29 Works

Cloquet Forestry Center arboretum larch individual tree diameter and height 2016

Benjamin Koenig & Kyle Gill
During August 2 through September 20, 2016 Kyle Gill, University of Minnesota Cloquet Forestry Center (CFC) Manager and Research Coordinator, led an effort to sample individual tree size on 139 larch trees of six different genetic and geographic sources found in the CFC arboretum; genetic or geographic source available upon request.

The percentage of total agricultural area under maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production, by country, subject to water scarcity in 2050 as estimated from a multi-model ensemble

N. Fitton, P. Alexander, N. Arnell, B. Bajzelj, K. Calvin, J. Doelman, J.S. Gerber, P. Havlik, T. Hasegawa, M. Herrero, T. Krisztin, H. Van Meijl, T. Powell, R. Sands, E. Stehfest, P.C. West & P. Smith
Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities availability in 2050.

Data from: Feline immunodeficiency virus in puma: estimation of force of infection reveals insights into transmission

Jennifer Reynolds, Scott Carver, Mark Cunningham, Ken Logan, Winston Vickers, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & Meggan Craft
Determining parameters that govern pathogen transmission (such as the force of infection, FOI), and pathogen impacts on morbidity and mortality, is exceptionally challenging for wildlife. Vital parameters can vary, for example across host populations, between sexes and within an individual's lifetime. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus affecting domestic and wild cat species, forming species-specific viral--host associations. FIV infection is common in populations of puma (Puma concolor), yet uncertainty remains over transmission parameters and...

Invasive species and biotic homogenization in temperate aquatic plant communities

Ranjan Muthukrishnan & Daniel Larkin
Aim: Biotic homogenization (BH), a reduction in the distinctness of species composition between geographically separated ecological communities in a region, is an important but underappreciated potential consequence of biological invasions. While BH theory has always considered invasions, it has generally been in a relatively narrow context, i.e., that the cosmopolitan nature of invasive species increases BH because of their shared presence across many locations. We sought to evaluate this component of BH as well as...

The Fungal Endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii Plays a Limited Role in Mediating Crown Rust Severity in Perennial Ryegrass

Garett Heineck
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important turf and forage species that often becomes infected with Puccinia coronata f. sp. lolii, the causal pathogen of crown rust. Disease control through clavicipitaceous endophytes has been proposed as a potential biocontrol. Two field experiments were designed to determine the influence of native Epichloë endophyte infection on natural rust development across a diverse panel of perennial ryegrass germplasm. Experiment 1 used an isogenic population design in which...

Vanishing islands in the sky? A comparison of correlation- and mechanism-based forecasts of range dynamics for montane salamanders under climate change

Marta Lyons & Kenneth Kozak
Forecasting the effects of climate change on species and populations is a fundamental goal of conservation biology, especially for montane endemics which seemingly are under the greatest threat of extinction given their association with cool, high elevation habitats. Species distribution models (also known as niche models) predict where on the landscape there is suitable habitat for a species of interest. Correlative niche modeling, the most commonly employed approach to predict species’ distributions, relies on correlations...

How much do rare and crop-pollinating bees overlap in identity and flower preferences?

Molly MacLeod, James Reilly, Daniel Cariveau, Mark Genung, Michael Roswell, Jason Gibbs & Rachael Winfree
1. The biodiversity-centered approach to conservation prioritizes rare species, whereas the ecosystem services approach prioritizes species that provide services to people. The two approaches align when rare species provide ecosystem services, or when both groups of species benefit from the same management action. We use data on bee pollinators and the plant species they forage on to determine if there are rare species among the most important crop pollinators, and the extent to which plant...

Microbial associations and spatial proximity predict North American moose (Alces alces) gastrointestinal community composition

Nicholas Fountain-Jones, Nicholas Clark, Amy Kinsley, Michelle Carstensen, James Forester, Johnson Timothy, Elizabeth Miller, Seth Moore, Tiffany Wolf & Meggan Craft
Microbial communities are increasingly recognised as crucial for animal health. However, our understanding of how microbial communities are structured across wildlife populations is poor. Mechanisms such as interspecific associations are important in structuring free-living communities, but we still lack an understanding of how important interspecific associations are in structuring gut microbial communities in comparison to other factors such as host characteristics or spatial proximity of hosts. Here we ask how gut microbial communities are structured...

Data from: Allometric scaling laws linking biomass and rooting depth vary across ontogeny and functional groups in tropical dry forest lianas and trees

Chris M. Smith-Martin, Xiangtao Xu, David Medvigy, Stefan Schnitzer & Jennifer Powers
There are two theories about how allocation of metabolic products occurs. The allometric biomass partitioning theory (APT) suggests that all plants follow common allometric scaling rules. The optimal partitioning theory (OPT) predicts that plants allocate more biomass to the organ capturing the most limiting resource. We used whole-plant harvests of mature and juvenile tropical deciduous trees, evergreen trees, and lianas and model simulations to address the following knowledge gaps: 1) Do mature lianas comply with...

Assessing the Ecological Impacts of Biomass Harvesting along a Disturbance Severity Gradient

Valerie Kurth, Anthony D'Amato, John Bradford, Brian Palik & Christopher Looney
Disturbance is a central driver of forest development and ecosystem processes with variable effects within and across ecosystems. Despite the high levels of variation in disturbance severity often observed in forests following natural and anthropogenic disturbance, studies quantifying disturbance impacts often rely on categorical classifications, thus limiting opportunities to examine potential gradients in ecosystem response to a given disturbance or management regime. Given the potential increases in disturbance severity associated with global change, as well...

Context dependence of local adaptation to abiotic and biotic environments: a quantitative and qualitative synthesis

Ryan Briscoe Runquist, Amanda Gorton, Jeremy Yoder, Nicholas Deacon, Jake Grossman, Shan Kothari, Marta Lyons, Seema Sheth, Peter Tiffin & David Moeller
Understanding how spatially-variable selection shapes adaptation is an area of longstanding interest in evolutionary ecology. Recent meta-analyses have quantified the extent of local adaptation, but the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors in driving population divergence remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we combined a quantitative meta-analysis and a qualitative meta-synthesis to (1) quantify the magnitude of local adaptation to abiotic and biotic factors and (2) characterize major themes that influence the motivation...

A select-and-resequence approach reveals strain-specific effects of Medicago nodule-specific PLAT-domain genes

Liana T. Burghardt, Diana I. Trujillo, Brendan Epstein, Peter Tiffin & Nevin D. Young
Genetic studies of legume symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria have traditionally focused on nodule and nitrogen-fixation phenotypes when hosts are inoculated with a single rhizobial strain. These approaches overlook the potential effect of host genes on rhizobial fitness (i.e., how many rhizobia are released from host nodules) and strain-specific effects of host genes (i.e., genome x genome interactions). Using Medicago truncatula mutants in the recently described Nodule-specific PLAT Domain (NPD) gene family, we show how...

Urbanization impacts apex predator gene flow but not genetic diversity across an urban-rural divide

Daryl R Trumbo, Patricia E Salerno, Kenneth Logan, Mat Alldredge, Roderick B Gagne, Christopher P Kozakiewicz, Simona Kraberger, Nick Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, Scott Carver, Holly B Ernest, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & W. Chris Funk
Apex predators are important indicators of intact natural ecosystems. They are also sensitive to urbanization because they require broad home ranges and extensive contiguous habitat to support their prey base. Pumas (Puma concolor) can persist near human developed areas, but urbanization may be detrimental to their movement ecology, population structure, and genetic diversity. To investigate potential effects of urbanization in population connectivity of pumas, we performed a landscape genomics study of 130 pumas on the...

Data from: Resistance of soil biota and plant growth to disturbance increases with plant diversity

Jonathan Bennett, Alexander Koch, Jennifer Forsythe, Nancy Johnson, David Tilman & John Klironomos
Plant diversity is critical to the functioning of ecosystems, potentially mediated in part by interactions with soil biota. Here, we characterized multiple groups of soil biota across a plant diversity gradient in a long-term experiment. We then subjected soil samples taken along this gradient to drought, freezing, and a mechanical disturbance to test how plant diversity affects the responses of soil biota and growth of a focal plant to these disturbances. High plant diversity resulted...

Tolerance of novel toxins through generalized mechanisms: simulating gradual host shifts of butterflies

Emilie C. Snell-Rood, Kristin L Sikkink, Reilly Hostager, Megan E. Kobiela, Nathan Fremling, Katherine Johnston & Amod Zambre
Organisms encounter a wide range of toxic compounds in their environments, from chemicals that serve anti-consumption or anti-competition functions, to pollutants and pesticides. Although we understand many detoxification mechanisms that allow organisms to consume toxins typical of their diet, we know little about why organisms vary in their ability to tolerate entirely novel toxins. We tested whether variation in generalized stress responses, such as antioxidant pathways, may underlie variation in reactions to novel toxins, and,...

Data from: Comparative genomic analysis of the pheromone receptor Class 1 family (V1R) reveals extreme complexity in mouse lemurs (genus, Microcebus) and a chromosomal hotspot across mammals

Kelsie E Hunnicutt, George P Tiley, Rachel C Williams, Peter A Larsen, Marina B Blanco, Rodin M Rasoloarison, Christopher Ryan Campbell, Kevin Zhu, David W Weisrock, Hiroaki Matsunami & Anne D Yoder
Sensory gene families are of special interest, both for what they can tell us about molecular evolution, and for what they imply as mediators of social communication. The vomeronasal type-1 receptors (V1Rs) have often been hypothesized as playing a fundamental role in driving or maintaining species boundaries given their likely function as mediators of intraspecific mate choice, particularly in nocturnal mammals. Here, we employ a comparative genomic approach for revealing patterns of V1R evolution within...

Data from: Interaction among ploidy, breeding system, and lineage diversification

Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, J. Gordon Burleigh, William A. Freyman, Boris Igic, Itay Mayrose & Emma E. Goldberg
If particular traits consistently affect rates of speciation and extinction, broad macroevolutionary patterns can be interpreted as consequences of selection at high levels of the biological hierarchy. Identifying traits associated with diversification rates is difficult because of the wide variety of characters under consideration and the statistical challenges of testing for associations from comparative phylogenetic data. Ploidy (diploid vs. polyploid states) and breeding system (self-incompatible vs. self-compatible states) are both thought to be drivers of...

Data from: Species Selection Regime and Phylogenetic Tree Shape

George Verboom, Florian Boucher, David Ackerly, Lara Wootton & William Freyman
Species selection, the effect of heritable traits in generating between-lineage diversification rate differences, provides a valuable conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between traits, diversification and phylogenetic tree shape. An important challenge, however, is that the nature of real diversification landscapes – curves or surfaces which describe the propensity of species-level lineages to diversify as a function of one or more traits – remains poorly understood. Here we present a novel, time-stratified extension of the...

Data from: Quantifying cryptic function loss during community disassembly

Akira Terui, Jacques Finlay, Amy Hansen & Jessica Kozarek
1. Emerging theory suggests that the ecosystem-level consequences of anthropogenic pressures depend on how species will be disassembled from ecological communities (i.e., the disassembly rule). Species loss, however, is not the sole ecological cause of ecosystem function loss: behaviors underpinning ecosystem function can also be disrupted by anthropogenic pressures without detectable declines of component species (“cryptic function loss”). 2. Here, we introduce a novel framework that integrates behavioral responses into community disassembly metrics. We applied...

Data from: City sicker? a meta-analysis of wildlife health and urbanization

Maureen H. Murray, Cecilia A. Sanchez, Daniel J. Becker, Kaylee A. Byers, Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks & Meggan E. Craft
Urban development can alter resource availability, land use, and community composition, in turn influencing wildlife health. Generalizable relationships between wildlife health and urbanization have yet to be quantified, and could vary across health metrics and animal taxonomy. We present a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 516 records spanning 81 wildlife species from 106 studies comparing the toxicant loads, parasitism, body condition, or stress of urban and non-urban wildlife populations in 30 countries. We find a significantly negative...

Data from: Imputation of canine genotype array data using 365 whole-genome sequences improves power of genome-wide association studies

Jessica J. Hayward, Michelle E. White, Michael Boyle, Laura M Shannon, Margret L. Casal, Marta G. Castelhano, Sharon A. Center, Vicki N. Meyers-Wallen, Kenneth W. Simpson, Nathan B. Sutter, Rory J. Todhunter & Adam R. Boyko
Genomic resources for the domestic dog have improved with the widespread adoption of a 173k SNP array platform and updated reference genome. SNP arrays of this density are sufficient for detecting genetic associations within breeds but are underpowered for finding associations across multiple breeds or in mixed-breed dogs, where linkage disequilibrium rapidly decays between markers, even though such studies would hold particular promise for mapping complex diseases and traits. Here we introduce an imputation reference...

Data from: Soil organic carbon stability in forests: distinct effects of tree species identity and traits

Gerrit Angst, Kevin E. Mueller, David M. Eissenstat, Susan Trumbore, Katherine H. Freeman, Sarah E. Hobbie, Jon Chorover, Jacek Oleksyn, Peter B. Reich & Carsten W. Mueller
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased interest in the potential for forest ecosystems and soils to act as carbon (C) sinks. While soil organic C contents often vary with tree species identity, little is known about if, and how, tree species influence the stability of C in soil. Using a 40‐year‐old common garden experiment with replicated plots of eleven temperate tree species, we investigated relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) stability in mineral soils and...

Individual-Based-Model used in "Population context matters: predicting effects of metabolic stress mediated by food availability and predation with an agent- and energy budget-based model"

Maxime Vaugeois, Valery E Forbes, Paul A Venturelli, Chiara Accolla & Stephanie L Hummel
This is the programming software code of the model developed to investigate the population-level impacts of a hypothetical, sublethal stressor that can affect an individual’s metabolism (growth, reproduction, maintenance, or assimilation) in systems in which population size is controlled by different combinations of food availability and predation pressure. The life cycle of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is describe through their metabolism, using the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) and we represent the populations through an...

B3GET: A Behavioral Ecology Model

Kristin Crouse
B3GET simulates populations of virtual organisms evolving over generations, whose evolutionary outcomes reflect the selection pressures of their environment. The model simulates several factors considered important in biology, including life history trade-offs, investment in fighting ability and aggression, sperm competition, infanticide, and competition over access to food and mates. Downloaded materials include a starting genotype and population files.

VCF file of SNP data of 556 isolates of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina from 11 world-wide regions

James Kolmer
This a file of ca. 6500 SNPs of 556 isolates of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccina triticina from 11 worldwide regions that were mapped to the reference genome. This data was used to examine the population structure of Puccinia triticina on a worldwide basis, and to examine the evolutionary relationship between collections from a wheat progenitor, collections from durum wheat, and collections from common wheat. Groups of isolates that were highly related were found...

Registration Year

  • 2019
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Affiliations

  • University of Minnesota
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  • University of Tasmania
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