Pleiotropy between male signals and female preferences can facilitate evolution of sexual communication by maintaining coordination between the sexes. Alternatively, it can favor variation in the mating system, such as a reproductive polymorphism. It is unknown how common either of these scenarios are in nature. In Pacific field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) on Kauai, Hawaii, a mutation (flatwing) that segregates as a single locus is responsible for the rapid loss of song production in males. We...
The effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and differentiation: fine- scale population structure of Cercis canadensis (Eastern Redbud)Meher Ony, Marcin Nowicki, Sarah Boggess, William Klingeman, John Zobel, Robert Trigiano & Denita Hadziabdic
Forest fragmentation may negatively affect plants through reduced genetic diversity and increased population structure due to habitat isolation, decreased population size, and disturbance of pollen-seed dispersal mechanisms. However, in the case of tree species, effective pollen-seed dispersal, mating system, and ecological dynamics may help the species overcome the negative effect of forest fragmentation. A fine-scale population genetics study can shed light on the post-fragmentation genetic diversity and structure of a species. Here, we present the...
Whole-genome duplication has played a central role in genome evolution of many organisms, including the human genome. Most duplicated genes are eliminated and factors that influence the retention of persisting duplicates remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a systematic complex genetic interaction analysis with yeast paralogs derived from the whole-genome duplication event. Mapping digenic interactions for a deletion mutant of each paralog and trigenic interactions for the double mutant provides insight into their roles and...
Microclimatic conditions change dramatically as forests age and impose strong filters on community assembly during succession. Light availability is the most limiting environmental factor in tropical wet forest succession; by contrast, water availability is predicted to strongly influence tropical dry forest (TDF) successional dynamics. While mechanisms underlying TDF successional trajectories are not well understood, observational studies have demonstrated that TDF communities transition from being dominated by species with conservative traits to species with acquisitive traits,...
Repeated fire shifts carbon and nitrogen cycling by changing plant inputs and soil decomposition across ecosystemsAdam Francis Pellegrini, Sarah Hobbie, Peter Reich, Ari Jumpponen, Jack Brookshire, Anthony Caprio, Corli Coetsee & Robert Jackson
Fires shape the biogeochemistry and functioning of many ecosystems, and fire frequencies are changing across much of the globe. Frequent fires can change soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage by altering the quantity and chemistry of plant inputs through changes in plant biomass and composition as well as altering decomposition of soil organic matter. How decomposition rates change with shifting inputs remains uncertain because most studies focus on the effects of single fires, where...
A key challenge in ecology is to understand the relationships between organismal traits and ecosystem processes. Here, with a novel dataset of leaf length and width for 10,480 woody dicots in China and 2,374 in North America, we show that the variation in community mean leaf size is highly correlated with the variation in climate and ecosystem primary productivity, independent of plant life form. These relationships likely reflect how natural selection modifies leaf size across...
Recovery from infection is more likely to favor the evolution of migration than social escape from infectionAllison Shaw & Sandra Binning
1. Pathogen and parasite infections are increasingly recognized as powerful drivers of animal movement, including migration. Yet, infection-related migration benefits can result from a combination of environmental and/or social conditions, which can be difficult to disentangle. 2. Here, we focus on two infection-related mechanisms that can favor migration: moving to escape versus recover from infection. By directly comparing the evolution of migration in response to each mechanism, we can evaluate the likely importance of changing...
To address how the academic landscape for data repository and curation services changed since 2017 Spec Kit for Data Curation (Hudson-Vitale et al., 2017a), we used website content analysis to better understand data repository services in academic research libraries. Of the 124 ARL institutions we chose to focus on academic institutions and therefore excluded 10 civic libraries. For each of the remaining 114 ARL institutions we asked four research questions: Do they support data sharing...
1. Fire activity is changing dramatically across the globe, with uncertain effects on ecosystem processes, especially belowground. Fire‐driven losses of soil carbon (C) are often assumed to occur primarily in the upper soil layers because the repeated combustion of aboveground biomass limits organic matter inputs into surface soil. However, C losses from deeper soil may occur if frequent burning reduces root biomass inputs of C into deep soil layers or stimulates losses of C via...
Supplement to: Hippocampal neurochemical profile and glucose transport kinetics in patients with type 1 diabetesPetr Bednařík, Pierre Gilles Henry, Ameer Khowaja, Nathan Rubin, Anjali Kumar, Dinesh Deelchand, Lynn Eberly, Elizabeth Seaquist, Gülin Öz & Moheet Amir
Context Longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1D) may lead to alterations in hippocampal neurochemical profile. Upregulation of hippocampal glucose transport as a result of recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia may preserve cognitive function during future hypoglycemia in subjects with T1D and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH). The effect of T1D on hippocampal neurochemical profile and glucose transport is unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that hippocampal neurochemical composition is altered in T1D and glucose transport is upregulated...
Variation in mouse pelvic morphology maps to locations enriched in Sox9 Class II and Pitx1 regulatory featuresCharles Roseman, Terrence Capellini, Evelyn Jagoda, Scott Williams, Mark Grabowski, Christine O'Connor, John Polk & James Cheverud
Variation in pelvic morphology has a complex genetic basis and its patterning and specification is governed by conserved developmental pathways. Whether the mechanisms underlying the differentiation and specification of the pelvis also produce the morphological covariation on which natural selection may act is still an open question in evolutionary developmental biology. We use high-resolution Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F34 generation of an advanced intercross experiment (LG,SM-G34) to characterize the genetic architecture of...
Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslandsJudith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … & Veen, G.F. (Ciska)
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...
Searching for population genomic signals left behind by positive selection is a major focus of evolutionary biology, particularly as sequencing technologies develop and costs decline. The effect of the number of chromosome copies (i.e. ploidy) on the manifestation of these signals remains an outstanding question, despite a wide appreciation of ploidy being a fundamental parameter governing numerous biological processes. We clarify the principal forces governing the differential manifestation and persistence of the signal of selection...
Validation of an automated shape-matching algorithm for biplane radiographic spine osteokinematics and radiostereometric analysis error quantificationArin M Ellingson & Craig C Kage
Biplane radiography and associated shape-matching provides non-invasive, dynamic, 3D osteo- and arthrokinematic analysis. Due to the complexity of data acquisition, each system should be validated for the anatomy of interest. The purpose of this study was to assess our system’s acquisition methods and validate a custom, automated 2D/3D shape-matching algorithm relative to radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for the cervical and lumbar spine. Additionally, two sources of RSA error were examined via a Monte Carlo simulation: 1)...
Complete Data and Analysis for: Constraining invader dominance: Effects of repeated herbicidal management and environmental factors on curlyleaf pondweed dynamics in 50 Minnesota lakesMichael Verhoeven, Daniel J Larkin & Raymond M Newman
Curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) is one of the most widespread and widely managed aquatic invasive plants in North America. Despite decades of management, the efficacy of long-term management strategies and the effects of environmental drivers on curlyleaf pondweed populations remain uncertain. To evaluate the effects of management and environmental factors on within-lake distribution and local density of curlyleaf pondweed, we collated monitoring data from aquatic plant point-intercept surveys collected by a variety of lake managers...
Many migratory species, from monarch butterflies to wildebeest, express partial migration, where only a subset of a population migrates. This intraspecific variation is likely to have large ecological consequences. We studied the ecological consequences of partial migration in a salmonid fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in coastal streams in California, USA. One ecotype, steelhead trout, migrates to the ocean, whereas the other, rainbow trout, completes its lifecycle in freshwater. Migration has a strong genetic basis in O....
University of Minnesota16
University of California, Berkeley2
University of Kansas1
Vrije Universiteit Brussel1
University of Washington1
University of Pretoria1
Utah State University1
University of Queensland1
University of Montreal1
University of California, San Diego1
New York University1
University of Pittsburgh1
Netherlands Institute of Ecology1