304 Works

Data from: Resilience of tropical dry forests – a meta-analysis of changes in species diversity and composition during secondary succession

Géraldine Derroire, Patricia Balvanera, Carolina Castellanos-Castro, Guillaume Decocq, Deborah K. Kennard, Edwin Lebrija-Trejos, Jorge A. Leiva, Per-Christer Odén, Jennifer S. Powers, Víctor Rico-Gray, Mulualem Tigabu & John R. Healey
Assessing the recovery of species diversity and composition after major disturbance is key to understanding the resilience of tropical forests through successional processes, and its importance for biodiversity conservation. Despite the specific abiotic environment and ecological processes of tropical dry forests, secondary succession has received less attention in this biome than others and changes in species diversity and composition have never been synthesised in a systematic and quantitative review. This study aims to assess in...

Data from: Bayesian estimates of male and female African lion mortality for future use in population management

Julia A. Barthold, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Craig Packer & Fernando Colchero
The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. Various demographic models evaluate consequences of hunting on lion population growth. However, none of the models use unbiased estimates of male age-specific mortality because such estimates do not exist. Until now, estimating mortality from resighting records...

Data from: Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula

Concetta Burgarella, Nathalie Chantret, Laurène Gay, Jean-Marie Prosperi, Maxime Bonhomme, Peter Tiffin, Nevin D. Young & Joelle Ronfort
Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time and in many species flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large M. truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both...

Data from: A comparative analysis reveals little evidence for niche conservatism in aquatic macrophytes among four areas on two continents

Janne Alahuhta, Frauke Ecke, Lucinda B. Johnson, Laura Sass & Jani Heino
One of the most intriguing questions in current ecology is the extent to which the ecological niches of species are conserved in space and time. Niche conservatism has mostly been studied using coarse-scale data of species' distributions, although it is at the local habitat scales where species' responses to ecological variables primarily take place. We investigated the extent to which niches of aquatic macrophytes are conserved among four study regions (i.e. Finland, Sweden and the...

Data from: Habitat restoration benefits wild bees: a meta-analysis

Rebecca K. Tonietto & Daniel J. Larkin
1.Pollinator conservation is of increasing interest in light of managed honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines, and declines in some species of wild bees. Much work has gone into understanding the effects of habitat enhancements in agricultural systems on wild bee abundance, richness, and pollination services. However, the effects of ecological restoration targeting “natural” ecological endpoints (e.g., restoring former agricultural fields to historic vegetation types or improving degraded natural lands) on wild bees have received relatively little...

Data from: Ecological and functional effects of fungal endophytes on wood decomposition

Lauren C. Cline, Jonathan S. Schilling, Jon Menke, Emily Groenhof & Peter G. Kennedy
1.Despite the central role of saprotrophic fungi in wood decomposition and terrestrial carbon cycling, the diversity and functioning of wood endophytes (i.e., fungi that asymptomatically colonize living plant tissue) on decay remains poorly understood. 2.In a four-year field experiment in a boreal forest in the upper midwestern United States, we investigated whether endophytes influenced fungal community structure and subsequent wood decomposition via priority effects. We compared decay of sterilized and non-sterilized birch (Betula papyrifera) logs...

Data from: Parasite infection induces size-dependent host dispersal: consequences for parasite persistence

Akira Terui, Keita Ooue, Hirokazu Urabe & Futoshi Nakamura
Host dispersal is now recognized as a key predictor of the landscape-level persistence and expansion of parasites. However, current theories treat post-infection dispersal propensities as a fixed trait, and the plastic nature of host’s responses to parasite infection has long been underappreciated. Here, we present a mark-recapture experiment in a single-host parasite system (larval parasites of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera laevis and its salmonid fish host Oncorhynchus masou masou) and provide the first empirical evidence...

Data from: Food webs obscure the strength of plant diversity effects on primary productivity

Eric W. Seabloom, Linda Kinkel, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yann Hautier, Rebecca A. Montgomery & David Tilman
Plant diversity experiments generally find that increased diversity causes increased productivity; however, primary productivity is typically measured in the presence of a diverse food web, including pathogens, mutualists and herbivores. If food web impacts on productivity vary with plant diversity, as predicted by both theoretical and empirical studies, estimates of the effect of plant diversity on productivity may be biased. We experimentally removed arthropods, foliar fungi and soil fungi from the longest-running plant diversity experiment....

Data from: Lianas reduce community-level canopy tree reproduction in a Panamanian forest

María M. García León, Laura Martínez Izquierdo, Felipe Nery Arantes Mello, Jennifer S. Powers & Stefan A. Schnitzer
Lianas are a key component of tropical forests, where they compete intensely with trees, reducing tree recruitment, growth and survival. One of the most important potential outcomes of liana competition is the reduction of tree reproduction; however, no previous study has experimentally determined the effects of lianas on tree reproduction beyond a single tree species. We used a large-scale liana removal experiment to quantify the effect of lianas on community-level canopy and understorey tree and...

Data from: Solar-powered flow-through system for aquatic field studies

Connor Neill, Sehoya Cotner & Brian Wisenden
1 Laboratory-based research provides great control over individual experimental replicates, but lacks the ecological realism of field work. Therefore, results from lab-based work may not reflect natural processes. Field-based studies have the advantage of ecological realism but often lack control over environmental variables and have low rates of within-experiment replication and as a result can have low statistical power to detect effects. 2 Here, we present a method for creating a standardized system for experimental...

Data from: Covariation between the physiological and behavioral components of pathogen transmission: host heterogeneity determines epidemic outcomes

Lauren A. White, James D. Forester & Meggan E. Craft
Although heterogeneity in contact rate, physiology, and behavioral response to infection have all been empirically demonstrated in host–pathogen systems, little is known about how interactions between individual variation in behavior and physiology scale-up to affect pathogen transmission at a population level. The objective of this study is to evaluate how covariation between the behavioral and physiological components of transmission might affect epidemic outcomes in host populations. We tested the consequences of contact rate covarying with...

Data from: American black bears perceive the risks of crossing roads

Mark A. Ditmer, Spencer J. Rettler, John R. Fieberg, Paul A. Iaizzo, Timothy G. Laske, Karen V. Noyce, David L. Garshelis, Mark A Ditmer, Spencer J Rettler, John R Fieberg, David L Garshelis, Karen V Noyce, Paul A Iaizzo & Timothy G Laske
Roadways may negatively impact wildlife species through vehicular-related mortality and spatial displacement or obstruction. Here we investigated physiological responses, which provide insights into the animal’s perception of its environment. We deployed GPS-collars in combination with cardiac biologgers on American black bears (Ursus americanus; 18 bear-years) in areas with differing road densities across Minnesota, USA. We tested whether bears exhibited acute stress responses, as defined by significant increases in heart rate (HR), associated with road crossings....

Data from: Here and there, but not everywhere: repeated loss of uncoupling protein 1 in amniotes

Suzanne McGaugh & Tonia S. Schwartz
Endothermy is an evolutionary innovation in eutherian mammals and birds. In eutherian mammals, UCP1 is a key protein in adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). Although ucp1 arose early in the vertebrate lineage, the loss of ucp1 was previously documented in several reptile species (including birds). Here we determine that ucp1 was lost at the base of the reptile lineage, as we fail to find ucp1 in every major reptile lineage. Furthermore, though UCP1 plays a key...

Data from: Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton

Adam Ralph Zeilinger, Dawn M. Olson, David A. Andow & Adam R. Zeilinger
The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions, has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern United States, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug...

Data from: Does a facultative mutualism limit species range expansion?

John Stanton-Geddes & Carolyn G. Anderson
The availability and quality of mutualists beyond a species’ range edge may limit range expansion. With the legume Chamaecrista fasciculata, we asked to what extent the availability and quality of rhizobia beyond the range edge limits host range expansion. We tested the effect of rhizobia availability on plant growth by transplanting seed from three locations into five sites spanning C. fasciculata’s range (interior, at the northern and western range edges, and beyond the range edges),...

Data from: Insects on plants: explaining the paradox of low diversity within specialist herbivore guilds

Vojtech Novotny, Scott E. Miller, Jan Hrcek, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Owen T. Lewis, Alan J. A. Stewart & George D. Weiblen
Classical niche theory explains the coexistence of species through their exploitation of different resources. Assemblages of herbivores coexisting on a particular plant species are thus expected to be dominated by species from host-specific guilds with narrow, coexistence-facilitating niches, rather than by species from generalist guilds. Exactly the opposite pattern is observed for folivores feeding on trees in New Guinea. The least specialized mobile chewers were most species-rich, followed by the moderately specialized semi-concealed and exposed...

Data from: Balancing selection maintains sex determining alleles in multiple-locus complementary sex determination

Jerome J. Weis, Paul J. Ode & George E. Heimpel
Hymenopteran species in which sex is determined through a haplo-diploid mechanism known as complementary sex determination (CSD) are vulnerable to a unique form of inbreeding depression. Diploids heterozygous at one or more CSD loci develop into females but diploids homozygous at all loci develop into diploid males, which are generally sterile or inviable. Species with multiple polymorphic CSD loci (ml-CSD) may have lower rates of diploid male production than species with a single CSD locus...

Data from: Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

Nicky Rollings, Emily J. Uhrig, Randolf W. Krohmer, Heather L. Waye, Robert T. Mason, Mats Olsson, Camilla M. Whittington, Christopher R. Friesen & Randolph W. Krohmer
Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between...

Data from: Validating genome-wide association candidates controlling quantitative variation in nodulation

Shaun J. Curtin, Peter Tiffin, Joseph Guhlin, Diana I. Trujillo, Liana T. Burghart, Paul Atkins, Nicholas J. Baltes, Roxanne Denny, Daniel F. Voytas, Robert M. Stupar, Nevin Dale Young, Liana T. Burghardt & Nevin D. Young
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies offer the opportunity to identify genes that contribute to naturally occurring variation in quantitative traits. However, GWA relies exclusively on statistical association, so functional validation is necessary to make strong claims about gene function. We used a combination of gene-disruption platforms (Tnt1 retrotransposons, hairpin RNA-interference constructs, and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases) together with randomized, well-replicated experiments to evaluate the function of genes that an earlier GWA study in Medicago truncatula had identified as...

Data from: Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons

Jenny Tung, Luis B. Barriero, Michael B. Burns, J. C. Grenier, Josh Lynch, L. E. Grieneisen, J. Altmann, S. C. Alberts, R. Blekhman, E. A. Archie, Laura E Grieneisen, Elizabeth A Archie, Susan C Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Luis B Barreiro, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Michael B Burns & Ran Blekhman
Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship,...

Data from: Optimizing techniques to capture and extract environmental DNA for detection and quantification of fish

Jessica J. Eichmiller, Loren M. Miller & Peter W. Sorensen
Few studies have examined capture and extraction methods for environmental DNA (eDNA) to identify techniques optimal for detection and quantification. In this study, precipitation, centrifugation and filtration eDNA capture methods and six commercially available DNA extraction kits were evaluated for their ability to detect and quantify common carp (Cyprinus carpio) mitochondrial DNA using quantitative PCR in a series of laboratory experiments. Filtration methods yielded the most carp eDNA, and a glass fibre (GF) filter performed...

Data from: Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studies

Patrick Venail, Kevin Gross, Todd H. Oakley, Anita Narwani, Eric Allan, Pedro Flombaum, Forest Isbell, Jasmin Joshi, Peter B. Reich, David Tilman, Jasper Van Ruijven & Bradley J. Cardinale
1.Hundreds of experiments have now manipulated species richness of various groups of organisms and examined how this aspect of biological diversity influences ecosystem functioning. Ecologists have recently expanded this field to look at whether phylogenetic diversity among species, often quantified as the sum of branch lengths on a molecular phylogeny leading to all species in a community, also predicts ecological function. Some have hypothesized that phylogenetic divergence should be a superior predictor of ecological function...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Assessment of dysmyelination with RAFFn MRI: application to murine MPS I

David Satzer, Christina DiBartolomeo, Michael M. Ritchie, Christine Storino, Timo Liimatainen, Hanne Hakkarainen, Djaudat Idiyatullin, Silvia Mangia, Shalom Michaeli, Ann M. Parr & Walter C. Low
Type I mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder with neurological features. Humans and laboratory animals with MPS I exhibit various white matter abnormalities involving the corpus callosum and other regions. In this study, we first validated a novel MRI technique, entitled Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field in the rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn), as a measure of myelination and dysmyelination in mice. We then examined differences between MPS I mice...

Data from: Mate finding, Allee effects, and selection for sex-biased dispersal

Allison K. Shaw & Hanna Kokko
Although dispersal requires context-dependent decision-making in three distinct stages (emigration, transit, immigration), these decisions are commonly ignored in simple models of dispersal. For sexually reproducing organisms, mate availability is an important factor in dispersal decisions. Difficulty finding mates can lead to an Allee effect where population growth decreases at low densities. Surprisingly, theoretical studies on mate finding and on sex-biased dispersal produce opposing predictions: in the former one sex is predicted to move less if...

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