35 Works

Data from: Exploring rainforest diversification using demographic model testing in the African foam-nest treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens)

Adam Leache, Daniel Portik, Danielle Rivera, Mark-Oliver Rodel, Johannes Penner, Václav Gvoždík, Eli Greenbaum, Gregory Jongsma, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Marius Burger, Edem Eniang, Rayna Bell & Matthew Fujita
Aim: Species with wide distributions spanning the African Guinean and Congolian rainforests are often composed of genetically distinct populations or cryptic species with geographic distributions that mirror the locations of the remaining forest habitats. We used phylogeographic inference and demographic model testing to evaluate diversification models in a widespread rainforest species, the African Foam-nest Treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens). Location: Guinean and Congolian rainforests, West and Central Africa. Taxon: Chiromantis rufescens. Methods: We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

Comparative phylogeography of West African amphibians and reptiles

Adam Leache, Jamie Oaks, Caleb Ofori-Boateng & Matthew Fujita
Comparative phylogeographic studies often support shared divergence times for co-distributed species with similar life histories and habitat specializations. During the late Holocene, West Africa experienced aridification and the turnover of rain forest habitats into savannas. These fragmented rain forests harbor impressive numbers of endemic and threatened species. In this setting, populations of co-distributed rain forest species are expected to have diverged simultaneously, whereas divergence events for species adapted to savanna and forest-edge habitats should be...

Temporally varying disruptive selection in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

Marc-Olivier Beausoleil, Luke Frishkoff, Leithen M'Gonigle, Joost Raeymaekers, Sarah Knutie, Luis De León, Sarah Huber, Jaime Chaves, Dale Clayton, Jennifer Koop, Jeffrey Podos, Diana Sharpe, Andrew Hendry & Rowan Barrett
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation. However, a single fitness function represents only a particular selection regime over a single specified time period (often a single season or a year), and therefore might not capture...

Data from: Integrating over uncertainty in spatial scale of response within multispecies occupancy models yields more accurate assessments of community composition

Luke Frishkoff, D. Mahler & Marie-Josee Fortin
Species abundance and community composition are affected not only by the local environment, but also by broader landscape and regional context. Yet, determining the spatial scales at which landscapes affect species remains a persistent challenge, hindering our ability to understand how environmental gradients shape communities. This problem is amplified by data deficient species and imperfect species detection. Here, we present a Bayesian framework that allows uncertainty surrounding the “true” spatial scale of species’ responses (i.e.,...

Data from: Estimating the temporal and spatial extent of gene flow among sympatric lizard populations (genus Sceloporus) in the southern Mexican highlands

Jared A. Grummer, Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa, Adrián Nieto-Montes De Oca, Eric N. Smith, Fausto R. Méndez De La Cruz & Adam D. Leaché
Interspecific gene flow is pervasive throughout the tree of life. Although detecting gene flow between populations has been facilitated by new analytical approaches, determining the timing and geography of hybridization has remained difficult, particularly for historical gene flow. A geographically explicit phylogenetic approach is needed to determine the overlap of ancestral populations. In this study, we performed population genetic analyses, species delimitation, simulations and a recently developed approach of species tree diffusion to infer the...

Data from: Species delimitation using genome-wide SNP data

Adam D. Leaché, Vladimir N. Minin, Remco R. Bouckaert & Matthew K. Fujita
The multispecies coalescent has provided important progress for evolutionary inferences, including increasing the statistical rigor and objectivity of comparisons among competing species delimitation models. However, Bayesian species delimitation methods typically require brute force integration over gene trees via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), which introduces a large computation burden and precludes their application to genomic-scale data. Here we combine a recently introduced dynamic programming algorithm for estimating species trees that bypasses MCMC integration over gene...

Data from: Diagnostic gene expression biomarkers of coral thermal stress

Carly D. Kenkel, Christopher Sheridan, Miguel C. Leal, Ranjeet Bhagooli, Karl D. Castillo, Naoko Kurata, Elizabeth McGinty, Tamar L. Goulet, Mikhail V. Matz, C. D. Kenkel, M. V. Matz, M. C. Leal, E. McGinty, T. L. Goulet, K. D. Castillo, C. Sheridan, N. Kurata & R. Bhagooli
Gene expression biomarkers can enable rapid assessment of physiological conditions in situ, providing a valuable tool for reef managers interested in linking organism physiology with large-scale climatic conditions. Here, we assessed the ability of quantitative PCR (qPCR) based gene expression biomarkers to evaluate (1) the immediate cellular stress response (CSR) of Porites astreoides to incremental thermal stress and (2) the magnitude of CSR and cellular homeostasis response (CHR) during a natural bleaching event. Expression levels...

Data from: Stream diatoms exhibit weak niche conservation along global environmental and climatic gradients

Janne Soininen, Aurelien Jamoneau, Juliette Tison-Rosebery, Thibault Leboucher, Jianjun Wang, Mikolaj Kokocinski & Sophia I. Passy
Niche conservatism (NC) describes the scenario in which species retain similar characteristics or traits over time and space, and thus has potentially important implications for understanding their biogeographic distributions. Evidence consistent with NC includes similar niche properties across geographically distant regions. We investigated whether NC was evident in stream diatom morphospecies by modeling species responses to environmental and climatic variables in a set of calibration sites (from the US) and then evaluated the models with...

Data from: Assessing the impacts of positive selection on coalescent-based species tree estimation and species delimitation.

Richard H. Adams, Drew R. Schield, Daren C. Card, Todd A. Castoe, Richard H Adams, Drew R Schield, Daren C Card & Todd A Castoe
The assumption of strictly neutral evolution is fundamental to the multispecies coalescent model and permits the derivation of gene tree distributions and coalescent times conditioned on a given species tree. In this study, we conduct computer simulations to explore the effects of violating this assumption in the form of species-specific positive selection when estimating species trees, species delimitations, and coalescent parameters under the model. We simulated datasets under an array of evolutionary scenarios that differ...

Data from: Evaluating mechanisms of diversification in a Guineo-Congolian tropical forest frog using demographic model selection

Daniel M. Portik, Adam D. Leaché, Danielle Rivera, Michael F. Barej, Marius Burger, Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel, David C. Blackburn & Matthew K. Fujita
The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and...

Data from: Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes

Jeffrey W. Streicher, Jay P. McEntee, Laura C. Drzich, Daren C. Card, Drew R. Schield, Utpal Smart, Christopher L. Parkinson, Tereza Jezkova, Eric N. Smith & Todd A. Castoe
Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting...

Data from: The evolution of reproductive diversity in Afrobatrachia: a phylogenetic comparative analysis of an extensive radiation of African frogs

Daniel M. Portik & David C. Blackburn
The reproductive modes of anurans (frogs and toads) are the most diverse of terrestrial vertebrates, and a major challenge is identifying selective factors that promote the evolution or retention of reproductive modes across clades. Terrestrialized anuran breeding strategies have evolved repeatedly from the plesiomorphic fully aquatic reproductive mode, a process thought to occur through intermediate reproductive stages. Several selective forces have been proposed for the evolution of terrestrialized reproductive traits, but factors such as water...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeography reveals nested endemism in a gecko across the monsoonal tropics of Australia

Craig Moritz, Matthew Fujita, Dan F. Rosauer, Rosa Agudo, Gayleen Bourke, Russell Palmer, Mitzy Pepper, Sally Potter, Renae Pratt, Mitchell Scott, Maria Tonione, Stephen Donnellan, Paul Doughty, M. Tonione, C. Moritz, D. Rosauer, R. Agudo, G. Bourke, M. Pepper, S. Potter, R. Pratt, M. Scott, S. Donnellan, R. Palmer, M. K. Fujita … & P. Doughty
Multilocus phylogeography can uncover taxonomically unrecognized lineage diversity across complex biomes. The Australian monsoonal tropics includes vast, ecologically intact savanna-woodland plains interspersed with ancient sandstone uplands. Though recognized in general for its high species richness and endemism, the biodiversity of the region remains underexplored due to its remoteness. This is despite a high rate of ongoing species discovery, especially in wetter regions and for rock-restricted taxa. To provide a baseline for ongoing comparative analyses, we...

Data from: Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies

Daren C. Card, Drew R. Schield, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Matthew K. Fujita, Audra L. Andrew, Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Jennifer A. Fike, Diana F. Tomback, Robert P. Ruggiero & Todd A. Castoe
As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (~3.5–5.5x) Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species...

Data from: Whole transcriptome analysis reveals changes in expression of immune related genes during and after bleaching in a reef-building coral

Jorge H. Pinzón, Bishoy Kamel, Colleen A. Burge, C. Drew Harvell, Mónica Medina, Ernesto Weil, Laura D. Mydlarz, C. A. Burge, C. D. Harvell, B. Kamel, M. Medina & L. D. Mydlarz
Climate change is negatively affecting the stability of natural ecosystems, especially coral reefs. The dissociation of the symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal symbiont, or coral bleaching, has been linked to increased sea surface temperatures. Coral bleaching has significant impacts on corals, including an increase in disease outbreaks that can permanently change the entire reef ecosystem. Yet, little is known about the impacts of coral bleaching on the coral immune system. In this study,...

Data from: Contrasting gene expression programs correspond with predator-induced phenotypic plasticity within and across-generations in Daphnia

Nicole R. Hales, Drew R. Schield, Audra L. Andrew, Daren C. Card, Matthew R. Walsh & Todd A. Castoe
Research has shown that a change in environmental conditions can alter the expression of traits during development (i.e., ‘within-generation phenotypic plasticity’) as well as induce heritable phenotypic responses that persist for multiple generations (i.e., ‘transgenerational plasticity’). It has long been assumed that shifts in gene expression are tightly linked to observed trait responses at the phenotypic level. Yet, the manner in which organisms couple within- and trans-generational plasticity at the molecular level is unclear. Here...

Data from: Separate block based parameter estimation method for Hammerstein systems

Shuo Zhang, Dongqing Wang & Feng Liu
Different from the output-input representation based identification methods of two-block Hammerstein systems, this paper concerns a separate block based parameter estimation method for each block of a two-block Hammerstein CARMA system, without combining the parameters of two parts together. The idea is to consider each block as a subsystem and to estimate the parameters of the nonlinear block and the linear block separately (interactively), by using two least squares algorithms in one recursive step. The...

Data from: Predator-driven brain size evolution in natural populations of Trinidadian killifish (Rivulus hartii)

Matthew R. Walsh, Whitnee Broyles, Shannon M. Beston & Stephan B. Munch
Vertebrates exhibit extensive variation in relative brain size. It has long been assumed that this variation is the product of ecologically driven natural selection. Yet, despite more than 100 years of research, the ecological conditions that select for changes in brain size are unclear. Recent laboratory selection experiments showed that selection for larger brains is associated with increased survival in risky environments. Such results lead to the prediction that increased predation should favour increased brain...

Data from: Maternal diet and age alter direct and indirect relationships between life history traits across multiple generations

Jared M. Goos, Cameron J. Swain, Stephan B. Munch & Matthew R. Walsh
1. Maternal age has important consequences for offspring fitness, with influences on size, development, and reproductive schedules. Such maternal age effects may be driven by differential provisioning of resources, yet little is known about the role of environmental supply of nutritional resources in mediating such effects. 2. We tested the influence of limiting nutritional resource, dietary phosphorus (P), on maternal age effects across multiple generations by examining the potential interactive effects of maternal nutrition and...

Data from: Evolution of life history traits in geographically isolated populations of Vaejovis scorpions (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae)

Matthew M. Steffenson & Christopher A. Brown
Geographical isolation can over time accumulate life-history variation which can eventually lead to speciation. We used five species of Vaejovis scorpions that have been isolated from one another since the Pleistocene glaciation to identify if biogeographical patterns have allowed for the accumulation of life-history variation among species. Gravid females were captured and brought back to the lab until giving birth. Once offspring had begun to disperse, measurements of female size, reproductive investment, offspring size, offspring...

Data from: The evolution of vertebrate eye size across an environmental gradient: phenotype does not predict genotype in a Trinidadian killifish

Shannon M. Beston, Elijah Wostl & Matthew R. Walsh
Vertebrates exhibit substantial variation in eye size. Eye size correlates positively with visual capacity and behaviors that enhance fitness, such as predator avoidance. This foreshadows a connection between predation and eye size evolution. Yet, the conditions that favor evolutionary shifts in eye size, besides the well-known role for light availability, are unclear. We tested the influence of predation on the evolution of eye size in Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii. Rivulus are located across a series...

Data from: Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity within- and across-generations: a challenge for theory?

Matthew R. Walsh, Kelsey Biles, Frank Cooley, Stephan B. Munch, S. B. Munch, K. Biles, F. Cooley & M. R. Walsh
Much work has shown that the environment can induce non-genetic changes in phenotype that span multiple generations. Theory predicts that predictable environmental variation selects for both increased within- and across-generation responses. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, there are no empirical tests of this prediction. We explored the relationship between within- versus across-generation plasticity by evaluating the influence of predator cues on the life-history traits of Daphnia ambigua. We measured the duration of predator-induced...

Data from: Local adaptation in transgenerational responses to predators

Matthew R. Walsh, Todd Castoe, Julian Holmes, Michelle Packer, Kelsey Biles, Melissa Walsh, Stephan B. Munch & David M. Post
Environmental signals can induce phenotypic changes that span multiple generations. Along with phenotypic responses that occur during development (i.e., ‘within-generation’ plasticity), such ‘transgenerational plasticity’ (TGP) has been documented in a diverse array of taxa spanning many environmental perturbations. New theory predicts that temporal stability is a key driver of the evolution of TGP. We tested this prediction using natural populations of zooplankton from lakes in Connecticut that span a large gradient in the temporal dynamics...

Data from: Genetic architecture of isolation between two species of Silene with sex chromosomes and Haldane's rule

Jeffery Paul Demuth, Rebecca J. Flanagan, Lynda F. Delph & Jeffery P. Demuth
Examination of the genetic architecture of hybrid breakdown can provide insight into the genetic mechanisms of commonly observed isolating phenomena such as Haldane’s rule. We used line-cross analysis to dissect the genetic architecture of divergence between two plant species that exhibit Haldane’s rule for male sterility and rarity, Silene latifolia and Silene diclinis. We made 15 types of crosses, including reciprocal F1, F2, backcrosses, and later-generation crosses, grew the seeds to flowering, and measured the...

Data from: Rapid evolution mitigates the ecological consequences of an invasive species (Bythotrephes longimanus) in lakes in Wisconsin

Michael Gillis, Matthew Walsh, Michael K. Gillis & Matthew R. Walsh
Invasive species have extensive negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health. Novel species also drive contemporary evolution in many native populations, which could mitigate or amplify their impacts on ecosystems. The predatory zooplankton Bythotrephes longimanus invaded lakes in Wisconsin, USA, in 2009. This invasion caused precipitous declines in zooplankton prey (Daphnia pulicaria), with cascading impacts on ecosystem services (water clarity). Here, we tested the link between Bythotrephes invasion, evolution in Daphnia and post-invasion ecological dynamics...

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