65 Works

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Data from: Using beta diversity to inform agricultural policies and conservation actions on Mediterranean farmland

Joana Santana, Miguel Porto, Luis Reino, Francisco Moreira, Paulo Flores Ribeiro, José Lima Santo, John T. Rotenberry & Pedro Beja
1. Spatial variation in species composition (β-diversity) is an important component of farmland biodiversity, which together with local richness (α-diversity) drives the number of species in a region (γ-diversity). However, β-diversity is seldom used to inform conservation, due to limited understanding of its responses to agricultural management, and lack of clear links between β-diversity changes and conservation outcomes. 2. We explored the value of β-diversity to guide conservation on farmland, by quantifying the contribution of...

Data from: Covariation between the physiological and behavioral components of pathogen transmission: host heterogeneity determines epidemic outcomes

Lauren A. White, James D. Forester & Meggan E. Craft
Although heterogeneity in contact rate, physiology, and behavioral response to infection have all been empirically demonstrated in host–pathogen systems, little is known about how interactions between individual variation in behavior and physiology scale-up to affect pathogen transmission at a population level. The objective of this study is to evaluate how covariation between the behavioral and physiological components of transmission might affect epidemic outcomes in host populations. We tested the consequences of contact rate covarying with...

Data from: Disparity, diversity, and duplications in the Caryophyllales

Stephen A. Smith, Joseph W. Brown, Ya Yang, Riva Bruenn, Chloe P. Drummond, Samuel F. Brockington, Joseph F. Walker, Noah Last, Norman A. Douglas & Michael J. Moore
The role played by whole genome duplication (WGD) in plant evolution is actively debated. WGDs have been associated with advantages such as superior colonization, various adaptations, and increased effective population size. However, the lack of a comprehensive mapping of WGDs within a major plant clade has led to uncertainty regarding the potential association of WGDs and higher diversification rates. Using seven chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal genes, we constructed a phylogeny of 5036 species of Caryophyllales,...

Data from: American black bears perceive the risks of crossing roads

Mark A. Ditmer, Spencer J. Rettler, John R. Fieberg, Paul A. Iaizzo, Timothy G. Laske, Karen V. Noyce, David L. Garshelis, Mark A Ditmer, Spencer J Rettler, John R Fieberg, David L Garshelis, Karen V Noyce, Paul A Iaizzo & Timothy G Laske
Roadways may negatively impact wildlife species through vehicular-related mortality and spatial displacement or obstruction. Here we investigated physiological responses, which provide insights into the animal’s perception of its environment. We deployed GPS-collars in combination with cardiac biologgers on American black bears (Ursus americanus; 18 bear-years) in areas with differing road densities across Minnesota, USA. We tested whether bears exhibited acute stress responses, as defined by significant increases in heart rate (HR), associated with road crossings....

Data from: Big groups attract bad eggs: brood parasitism correlates with but does not cause cooperative breeding

Michael T. Wells & F. Keith Barker
There has been great interest in how complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding evolve and are maintained; however, it is still unclear what exact phenomena trigger the transition to cooperative breeding. Recent work in birds has suggested a number of factors associated with cooperative breeding, including environmental uncertainty and brood parasitism. One recent study found a correlation between brood parasitism and cooperative breeding, but it examined this relationship from a geographically restricted perspective. We...

Data from: Using soil amendments and plant functional traits to select native tropical dry forest species for the restoration of degraded Vertisols

Leland K. Werden, Pedro J. Alvarado, Sebastian Zarges, Erick M. Calderón, Erik M. Schilling, Milena L. Gutiérrez & Jennifer S. Powers
Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are critically endangered, and their restoration is understudied. Large-scale passive restoration efforts in north-west (NW) Costa Rica have catalysed TDF regeneration but are not effective on degraded Vertisols, where active restoration is necessary due to high content of shrink–swell clays that impede regeneration following degradation. We established a large-scale restoration experiment in degraded former pastures in NW Costa Rica to determine (1) the restoration potential of native TDF tree species on...

Data from: Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Elizabeth T. Borer, Jonathan M. Chase, John Downing, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Christopher T. Filstrup, W. Stanley Harpole, Dorothee Hodapp, Stefano Larsen, Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Eric W. Seabloom, Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Alexey B. Ryabov & John A. Downing
1. Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is far from trivial, however, as recently documented by meta-analyses which report little if any net change of local species richness through time. 2. Here, we summarize several limitations of species richness as a metric...

Data from: Correlates of decisional dynamics in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

Habiba Azab & Benjamin Y. Hayden
We hypothesized that during binary economic choice, decision makers use the first option they attend as a default to which they compare the second. To test this idea, we recorded activity of neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of macaques choosing between gambles presented asynchronously. We find that ensemble encoding of the value of the first offer includes both choice-dependent and choice-independent aspects, as if reflecting a partial decision. That is, its responses...

Data from: Evolution of mammalian migrations for refuge, breeding, and food

Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, William D. Pearse & Allison K. Shaw
Many organisms migrate between distinct habitats, exploiting variable resources while profoundly affecting ecosystem services, disease spread, and human welfare. However, the very characteristics that make migration captivating and significant also make it difficult to study, and we lack a comprehensive understanding of which species migrate and why. Here we show that, among mammals, migration is concentrated within Cetacea and Artiodactyla but also diffusely spread throughout the class (found in 12 of 27 orders). We synthesize...

Data from: Plant traits of propagule banks and standing vegetation reveal flooding alleviates impacts of agriculture on wetland restoration

Samantha K. Dawson, David I. Warton, Richard T. Kingsford, Peter Berney, David A. Keith & Jane A. Catford
1. Restoration of degraded plant communities requires understanding of community assembly processes. Human land use can influence plant community assembly by altering environmental conditions and species’ dispersal patterns. Flooding, including from environmental flows, may counteract land use effects on wetland vegetation. We examined the influence of land use history and flood frequency on the functional composition of wetland plant communities along a regulated river. 2. We applied fourth corner modelling to determine species’ trait-based responses...

Data from: FiSSE: A simple non-parametric test for the effects of a binary character on lineage diversification rates

Daniel L. Rabosky & Emma E. Goldberg
It is widely assumed that phenotypic traits can influence rates of speciation and extinction, and several statistical approaches have been used to test for correlations between character states and lineage diversification. Recent work suggests that model-based tests of state-dependent speciation and extinction are sensitive to model inadequacy and phylogenetic pseudoreplication. We describe a simple non-parametric statistical test ("FiSSE") to assess the effects of a binary character on lineage diversification rates. The method involves computing a...

Data from: Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

Malcolm S. Itter, Andrew O. Finley, Anthony W. D'Amato, Jane R. Foster & John B. Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth...

Data from: Macroevolutionary synthesis of flowering plant sexual systems

Emma E. Goldberg, Sarah P. Otto, Jana C. Vamosi, Itay Mayrose, Niv Sabath, Ray Ming & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Sexual system is a key determinant of genetic variation and reproductive success, affecting evolution within populations and within clades. Much research in plants has focused on evolutionary transitions away from the most common state of hermaphroditism and toward the rare state of dioecy (separate sexes). Rather than transitions predominantly toward greater sexual differentiation, however, evolution may proceed in the direction of lesser sexual differentiation. We analyzed the macroevolutionary dynamics of sexual system in angiosperm genera...

Data from: Survey of haemosporidian parasites in resident and migrant game birds of Illinois

Kendall L. Annetti, Nelda A. Rivera, John E. Andrews & Nohra Mateus-Pinilla
Haemosporidian parasites are globally distributed in avian species, capable of leading to decreased reproductive success, weakness and mortality. Haemosporidian parasites that affect reproduction and population growth are of interest to bird conservation groups and to organizations concerned with the health and immunological status of avian populations. Haemosporidian infection data are not always available for some avian species in specific regions yet. These data provides the starting points to evaluate geographical and temporal changes in the...

Data from: Solar-powered flow-through system for aquatic field studies

Connor Neill, Sehoya Cotner & Brian Wisenden
1 Laboratory-based research provides great control over individual experimental replicates, but lacks the ecological realism of field work. Therefore, results from lab-based work may not reflect natural processes. Field-based studies have the advantage of ecological realism but often lack control over environmental variables and have low rates of within-experiment replication and as a result can have low statistical power to detect effects. 2 Here, we present a method for creating a standardized system for experimental...

Data from: Comparing forest structure and biodiversity on private and public land: secondary tropical dry forests in Costa Rica

Moana McClellan, Rebecca Montgomery, Kristen Nelson & Justin Becknell
Secondary forests constitute a substantial proportion of tropical forestlands. These forests occur on both public and private lands and different underlying environmental variables and management regimes may affect post‐abandonment successional processes and resultant forest structure and biodiversity. We examined whether differences in ownership led to differences in forest structure, tree diversity, and tree species composition across a gradient of soil fertility and forest age. We collected soil samples and surveyed all trees in 82 public...

Data from: Deactivation in the posterior mid-cingulate cortex reflects perceptual transitions during binocular rivalry: evidence from simultaneous EEG-fMRI

Abhrajeet V. Roy, Keith W. Jamison, Sheng He, Stephen A. Engel & Bin He
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon in which perception spontaneously shifts between two different images that are dichoptically presented to the viewer. By elucidating the cortical networks responsible for these stochastic fluctuations in perception, we can potentially learn much about the neural correlates of visual awareness. We obtained concurrent EEG-fMRI data for a group of 20 healthy human subjects during the continuous presentation of dichoptic visual stimuli. The two eyes’ images were tagged with different temporal...

Data from: Lianas reduce community-level canopy tree reproduction in a Panamanian forest

María M. García León, Laura Martínez Izquierdo, Felipe Nery Arantes Mello, Jennifer S. Powers & Stefan A. Schnitzer
Lianas are a key component of tropical forests, where they compete intensely with trees, reducing tree recruitment, growth and survival. One of the most important potential outcomes of liana competition is the reduction of tree reproduction; however, no previous study has experimentally determined the effects of lianas on tree reproduction beyond a single tree species. We used a large-scale liana removal experiment to quantify the effect of lianas on community-level canopy and understorey tree and...

Data from: The challenge of modeling niches and distributions for data-poor species: a comprehensive approach to model complexity

Peter J. Galante, Babatunde Alade, Robert Muscarella, Sharon A. Jansa, Steven M. Goodman & Robert P. Anderson
Models of species ecological niches and geographic distributions now represent a widely used tool in ecology, evolution, and biogeography. However, the very common situation of species with few available occurrence localities presents major challenges for such modeling techniques, in particular regarding model complexity and evaluation. Here, we summarize the state of the field regarding these issues and provide a worked example using the technique Maxent for a small mammal endemic to Madagascar (the nesomyine rodent...

Data from: Exacerbated nitrogen limitation ends transient stimulation of grassland productivity by increased precipitation

Haiyan Ren, Zhuwen Xu, Forest Isbell, Jianhui Huang, Xingguo Han, Shiqiang Wan, Shiping Chen, Ruzhen Wang, De-Hui Zeng, Yong Jiang & Yunting Fang
Given that plant growth is often water-limited in grasslands, it has been proposed that projected increases in precipitation could increase plant productivity and carbon sequestration. However, the existing evidence for this hypothesis comes primarily from observational studies along natural precipitation gradients or from short-term manipulative experiments. It remains unclear whether long-term increased precipitation persistently stimulates grassland productivity. In the world's largest remaining temperate grassland, we found that experimentally increased precipitation enhanced net primary production, soil...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: A tale of two studies: detection and attribution of the impacts of invasive plants in observational surveys

Kevin E. Mueller, Alexandra G. Lodge, Alexander M. Roth, Timothy J. S. Whitfeld, Sarah E. Hobbie & Peter B. Reich
1.Short-term experiments cannot characterize how long-lived, invasive shrubs influence ecological properties that can be slow to change, including native diversity and soil fertility. Observational studies are thus necessary, but often suffer from methodological issues. 2.To highlight ways of improving the design and interpretation of observational studies that assess the impacts of invasive plants, we compare two studies of nutrient cycling and earthworms along two separate gradients of invasive shrub abundance. By considering the divergent sampling...

Data from: Urban landscapes can change virus gene flow and evolution in a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore

Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones, Meggan E. Craft, W. Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl R. Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S. Lee, Sue VandeWoude & Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a...

Data from: Melanization of mycorrhizal fungal necromass structures microbial decomposer communities

Christopher W. Fernandez & Peter G. Kennedy
Mycorrhizal fungal necromass is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to soil organic carbon pools, particularly in forest ecosystems. While its decomposition rate is primarily determined by biochemical composition, how traits such as melanin content affect the structure of necromass decomposer communities remains poorly understood. To assess the role of biochemical traits on microbial decomposer community composition and functioning, we incubated melanized and non-melanized necromass of the mycorrhizal fungus Meliniomyces bicolor in Pinus- and Quercus-dominated...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Minnesota
  • Western Sydney University
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • Australian National University
  • UNSW Sydney
  • Michigan State University
  • Stanford University
  • Northwestern University
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Melbourne
  • University of Tasmania
  • University of Colorado Boulder