165 Works

Projections of water scarcity in croplands, 2050

N. Fitton
Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of croplands were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on cropland availability in 2050.

Growth, biomass allocation and tissue nutrient concentrations of subtropical and tropical tree seedlings in response to experimental manipulation of soil phosphorus pools

D Burslem, X. Liu, D. Johnson, A. Taylor, J. Taylor, T. Helgason, Y. Chen & M. Liang
This dataset reports metrics of plant growth, including height, total biomass and the biomass of component plant parts, and percentage root colonisation by mycorrhizas, for tree seedlings of eight tropical and seven subtropical growing in pots of soil that had been amended by addition of various sources of phosphorus (inorganic phosphate, adenosine monophosphate, phytic, or a mixture of all three) plus an unfertilized control treatment with no P additions. The aim of the experiment was...

Model output of changes in soil carbon storage and emissions for agricultural and forest land uses across the Red Soil region in China

J. Oyesiku-Blakemore, J. Smith & P. Hallett
Data comprise soil organic carbon content from a simulation using the ECOSSE model; a pool-based carbon and nitrogen turnover model. Simulations were performed using input data from the Sunjia research farm in southeast China (Jianxi province). Data here is from simulations using the global version of the ECOSSE model, a package which applies the regular model spatially. Input data for the simulations were provided by the soil science department of the Chinese Academy of Sciences....

Sub-hourly discharge data for the Siksik catchment, North West Territories, Canada from September 2009 to September 2010

D. Tetzlaff, J. Lessels & P. Wookey
Data comprise sub-hourly discharge measurements including mean stream height, discharge and stream temperature collected at station S2 on the Siksik stream, North West Territories, Canada, between September 2009 and March 2010. Measurements were taken at a field site based at SikSik Creek a small sub-catchment of the Trail Valley Creek, approximately 60km north of Inuvik. The data were collected under Project HYDRA, a NERC funded UK research project linking Heriot Watt University, the Universities of...

Data from: Kin recognition: evidence that humans can perceive both positive and negative relatedness

Daniel B. Krupp, Lisa M. DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones & Martin L. Lalumière
The evolution of spite entails actors imposing costs on ‘negative’ relatives: those who are less likely than chance to share the actor’s alleles and therefore more likely to bear rival alleles. Yet, despite a considerable body of research confirming that organisms can recognise positive relatives, little research has shown that organisms can recognise negative relatives. Here, we extend previous work on human phenotype matching by introducing a cue to negative relatedness: negative self-resembling faces, which...

Data from: Resolving patterns of population genetic and phylogeographic structure to inform control and eradication initiatives for brown rats Rattus norvegicus on South Georgia

Stuart B. Piertney, Andy Black, Laura Watt, Darren Christie, Sally Poncet & Martin A. Collins
The control and eradication of invasive species is a common management strategy to protect or restore native biodiversity. On South Georgia in the Southern Ocean, the brown rat Rattus norvegicus was brought onto the island with the onset of whaling and sealing activity in the 1800s and has had a significant detrimental impact on key bird species of conservation concern. Efforts to eradicate rats from South Georgia using poisoned bait are ongoing. Despite the South...

Data from: Evolution of female multiple mating: a quantitative model of the \"sexually-selected sperm\" hypothesis

Greta Bocedi & Jane M. Reid
Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually-selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in post-copulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with ‘sexy-son’ models explaining co-evolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that...

Data from: Offspring fitness varies with parental extra-pair status in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia

Rebecca J. Sardell, Peter Arcese & Jane M. Reid
Numerous studies have tested for indirect selection on female extra-pair reproduction (EPR) by quantifying whether extra-pair young (EPY) are fitter than their within-pair young (WPY) maternal half-siblings. In contrast, the hypothesis that offspring of EPY and WPY (rather than the EPY and WPY themselves) differ in fitness has not been tested, even though inter-generational effects of parental extra-pair status on offspring fitness could alter the magnitude and direction of indirect selection on EPR. We tested...

Data from: Variation in parent-offspring kinship in socially monogamous systems with extra-pair reproduction and inbreeding

Jane M. Reid, Greta Bocedi, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Alexander Bradley Duthie, Matthew Ernest Wolak, Elizabeth A. Gow & Peter Arcese
Female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems is predicted to cause cuckolded socially-paired males to conditionally reduce paternal care, causing selection against extra-pair reproduction and underlying polyandry. However, existing models and empirical studies have not explicitly considered that cuckolded males might be related to their socially-paired female and/or to her extra-pair mate, and therefore be related to extra-pair offspring that they did not sire but could rear. Selection against paternal care, and hence against extra-pair...

Data from: Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards

Kulbhushansingh R. Suryawanshi, Stephen M. Redpath, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Uma Ramakrishnan, Vaibhav Chaturvedi, Sophie C. Smout & Charudutt Mishra
An increasing proportion of the world's poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in...

Data from: Age, state, environment and season dependence of senescence in body mass

Svenja B. Kroeger, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kenneth B. Armitage, Jane M. Reid, Julien G.A. Martin & Julien G. A. Martin
Data file in csv formatBMdata.csvRcode

Data from: Harvested populations are more variable only in more variable environments

Tom C. Cameron, Daniel O'Sullivan, Alan Reynolds, Joseph P. Hicks, Stuart B. Piertney & Tim G. Benton
The interaction between environmental variation and population dynamics is of major importance, particularly for managed and economically important species, and especially given contemporary changes in climate variability. Recent analyses of exploited animal populations contested whether exploitation or environmental variation has the greatest influence on the stability of population dynamics, with consequences for variation in yield and extinction risk. Theoretical studies however have shown that harvesting can increase or decrease population variability depending on environmental variation,...

Data from: Pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient explains more variation in fitness than heterozygosity at 160 microsatellites in a wild bird population

Pirmin Nietlisbach, Lukas F. Keller, Glauco Camenisch, Frédéric Guillaume, Peter Arcese, Jane M. Reid & Erik Postma
Although the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient F predicts the expected proportion of an individual's genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD), heterozygosity at genetic markers captures Mendelian sampling variation and thereby provides an estimate of realized IBD. Realized IBD should hence explain more variation in fitness than their pedigree-based expectations, but how many markers are required to achieve this in practice remains poorly understood. We use extensive pedigree and life-history data from an island population of song sparrows...

Data from: Ecological traps for large-scale invasive species control: predicting settling rules by recolonising American mink post-culling

Yolanda Melero, Thomas Cornulier, Matthew K. Oliver & Xavier Lambin
1. Management programs worldwide seeking to reduce the density of invasive species must overcome compensatory processes, such as recolonisation by dispersers from non- or partially-controlled areas. However, the scale and drivers of dispersal in such context are poorly known. 2. We investigated the dispersal patterns of American mink reinvading 20,000 km2 of their non-native range following a culling programme led by citizen conservationists. Using multinomial models, we estimated the contributions of density dependence, proxies for...

Data from: Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction

Isla M. Graham, Enrico Pirotta, Nathan D. Merchant, Adrian Farcas, Tim R. Barton, Barbara Cheney, Gordon D. Hastie & Paul M. Thompson
The development of risk assessments for the exposure of protected populations to noise from coastal construction is constrained by uncertainty over the nature and extent of marine mammal responses to man-made noise. Stakeholder concern often focuses on the potential for local displacement caused by impact piling, where piles are hammered into the seabed. To mitigate this threat, use of vibration piling, where piles are shaken into place with a vibratory hammer, is often encouraged due...

Data and R code for What you see is where you go: visibility influences movement decisions of a forest bird navigating a 3D structured matrix

Job Aben, Johannes Signer, Janne Heiskanen, Petri Pellikka & Justin Travis
Animal spatial behaviour is often presumed to reflect responses to visual cues. However, inference of behaviour in relation to the environment is challenged by the lack of objective methods to identify the information that effectively is available to an animal from a given location. In general, animals are assumed to have unconstrained information on the environment within a detection circle of a certain radius (the perceptual range; PR). However, visual cues are only available up...

Data from: Mutation accumulation and the formation of range limits

Roslyn C. Henry, Kamil A. Bartoń & Justin M. J. Travis
The dynamics of range formation are important for understanding and predicting species distributions. Here, we focus on a process that has thus far been overlooked in the context of range formation; the accumulation of mutation load. We find that mutation accumulation severely reduces the extent of a range across an environmental gradient, especially when dispersal is limited, growth rate is low and mutations are of intermediate deleterious effect. Our results illustrate the important role deleterious...

Data from: Short-term disturbance by a commercial two-dimensional seismic survey does not lead to long-term displacement of harbour porpoises

Paul M. Thompson, Kate L. Brookes, Isla M. Graham, Tim R. Barton, Keith Needham, Gareth Bradbury & Nathan D. Merchant
Assessments of the impact of offshore energy developments are constrained because it is not known whether fine-scale behavioral responses to noise lead to broader-scale displacement of protected small cetaceans. We used passive acoustic monitoring and digital aerial surveys to study changes in the occurrence of harbour porpoises across a 2000 km2 study area during a commercial 2-D seismic survey in the North Sea. Acoustic and visual data provided evidence of group responses to air-gun noise...

Data from: Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: additive genetic (co)variances in female extra-pair reproduction and male paternity success in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller & Sylvain Losdat
Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesised to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesised to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair...

Data from: Patterns and processes of dispersal behaviour in arvicoline rodents

Jean-François Le Galliard, Alice Rémy, Rolf A. Ims & Xavier Lambin
A good understanding of mammalian societies requires measuring patterns and comprehending processes of dispersal in each sex. We investigated dispersal behaviour in arvicoline rodents, a sub-family of mammals widespread in northern temperate environments and characterised by a multivoltine life cycle. In arvicoline rodents, variation in life history strategies occurs along a continuum from precocial to delayed maturation that reflects seasonal and ecological fluctuations. We compared dispersal across and within species focusing on the effects of...

Data from: Coupling of diversification and pH adaptation during the evolution of terrestrial Thaumarchaeota

Cécile Gubry-Rangin, Christina Kratsch, Tom A. Williams, Alice C. McHardy, T. Martin Embley, James I. Prosser & Daniel J. Macqueen
The Thaumarchaeota is an abundant and ubiquitous phylum of archaea that plays a major role in the global nitrogen cycle. Previous analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA suggest that pH is an important driver of niche specialization in these organisms. Although the ecological distribution and ecophysiology of extant Thaumarchaeota have been studied extensively, the evolutionary rise of these prokaryotes to ecological dominance in many habitats remains poorly understood. To characterize processes leading to their...

Data from: Signatures of local adaptation along environmental gradients in a range-expanding damselfly (Ischnura elegans)

Rachael Y. Dudaniec, Chuan Ji Yong, Lesley T. Lancaster, Erik I. Svensson & Bengt Hansson
Insect distributions are shifting rapidly in response to climate change and are undergoing rapid evolutionary change. We investigate the molecular signatures underlying local adaptation in the range-expanding damselfly, Ischnura elegans. Using a landscape genomic approach combined with generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM), we detect selection signatures on loci via allelic frequency change along environmental gradients. We analyse 13,612 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), derived from Restriction site-Associated DNA sequencing (RADseq), in 426 individuals from 25 sites spanning...

Data from: High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins

Kyle H. Elliott, Robert E. Ricklefs, Anthony J. Gaston, Scott A. Hatch, John R. Speakman & Gail K. Davoren
Flight is a key adaptive trait. Despite its advantages, flight has been lost in several groups of birds, notably among seabirds, where flightlessness has evolved independently in at least five lineages. One hypothesis for the loss of flight among seabirds is that animals moving between different media face tradeoffs between maximizing function in one medium relative to the other. In particular, biomechanical models of energy costs during flying and diving suggest that a wing designed...

Data from: Progressive genome-wide introgression in agricultural Campylobacter coli

Samuel K. Sheppard, Xavier Didelot, Keith A. Jolley, Aaron E. Darling, David J. Kelly, Alison Cody, Frances M. Colles, Norval J.C. Strachan, Iain D. Ogden, Ken Forbes, Nigel P. French, Philip Carter, William G. Miller, Noel D. McCarthy, Robert Owen, Eva Litrup, Michael Egholm, Stephen D. Bentley, Julian Parkhill, Martin C. J. Maiden, Daniel Falush, Jason P. Affourtit, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ben Pascoe & Guillaume Meric
Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation to novel environments, but is potentially constrained by epistatic fitness interactions among cell components. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other by around 15% at the nucleotide level, corresponding to an average of nearly 40 amino acids per protein-coding gene. Using whole genome sequencing, we show that a single C. coli lineage, which has successfully colonized an agricultural niche, has been...

Data from: Colonisation dynamics during range expansion is poorly predicted by dispersal in the core range

William H. Morgan, Thomas Cornulier & Xavier Lambin
The potential ranges of many species are shifting due to changing ecological conditions. Where populations become patchy towards the range edge, the realised distribution emerges from colonisation-persistence dynamics. Therefore, a greater understanding of the drivers of these processes, and the spatial scales over which they operate, presents an opportunity to improve predictions of species range expansion under environmental change. Species reintroductions offer an ideal opportunity to investigate the drivers and spatial scale of colonisation dynamics...

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