426 Works

Data from: Are leaf functional traits “invariant” with plant size, and what is “invariance” anyway?

Charles A. Price, Ian J. Wright, David D. Ackerly, Ülo Niinemets, Peter B. Reich & Erik J. Veneklaas
Studies of size-related plant traits have established a suite of mathematical functions describing whole plant investment and allocation. In parallel, studies of plant “economic spectra” have measured the scaling and variance composition of traits related to the major dimensions of both structure and function. Here we explore the intersection of these two broad areas by exploring the notion that many leaf economic traits are invariant with species differences in adult plant size. Invariant traits are...

Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites

Susan G. Letcher, Jesse R. Lasky, Robin L. Chazdon, Natalia Norden, S. Joseph Wright, Jorge A. Meave, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eunice Romero-Pérez, Ana Andrade, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Tony V. Bentos, Radika Bhaskar, Frans Bongers, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Ricardo G. César, Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark, Dylan Craven, Alexander DeFrancesco, Juan M. Dupuy, Bryan Finegan … & G. Bruce Williamson
1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2....

Data from: Shared genomic regions between derivatives of a large segregating population of maize identified using bulked segregant analysis sequencing and traditional linkage analysis

Nicholas J. Haase, Timothy Beissinger, Candice N. Hirsch, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Shweta Deshpande, Kerrie Barry, C. Robin Buell, Shawn M. Kaeppler & Natalia De Leon
Delayed transition from the vegetative stage to the reproductive stage of development and increased plant height have been shown to increase biomass productivity in grasses. The goal of this project was to detect quantitative trait loci using extremes from a large synthetic population, as well as a related recombinant inbred line mapping population for these two traits. Ten thousand individuals from a B73 × Mo17 noninbred population intermated for 14 generations (IBM Syn14) were grown...

Data from: Trade-offs in juvenile growth potential vs. shade tolerance among subtropical rainforest trees on soils of contrasting fertility

Kerrie M. Sendall, Christopher H. Lusk & Peter B. Reich
Plant adaptation to gradients of light availability involves a well-studied functional trade-off, as does adaptation to gradients of nutrient availability. However, little is known about how these two major trade-offs interact, and thus, it remains unclear whether and how the nature of the growth–shade tolerance trade-off differs on soils of contrasting fertility. We asked whether juvenile growth–shade tolerance trade-offs differed in slope and elevation between tree assemblages on nutrient-rich basalt and nutrient-poor rhyolite soils in...

Data from: Relationships between spatial metrics and plant diversity in constructed freshwater wetlands

Erika C. Brandt, John E. Petersen, Jake J. Grossman, George A. Allen & David H. Benzing
The diversity of plant species and their distribution in space are both thought to have important effects on the function of wetland ecosystems. However, knowledge of the relationships between plant species and spatial diversity remains incomplete. In this study, we investigated relationships between spatial pattern and plant species diversity over a five year period following the initial restoration of experimental wetland ecosystems. In 2003, six identical and hydrologically-isolated 0.18 ha wetland “cells” were constructed in...

Data from: Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms

Niv Sabath, Emma E. Goldberg, Lior Glick, Moshe Einhorn, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Ray Ming, Sarah P. Otto, Jana Vamosi, Itay Mayrose & Jana C. Vamosi
Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious...

Data from: Courting disaster: how diversification rate affects fitness under risk

William C. Ratcliff, Peter Hawthorne & Eric Libby
Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single...

Data from: Cattle sex-specific recombination and genetic control from a large pedigree analysis

Li Ma, Jeffrey R. O'Connell, Paul M. Vanraden, Botong Shen, Abinash Padhi, Chuanyu Sun, Derek M. Bickhart, John B. Cole, Daniel J. Null, George E. Liu, Yang Da & George R. Wiggans
Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process that generates genetic diversity and ensures proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. From a large USDA dairy cattle pedigree with over half million genotyped animals, we extracted 186,927 three-generation families, identified over 8.5 million maternal and paternal recombination events, and constructed sex-specific recombination maps for 59,309 autosomal SNPs. The recombination map spans for 25.5 Morgans in males and 23.2 Morgans in females, for a total studied region of...

Data from: Lincoln estimates of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) abundance in North America

Ray T. Alisauskas, Todd W. Arnold, James O. Leafloor, David L. Otis & James S. Sedinger
Estimates of range-wide abundance, harvest, and harvest rate are fundamental for sound inferences about the role of exploitation in the dynamics of free-ranging wildlife populations, but reliability of existing survey methods for abundance estimation is rarely assessed using alternative approaches. North American mallard populations have been surveyed each spring since 1955 using internationally coordinated aerial surveys, but population size can also be estimated with Lincoln's method using banding and harvest data. We estimated late summer...

Data from: Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii

Dimitrios Floudas, Benjamin W. Held, Robert Riley, Laszlo G. Nagy, Gage Koehler, Anthony S. Ransdell, Hina Younus, Julianna Chow, Jennifer Chiniquy, Anna Lipzen, Andrew Tritt, Hui Sun, Sajeet Haridas, Kurt LaButti, Robin A. Ohm, Ursula Kues, Robert A. Blanchette, Igor V. Grigoriev, Robert E. Minto & David S. Hibbett
Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. Cylindrobasidium torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related...

Data from: The impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on divergence times and historical population sizes in Thylamys opossums from the Andes

Thomas C. Giarla & Sharon A. Jansa
Climate oscillations during the Quaternary altered the distributions of terrestrial animals at a global scale. In mountainous regions, temperature fluctuations may have led to shifts in range size and population size as species tracked their shifting habitats upslope or downslope. This creates the potential for both allopatric speciation and population size fluctuations, as species are either constrained to smaller patches of habitat at higher elevations or able to expand into broader areas at higher latitudes....

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Demographic history inferred from genome-wide data reveals two lineages of sheldgeese endemic to a glacial refugium in the southern Atlantic

Cecilia Kopuchian, Leonardo Campagna, Adrián S. Di Giacomo, Robert E. Wilson, Mariana Bulgarella, Pablo Petracci, Juan Mazar Barnett, Ricardo Matus, Olivia Blank & Kevin G. McCracken
Aim: The Malvinas/Falkland Islands (MFI) constitute the largest archipelago in the southern Atlantic, and harbour endemic lineages that presumably evolved after sea-level rise, associated with glacial periods, isolated ancestral populations. We investigate the role of the MFI in isolating populations from continental counterparts of two highly vagile species: the sheldgeese Chloephaga picta and Chloephaga rubidiceps. Location: Patagonia and the Malvinas/Falkland Islands. Methods: We sampled C. picta and C. rubidiceps on the continent and MFI. Using...

Data from: The evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting extends from genes to populations

Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Andrew R. Whiteley, Anna Kuparinen, Shuichi Matsumura, Paul A. Venturelli, Christian Wolter, Jon Slate, Craig R. Primmer, Thomas Meinelt, Shaun S. Killen, David Bierbach, Giovanni Polverino, Arne Ludwig & Robert Arlinghaus
Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of...

Data from: Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Elizabeth T. Borer, Jonathan M. Chase, John Downing, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Christopher T. Filstrup, W. Stanley Harpole, Dorothee Hodapp, Stefano Larsen, Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Eric W. Seabloom, Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Alexey B. Ryabov & John A. Downing
1. Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is far from trivial, however, as recently documented by meta-analyses which report little if any net change of local species richness through time. 2. Here, we summarize several limitations of species richness as a metric...

Data from: Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity

Bo Zhang, Alex Kula, Keenan M.L. Mack, Lu Zhai, Arrix L. Ryce, Wei-Ming Ni, Donald L. DeAngelis & J. David Van Dyken
A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial...

Data from: Big groups attract bad eggs: brood parasitism correlates with but does not cause cooperative breeding

Michael T. Wells & F. Keith Barker
There has been great interest in how complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding evolve and are maintained; however, it is still unclear what exact phenomena trigger the transition to cooperative breeding. Recent work in birds has suggested a number of factors associated with cooperative breeding, including environmental uncertainty and brood parasitism. One recent study found a correlation between brood parasitism and cooperative breeding, but it examined this relationship from a geographically restricted perspective. We...

Data from: Range expansion and increasing Borrelia burgdorferi infection of the tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iowa, 1990-2013

Jonathan D. Oliver, Steve W. Bennett, Lorenza Beati & Lyric C. Bartholomay
A passive surveillance program monitored ticks submitted by the public in Iowa from 1990–2013. Submitted ticks were identified to species and life stage, and Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi. An average of 2.6 of Iowa’s 99 counties submitted first reports of I. scapularis per year over the surveillance period, indicating expansion of this tick species across the state. The proportion of vector ticks infected by B....

Data from: Survey of haemosporidian parasites in resident and migrant game birds of Illinois

Kendall L. Annetti, Nelda A. Rivera, John E. Andrews & Nohra Mateus-Pinilla
Haemosporidian parasites are globally distributed in avian species, capable of leading to decreased reproductive success, weakness and mortality. Haemosporidian parasites that affect reproduction and population growth are of interest to bird conservation groups and to organizations concerned with the health and immunological status of avian populations. Haemosporidian infection data are not always available for some avian species in specific regions yet. These data provides the starting points to evaluate geographical and temporal changes in the...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Evaluating population viability and efficacy of conservation management using integrated population models

Sarah P. Saunders, Francesca J. Cuthbert & Elise F. Zipkin
Predicting population responses to environmental conditions or management scenarios is a fundamental challenge for conservation. Proper consideration of demographic, environmental and parameter uncertainties is essential for projecting population trends and optimal conservation strategies. We developed a coupled integrated population model-Bayesian population viability analysis to assess the (1) impact of demographic rates (survival, fecundity, immigration) on past population dynamics; (2) population viability 10 years into the future; and (3) efficacy of possible management strategies for the...

Data from: Specialization and accuracy of host-searching butterflies in complex and simple environments

Meredith K. Steck & Emilie C. Snell-Rood
Populations that have access to a variety of resources are often composed of individuals that specialize on different subsets of resources. Understanding the behavioral mechanisms that drive such individual specialization will help us predict the strength of this specialization across different environments. Here, we explore the idea that individual specialization may be a consequence of constraints on an individual’s ability to process information. Because many environments contain an overwhelming number of resources and associated stimuli,...

Data from: Tropical dry forest trees and lianas differ in leaf economic spectrum traits but have overlapping water-use strategies

Leland K. Werden, Bonnie G. Waring, Christina M. Smith-Martin & Jennifer S. Powers
Tree species in tropical dry forests employ a wide range of strategies to cope with seasonal drought, including regulation of hydraulic function. However, it is uncertain if co-occurring lianas also possess a diversity of strategies. For a taxonomically diverse group of 14 tree and 7 liana species, we measured morphological and hydraulic functional traits during an unusual drought and under non-drought conditions to determine (i) if trees have different water-use strategies than lianas and (ii)...

Data from: Urban trees reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater

Daniel A. Nidzgorski & Sarah E. Hobbie
Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway...

Data from: Determining epistatic selection in admixed populations

Molly Schumer & Yaniv Brandvain
When two diverging species begin hybridizing, selection against hybridization is likely driven not by single substitutions, but by interactions between incompatible mutations. To identify these incompatibilities in natural populations, researchers examine the extent of non-random associations between ancestry at physically unlinked loci in admixed populations. In this approach, which we call “AD scans”, locus-pairs with significantly positive “ancestry disequilibrium” (AD, i.e. locus-pairs that positively covary by ancestry) represent incompatible alleles. Past research has uniformly revealed...

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