58 Works

Data from: Mating consequences of contrasting hermaphroditic plant sexual systems

Caitlin E. Tomaszewski, Mason W. Kulbaba & Lawrence D. Harder
For hermaphroditic angiosperms with multiple flowers the sex roles can be exclusively combined in bisexual flowers (monocliny), strictly separated among different flowers (monoecy), or arrayed in mixtures of bisexual flowers with female flowers (gynomonoecy) or male flowers (andromonoecy). The hypothesized benefits favoring the evolution of these contrasting hermaphroditic sexual systems are typically examined individually, usually by assessing success through only one sex role. We tested predictions of most hypotheses experimentally with an andromonoecious species, Anticlea...

Data from: Diel predator activity drives a dynamic landscape of fear

Michel T. Kohl, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, James D. Forester, Matthew J. Kauffman, Nathan Varley, Patrick J. White, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. MacNulty & P. J. White
A ‘landscape of fear’ (LOF) is a map that describes continuous spatial variation in an animal’s perception of predation risk. The relief on this map reflects, for example, places that an animal avoids to minimize risk. Although the LOF concept is a potential unifying theme in ecology that is often invoked to explain the ecological and conservation significance of fear, little is known about the daily dynamics of a LOF. Despite theory and data to...

Data from: Metrics matter: the effect of parasite richness, intensity and prevalence on the evolution of host migration

Allison K. Shaw, Julie Sherman, F Barker, Marlene Zuk & F. Keith Barker
Parasites have long been thought to influence the evolution of migration, but precisely determining the conditions under which this occurs by quantifying costs of infection remains a challenge. Here we developed a model that demonstrates how the metric used to describe infection (richness/diversity, prevalence, or intensity) shapes the prediction of whether migration will evolve. The model shows that predictions based on minimizing richness yield opposite results compared to those based on minimizing prevalence, with migration...

Data from: Expression of additive genetic variance for fitness in a population of partridge pea in two field sites

Seema Nayan Sheth, Mason W. Kulbaba, Rachel E. Pain & Ruth G. Shaw
Despite the importance of adaptation in shaping biological diversity over many generations, little is known about populations’ capacities to adapt at any particular time. Theory predicts that a population's rate of ongoing adaptation is the ratio of its additive genetic variance for fitness, VA (W), to its mean absolute fitness, W̅. We conducted a transplant study to quantify W̅ and standing VA (W) for a population of the annual legume Chamaecrista fasciculata in one field...

Data from: Retracing the Hawaiian silversword radiation despite phylogenetic, biogeographic, and paleogeographic uncertainty

Michael J. Landis, William A. Freyman & Bruce G. Baldwin
The Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) is an iconic adaptive radiation. However, like many island plant lineages, no fossils have been assigned to the clade. As a result, the clade's age and diversification rate are not known precisely, making it difficult to test biogeographic hypotheses about the radiation. Without fossils, paleogeographically structured biogeographic processes may inform species divergence times; for example, an island must first exist for a clade to radiate upon it. We date the...

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, Brodie III., Edmund D. & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Evaluating active learning methods for annotating semantic predications

Jake Vasilakes, Rubina Rizvi, Genevieve B. Melton, Serguei Pakhomov, Rui Zhang & Genevieve B Melton
Objectives: This study evaluated and compared a variety of active learning strategies, including a novel strategy we proposed, as applied to the task of filtering incorrect SemRep semantic predications. Materials and Methods: We evaluated three types of active learning strategies – uncertainty, representative, and combined– on two datasets of semantic predications from SemMedDB covering the domains of substance interactions and clinical medicine, respectively. We also designed a novel combined strategy with dynamic β without hand-tuned...

Data from: Fluidigm2PURC: automated processing and haplotype inference for double-barcoded PCR amplicons

Paul D. Blischak, Maribeth Latvis, Diego F. Morales-Briones, Jens C. Johnson, Verónica S. Di Stilio, Andrea D. Wolfe & David C. Tank
Premise of the Study: Targeted enrichment strategies for phylogenomic inference are a time‐ and cost‐efficient way to collect DNA sequence data for large numbers of individuals at multiple, independent loci. Automated and reproducible processing of these data is a crucial step for researchers conducting phylogenetic studies. Methods and Results: We present Fluidigm2PURC, an open source Python utility for processing paired‐end Illumina data from double‐barcoded PCR amplicons. In combination with the program PURC (Pipeline for Untangling...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Activation recovery interval imaging of premature ventricular contraction

Ting Yang, Long Yu, Qi Jin, Liqun Wu & Bin He
Dispersion of ventricular repolarization due to abnormal activation contributes to the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. However, the global pattern of repolarization is difficult to assess clinically. Activation recovery interval (ARI) has been used to understand the properties of ventricular repolarization. In this study, we developed an ARI imaging technique to noninvasively reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) ARI maps in 10 premature ventricular contraction (PVC) patients and evaluated the results with the endocardial ARI maps recorded by a...

Data from: Root responses to elevated CO2, warming, and irrigation in a semi-arid grassland: integrating biomass, length, and life span in a 5‐year field experiment

Kevin E. Mueller, Daniel R. LeCain, M. L. McCormack, Elise Pendall, Mary Carlson, Dana M. Blumenthal & M. Luke McCormack
1.Plant roots mediate the impacts of environmental change on ecosystems, yet knowledge of root responses to environmental change is limited because few experiments evaluate multiple environmental factors and their interactions. Inferences about root functions are also limited because root length dynamics are rarely measured. 2.Using a five‐year experiment in a mixed‐grass prairie, we report the responses of root biomass, length, and lifespan to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), warming, elevated CO2 and warming combined, and irrigation....

Data from: Pollination along an elevational gradient mediated both by floral scent and pollinator compatibility in the fig and fig‐wasp mutualism

Daniel Souto-Vilarós, Magali Proffit, Bruno Buatois, Michal Rindos, Mentap Sisol, Thomas Kuyaiva, Jan Michalek, Clive T. Darwell, Martine Hossaert-Mckey, George D. Weiblen, Vojtech Novotny, Simon T. Segar & Brus Isua
In the fig (Moraceae) and fig‐wasp (Agaonidae) mutualism, scent is believed to be of primary importance in pollinator attraction and maintenance of species specificity. Scent divergence between closely related Ficus species seems sufficient in promoting reproductive isolation through pollinator behaviour, starting the process of speciation. We investigated volatile organic compound (VOC) variation from figs in several Ficus species endemic to Papua New Guinea. Sister species of section Papuacyse and subspecies of Ficus trichocerasa substitute each...

Data from: Environmental filtering and competitive exclusion drive biodiversity-invasibility relationships in shallow lake plant communities

Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Nicole Hansel-Welch & Daniel J. Larkin
1. Understanding the processes that influence the diversity of ecological communities and their susceptibility to invasion by exotic species remains a challenge in ecology. In many systems, a positive relationship between the richness of native species and exotic species has been observed at larger spatial (e.g., regional) scales, while a negative pattern has been observed at local (e.g., plot) scales. These patterns are widely attributed to (1) biotic interactions, particularly biotic resistance, limiting invasions in...

Data from: Soil abiotic variables are more important than Salicaceae phylogeny or habitat specialization in determining soil microbial community structure

Sonya Erlandson, Xiaojing Wei, Jessica Savage, Jeannine Cavender-Bares & Kabir Peay
Predicting the outcome of interspecific interactions is a central goal in ecology. The diverse soil microbes that interact with plants are shaped by different aspects of plant identity, such as phylogenetic history and functional group. Species interactions may also be strongly shaped by abiotic environment, but there is mixed evidence on the relative importance of environment, plant identity, and their interactions in shaping soil microbial communities. Using a multi-factor, split-plot field experiment, we tested how...

Data from: A novel approach to improve immune effector responses post transplant by restoration of CCL21 expression

Heather E. Stefanski, Leslie Jonart, Emily Goren, James J. Mulé & Bruce R. Blazar
Chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy conditioning regimens required for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) cause significant morbidity and mortality as a result of insufficient immune surveillance mechanisms leading to increased risks of infection and tumor recurrence. Such conditioning causes host stromal cell injury, impairing restoration of the central (thymus) and peripheral (spleen and lymph node) T cell compartments and slow immune reconstitution. The chemokine, CCL21, produced by host stromal cells, recruits T- and B-cells that provide lymphotoxin mediated...

Data from: Adaptation, chance, and history in experimental evolutionary reversals to unicellularity

María Rebolleda-Gómez & Michael Travisano
Evolution is often deemed irreversible. The evolution of complex traits that require many mutations makes their reversal unlikely. Even in simpler traits, reversals might become less likely as neutral or beneficial mutations, with deleterious effects in the ancestral context, become fixed in the novel background. This is especially true in changes that involve large re-organizations of the organism and its interactions with the environment. The evolution of multicellularity involves the reorganization of previously autonomous cells...

Data from: Genome-wide association analyses in the model rhizobium Ensifer meliloti

Brendan Epstein, Reda A.L. Abou-Shanab, Abdelaal Shameldsin, Margaret R. Taylor, Joseph Guhlin, Liana T. Burghardt, Matthew Nelson, Michael J. Sadowsky, Peter Tiffin & Reda A. I. Abou-Shanab
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can identify genetic variants responsible for naturally occurring and quantitative phenotypic variation and therefore provide a powerful complement to approaches that rely on de novo mutations for characterizing gene function. Although bacteria should be amenable to GWAS, few GWAS have been conducted on bacteria, and the extent to which non-independence among genomic variants (e.g. linkage disequilibrium, LD) and the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits will affect GWAS performance is unclear. We...

Data from: Digitizing extant bat diversity: an open-access repository of 3D μCT-scanned skulls for research and education

Jeff J. Shi, Erin P. Westeen & Daniel L. Rabosky
Biological specimens are primary records of organismal ecology and history. As such, museum collections are invaluable repositories for testing ecological and evolutionary hypotheses across the tree of life. Digitizing and broadly sharing the phenotypic data from these collections serves to expand the traditional reach of museums, enabling widespread data sharing, collaboration, and education at an unprecedented scale. In recent years, μCT-scanning has been adopted as one way for efficiently digitizing museum specimens. Here, we describe...

Data from: Is it the song or the singers? Acoustic and social experiences shape adult reproductive tactics and condition

Susan L. Balenger, Elizabeth Bastiaans & Marlene Zuk
When sexual signals are perceived during growth and development they can provide information regarding the social conditions likely to be encountered as an adult. Perception of cues related to the presence and density of future mates and potential competitors can result in altered adult phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that adult male Teleogryllus oceanicus field crickets from a Kauai, Hawaii population reared alone and without hearing conspecific song are more phonotactic than those reared with...

Data from: Social living simultaneously increases infection risk and decreases the cost of infection

Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Katherine E.L. Worsley-Tonks & Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks
Elevated parasite infection risk is considered to be a near universal cost of social living. However, living in groups may also provide benefits that reduce the negative impacts of infection. These potential ‘tolerance’ benefits of living socially are theoretically possible, but have rarely been described. In this study, we used an anthelmintic treatment experiment in wild Grant’s gazelles (Nanger granti), who are commonly infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), to show that social living confers both...

Data from: High specialization and limited structural change in plant‐herbivore networks along a successional chronosequence in tropical montane forest

Conor M. Redmond, John Auga, Bradley Gewa, Simon T. Segar, Scott E. Miller, Kenneth Molem, George D. Weiblen, Phillip T. Butterill, Gibson Maiyah, Amelia S.C. Hood, Martin Volf, Leonardo R. Jorge, Yves Basset, Vojtech Novotny, Philip T. Butterill & Amelia S. C. Hood
Secondary succession is well‐understood, to the point of being predictable for plant communities, but the successional changes in plant‐herbivore interactions remains poorly explored. This is particularly true for tropical forests, despite the increasing importance of early successional stages in tropical landscapes. Deriving expectations from successional theory, we examine properties of plant‐herbivore interaction networks while accounting for host phylogenetic structure along a succession chronosequence in montane rainforest in Papua New Guinea. We present one of the...

Data from: Integrating abundance and diet data to improve inferences of food web dynamics

Jake M. Ferguson, Hopkins III., John B., Brianna H. Witteveen, John B. Hopkins & Briana H. Witteveen
1. Both population abundances and chemical tracers are useful tools for studying consumer-resource interactions. Food web models parameterized with abundances are often used to understand how interactions structure communities and to inform management decisions of complex ecological systems. Unfortunately, collecting abundance data to parameterize these models is often expensive and time-consuming. Another approach is to use chemical tracers to estimate the proportional diets of consumers by relating the tracers in their tissues to those found...

Data from: Extreme dentition does not prevent diet and tooth diversification within combtooth blennies (Ovalentaria: Blenniidae)

Peter Joseph Hundt, Andrew M. Simons & Peter J. Hundt
The dentition of fishes can be quite striking and is often correlated with a specific diet. Combtooth blennies have long incisiform oral teeth, unlike most actinopterygians. It has been suggested that the long tooth morphology is an adaptation for detritivory, but given the diversity of diets (detritus, coral polyps, polychaetes, and pieces of other fishes), are blenny teeth indeed monomorphic? Or does tooth variation associated with diet still exist at this extreme? To explore tooth...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

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  • 2018

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  • University of Minnesota
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  • Iowa State University
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  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • Field Museum of Natural History
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