions in females’ mating sequences and sired more...

Data from: Landscape structure and the genetic effects of a population collapse

Serena A. Caplins, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Claudia Ciotir, Jens Roland, Stephen F. Matter, Nusha Keyghobadi, J. Roland, S. F. Matter, C. Ciotir, N. Keyghobadi & S. A. Caplins
Both landscape structure and population size fluctuations influence population genetics. While independent effects of these factors on genetic patterns and processes are well studied, a key challenge is to understand their interaction, as populations are simultaneously exposed to habitat fragmentation and climatic changes that increase variability in population size. In a population network of an alpine butterfly, abundance declined 60–100% in 2003 because of low over-winter survival. Across the network, mean microsatellite genetic diversity did...

Data from: Diel predator activity drives a dynamic landscape of fear

Michel T. Kohl, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, James D. Forester, Matthew J. Kauffman, Nathan Varley, Patrick J. White, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. MacNulty & P. J. White
A ‘landscape of fear’ (LOF) is a map that describes continuous spatial variation in an animal’s perception of predation risk. The relief on this map reflects, for example, places that an animal avoids to minimize risk. Although the LOF concept is a potential unifying theme in ecology that is often invoked to explain the ecological and conservation significance of fear, little is known about the daily dynamics of a LOF. Despite theory and data to...

Data from: Allee effects may slow the spread of parasites in a coastal marine ecosystem

Martin Krkosĕk, Brendan M. Connors, Mark A. Lewis & Robert Poulin
Allee effects are thought to mediate the dynamics of population colonization, particularly for invasive species. However, Allee effects acting on parasites have rarely been considered in the analogous process of infectious disease establishment and spread. We studied the colonization of uninfected wild juvenile Pacific salmon populations by ectoparasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) over four years. From a dataset of 67,896 fish, we observed 88 occurrences of pre-copular pair formation among 1258 pre-adult female and 611...

Data from: Citizen science reveals unexpected continental-scale evolutionary change in a model organism

Jonathan Silvertown, Laurence Cook, Robert Cameron, Mike Dodd, Kevin McConway, Jenny Worthington, Peter Skelton, Christian Anton, Oliver Bossdorf, Bruno Baur, Menno Schilthuizen, Benoît Fontaine, Helmut Sattmann, Giorgio Bertorelle, Maria Correia, Cristina Oliveira, Beata Pokryszko, Małgorzata Ożgo, Arturs Stalažs, Eoin Gill, Üllar Rammul, Péter Sólymos, Zoltan Féher & Xavier Juan
Organisms provide some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change and evolutionary responses are becoming apparent in species with short generation times. Large datasets on genetic polymorphism that can provide an historical benchmark against which to test for recent evolutionary responses are very rare, but an exception is found in the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis). This species is sensitive to its thermal environment and exhibits several polymorphisms of shell colour and banding pattern...

Data from: Biotic and climatic velocity identify contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change

Carlos Carroll, Joshua J. Lawler, David R. Roberts & Andreas Hamann
Metrics that synthesize the complex effects of climate change are essential tools for mapping future threats to biodiversity and predicting which species are likely to adapt in place to new climatic conditions, disperse and establish in areas with newly suitable climate, or face the prospect of extirpation. The most commonly used of such metrics is the velocity of climate change, which estimates the speed at which species must migrate over the earth’s surface to maintain...

Data from: Comparison of five methods for delimitating species in Ophion Fabricius, a diverse genus of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae)

Marla D. Schwarzfeld, Felix A. H. Sperling & Felix A.H. Sperling
DNA taxonomy has been proposed as a method to quickly assess diversity and species limits in highly diverse, understudied taxa. Here we use five methods for species delimitation and two genetic markers (COI and ITS2) to assess species diversity within the parasitoid genus, Ophion. We searched for compensatory base changes (CBC’s) in ITS2, and determined that they are too rare to be of practical use in delimiting species in this genus. The other four methods...

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the diverse parasitoid wasp genus Ophion Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae)

Marla D. Schwarzfeld, Gavin R. Broad & Felix A. H. Sperling
Ophion Fabricius is a diverse genus of nocturnal ichneumonid wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera) that is particularly species-rich in temperate areas, yet has received little taxonomic attention in the Holarctic region, where most species occur. While there have been some attempts to divide Ophion into monophyletic species groups, the vast majority of species have been lumped into a single, paraphyletic group, the O. luteus species group, which is defined only by the lack of characters specific to...

Data from: Variation of xylem vessel diameters across a climate gradient: insight from a reciprocal transplant experiment with a widespread boreal tree

Stefan G. Schreiber, Uwe G. Hacke & Andreas Hamann
Xylem vessel diameters represent an important plant hydraulic trait to ensure sufficient water supply from the roots to the leaves. The ability to adjust the hydraulic pathway to environmental cues is key in order to satisfy transpirational demands and maximize growth and survival. We evaluated the variability of vessel diameters in trembling aspen in a reciprocal transplant experiment. We tested six provenances from three ecological regions of North America planted at four test sites in...

Data from: Assessing the evolutionary history of the class Synurophyceae (Heterokonta) using molecular, morphometric, and paleobiological approaches

Peter A. Siver, Bok Yeon Jo, Jong Im Kim, Woongghi Shin, Anne Marie Lizarralde, Alexander P. Wolfe, B. Y. Jo, J. I. Kim, W. Shin, P. A. Siver, A. M. Lott & A. P. Wolfe
Premise of the study: Heterokont algae of the class Synurophyceae, characterized by distinctive siliceous scales that cover the surface of the cell, are ecologically important in inland waters, yet their evolutionary history remains enigmatic. We explore phylogenetic relationships within this group of algae relative to geologic time, with a focus on evolution of siliceous components. Methods: We combined an expansive five-gene and time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of synurophyte algae with an extensive array of fossil specimens...

Data from: Poor health is associated with use of anthropogenic resources in an urban carnivore

Maureen Murray, Mark A. Edwards, Bill Abercrombie, Colleen Cassady St. Clair & C. C. St. Clair
Rates of encounters between humans and wildlife are increasing in cities around the world, especially when wildlife overlap with people in time, space and resources. Coyotes (Canis latrans) can make use of anthropogenic resources and reported rates of conflict have increased in cities across North America. This increase may be linked to individual differences in the use of human food and developed areas. We compared the relationships between coyote age, sex or health and the...

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