296 Works

Data from: Avian malaria and bird humoral immune response

Jessica Delhaye, Tania Jenkins, Olivier Glaizot & Philippe Christe
Background: Plasmodium parasites are known to impose fitness costs on their vertebrate hosts. Some of these costs are due to the activation of the immune response, which may divert resources away from self-maintenance. Plasmodium parasites may also immuno-deplete their hosts. Thus, infected individuals may be less able to mount an immune response to a new pathogen than uninfected ones. However, this has been poorly investigated. Methods: The effect of Plasmodium infection on bird humoral immune...

Data from: Rapid seasonal evolution in innate immunity of wild Drosophila melanogaster

Emily L. Behrman, Virginia M. Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Brian P. Lazzaro & Paul S. Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural...

Data from: Consumption of carotenoids not increased by bacterial infection in brown trout embryos (Salmo trutta)

Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Laetitia G.E. Wilkins, Laure Menin, Daniel Ortitz, Véronique Vocat-Mottier, Claus Wedekind & Laetitia G. E. Wilkins
Carotenoids are organic pigment molecules that play important roles in signalling, control of oxidative stress, and immunity. Fish allocate carotenoids to their eggs, which gives them the typical yellow to red colouration and supports their resistance against microbial infections. However, it is still unclear whether carotenoids act mainly as a shield against infection or are used up during the embryos' immune defence. We investigated this question with experimental families produced from wild-caught brown trout (Salmo...

Data from: The presence of kleptoparasitic fledglings is associated with a reduced breeding success in the host family in the barn owl

Motti Charter, Ido Izhaki & Alexandre Roulin
Fledgling birds sometimes abandon their own nest and move to neighboring nests where they are fed by host parents. This behaviour, referred to as “nest‐switching”, is well known in precocial birds that are mobile soon after hatching and can easily reach foster nests. In contrast, due to the difficulty of observing nest‐switching in territorial altricial birds, the causes and consequences of moving to others’ nests are poorly known in this group of birds. Nest‐switchers can...

Data from: Early arrival and climatically-linked geographic expansion of New World monkeys from tiny African ancestors

Daniele Silvestro, Marcelo F. Tejedor, Martha L. Serrano-Serrano, Oriane Loiseau, Victor Rossier, Jonathan Rolland, Alexander Zizka, Sebastian Höhna, Alexandre Antonelli, Nicolas Salamin, Martha L Serrano-Serrano & Marcelo F Tejedor
New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are one of the most diverse groups of primates, occupying today a wide range of ecosystems in the American tropics and exhibiting large variations in ecology, morphology, and behavior. Although the relationships among the almost 200 living species are relatively well understood, we lack robust estimates of the timing of origin, ancestral morphology, and geographic range evolution of the clade. Here we integrate paleontological and molecular evidence to assess the evolutionary...

Data from: Heterogeneity in local density allows a positive evolutionary relationship between self-fertilisation and dispersal

James Rodger, Pietro Landi, Cang Hui & James G. Rodger
Despite empirical evidence for a positive relationship between dispersal and self-fertilisation (selfing), theoretical work predicts that these traits should always be negatively correlated, and the Good Coloniser Syndrome of high dispersal and selfing (Cf. Baker’s Law) should not evolve. Critically, previous work assumes that adult density is spatiotemporally homogeneous, so selfing results in identical offspring production for all patches, eliminating the benefit of dispersal for escaping from local resource competition. We investigate the joint evolution...

Data from: Phylogenomics and the evolution of hemipteroid insects

Kevin P. Johnson, Christopher H. Dietrich, Frank Friedrich, Rolf G. Beutel, Benjamin Wipfler, Ralph S. Peters, Julie M. Allen, Malte Petersen, Alexander Donath, Kimberly K. O. Walden, Alexey M. Kozlov, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Karen Meusemann, Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Robert M. Waterhouse, Stephen L. Cameron, Christiane Weirauch, Daniel R. Swanson, Diana M. Percy, Nate B. Hardy, Irene Terry, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof … & Kazunori Yoshizawa
Hemipteroid insects (Paraneoptera), with over 10% of all known insect diversity, are a major component of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Previous phylogenetic analyses have not consistently resolved the relationships among major hemipteroid lineages. We provide maximum likelihood-based phylogenomic analyses of a taxonomically comprehensive dataset comprising sequences of 2,395 single-copy, protein-coding genes for 193 samples of hemipteroid insects and outgroups. These analyses yield a well-supported phylogeny for hemipteroid insects. Monophyly of each of the three hemipteroid...

Data from: Evolution of longevity improves immunity in Drosophila

Daniel K. Fabian, Kathrin Garschall, Peter Klepsatel, Gonçalo Santos-Matos, Élio Sucena, Martin Kapun, Bruno Lemaitre, Robert Arking, Christian Schloetterer & Thomas Flatt
Much has been learned about the genetics of aging from studies in model organisms, but still little is known about naturally occurring alleles that contribute to variation in longevity. For example, analysis of mutants and transgenes has identified insulin signaling as a major regulator of longevity, yet whether standing variation in this pathway underlies microevolutionary changes in lifespan and correlated fitness traits remains largely unclear. Here we have analyzed the genomes of a set of...

Data from: Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, dominance drive, and sex-chromosome introgression at secondary contact zones: a simulation study

Luca Sciuchetti, Christophe Dufresnes, Elisa Cavoto, Alan Brelsford & Nicolas Perrin
Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) incompatibilities involving sex chromosomes have been proposed to account for Haldane’s rule (lowered fitness among hybrid offspring of the heterogametic sex) as well as Darwin’s corollary (asymmetric fitness costs with respect to the direction of the cross). We performed simulation studies of a hybrid zone to investigate the effects of different types of DM incompatibilities on cline widths and positions of sex-linked markers. From our simulations, X-Y incompatibilities generate steep clines for both...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of specialisation in herbivorous stick insects

Chloé Larose, Sergio Rasmann & Tanja Schwander
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics underlying herbivorous insect mega-diversity requires investigating the ability of insects to shift and adapt to different host plants. Feeding experiments with nine related stick insect species revealed that insects retain the ability to use ancestral host plants after shifting to novel hosts, with host plant shifts generating fundamental feeding niche expansions. These expansions were however not accompanied by expansions of the realized feeding niches, as species on novel hosts are generally...

Data from: MC1R variants affect the expression of melanocortin and melanogenic genes and the association between melanocortin genes and coloration

Luis M. San-José, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Valérie Ducret, Céline Simon, Hannes Richter, Kazumasa Wakamatsu & Alexandre Roulin
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene influences coloration by altering the expression of genes acting downstream in the melanin synthesis. MC1R belongs to the melanocortin system, a genetic network coding for the ligands that regulate MC1R and other melanocortin receptors controlling different physiological and behavioural traits. The impact of MC1R variants on these regulatory melanocortin genes was never considered, even though MC1R mutations could alter the influence of these genes on coloration (e.g. by decreasing MC1R...

Data from: Effects of host genetics and environment on egg-associated microbiotas in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Luca Fumagalli & Claus Wedekind
Recent studies found fish egg-specific bacterial communities that changed over the course of embryogenesis, suggesting an interaction between the developing host and its microbiota. Indeed, single-strain infections demonstrated that the virulence of opportunistic bacteria is influenced by environmental factors and host immune genes. However, the interplay between a fish embryo host and its microbiota has not been studied yet at the community level. To test whether host genetics affects the assemblage of egg-associated bacteria, adult...

Data from: Measuring site fidelity and spatial segregation within animal societies

Thomas O. Richardson, Luca Giuggioli, Nigel R. Franks & Ana B. Sendova-Franks
1.Animals often display a marked tendency to return to previously-visited locations that contain important resources, such as water, food, or developing brood that must be provisioned. A considerable body of work has demonstrated that this tendency is strongly expressed in ants, which exhibit fidelity to particular sites both inside and outside the nest. However, thus far many studies of this phenomena have taken the approach of reducing an animal's trajectory to a summary statistic, such...

Data from: Paternity analysis of wild-caught females shows that sperm package size and placement influence fertilization success in the bushcricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera

Darren J. Parker, Julia Zaborowska, Michael G. Ritchie, Karim Vahed, Darren James Parker & Michael Gordon Ritchie
In species where females store sperm, males may try to influence paternity by the strategic placement of sperm within the female's sperm storage organ. Sperm may be mixed or layered in storage organs, and this can influence sperm use beyond a ‘fair raffle’. In some insects, sperm from different matings is packaged into discrete packets (spermatodoses), which retain their integrity in the female's sperm storage organ (spermatheca), but little is known about how these may...

Data from: Short-term activity cycles impede information transmission in ant colonies

Thomas O. Richardson, Jonas I. Liechti, Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Sebastian Bonhoeffer & Laurent Keller
Rhythmical activity patterns are ubiquitous in nature. We study an oscillatory biological system: collective activity cycles in ant colonies. Ant colonies have become model systems for research on biological networks because the interactions between the component parts are visible to the naked eye, and because the time-ordered contact network formed by these interactions serves as the substrate for the distribution of information and other resources throughout the colony. To understand how the collective activity cycles...

Data from: Improving spatial predictions of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity

Manuela D'Amen, Ruben G. Mateo, Julien Pottier, Wilfried Thuiller, Luigi Maiorano, Loïc Pellissier, Charlotte Ndiribe, Nicolas Salamin & Antoine Guisan
1. In this study, we compare two community modelling approaches to determine their ability to predict the taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic properties of plant assemblages along a broad elevation gradient and at a fine resolution. The first method is the standard stacking individual species distribution modelling (SSDM) approach, which applies a simple environmental filter to predict species assemblages. The second method couples the SSDM and macroecological modelling (MEM - SSDM-MEM) approaches to impose a limit...

Data from: Covariation in levels of nucleotide diversity in homologous regions of the avian genome long after completion of lineage sorting

Ludovic Dutoit, Nagarjun Vijay, Carina F. Mugal, Christen M. Bossu, Reto Burri, Jochen Wolf & Hans Ellegren
Closely related species may show similar levels of genetic diversity in homologous regions of the genome owing to shared ancestral variation still segregating in the extant species. However, after completion of lineage sorting, such covariation is not necessarily expected. On the other hand, if the processes that govern genetic diversity are conserved, diversity may potentially covary even among distantly related species. We mapped regions of conserved synteny between the genomes of two divergent bird species—collared...

Phylogeography, more than elevation, accounts for sex-chromosome differentiation in Swiss populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Barret Phillips, Nicolas Rodrigues, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg & Nicolas Perrin
Sex chromosomes in vertebrates range from highly heteromorphic (as in most birds and mammals) to strictly homomorphic (as in many fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles). Reasons for these contrasted evolutionary trajectories remain unclear, but species such as common frogs with polymorphism in the extent of sex-chromosome differentiation may potentially deliver important clues. By investigating 92 common-frog populations from a wide range of elevations throughout Switzerland, we show that sex-chromosome differentiation strongly correlates with alleles at...

Characterization and mutagenesis of Chinese hamster ovary cells endogenous retroviruses to inactivate viral particle release

Pierre-Olivier Duroy, Sandra Bosshard, Emanuel Schmid‐Siegert, Samuel Neuenschwander, Ghislaine Arib, Philippe Lemercier, Jacqueline Masternak, Lucien Roesch, Flavien Buron, Pierre‐Alain Girod, Ioannis Xenarios & Nicolas Mermod
The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells used to produce biopharmaceutical proteins are known to contain type‐C endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences in their genome and to release retroviral‐like particles. Although evidence for their infectivity is missing, this has raised safety concerns. As the genomic origin of these particles remained unclear, we characterized type‐C ERV elements at the genome, transcriptome, and viral particle RNA levels. We identified 173 type‐C ERV sequences clustering into three functionally conserved groups....

Lack of statistical power as a major limitation in understanding MHC-mediated immunocompetence in wild vertebrate populations

Arnaud Gaigher, Reto Burri, Luis M. San-Jose, Alexandre Roulin & Luca Fumagalli
Disentangling the sources of variation in developing an effective immune response against pathogens is of major interest to immunoecology and evolutionary biology. To date, the link between immunocompetence and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received little attention in wild animals, despite the key role of MHC genes in activating the adaptive immune system. Although several studies point to a link between MHC and immunocompetence, negative findings have also been reported. Such...

Data from: Uncovering cryptic parasitoid diversity in Horismenus (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

Sarah G. Kenyon, Sven Buerki, Christer Hansson, Nadir Alvarez & Betty Benrey
Horismenus parasitoids are an abundant and understudied group of eulophid wasps found mainly in the New World. Recent surveys based on morphological analyses in Costa Rica have quadrupled the number of named taxa, with more than 400 species described so far. This recent revision suggests that there is still a vast number of unknown species to be identified. As Horismenus wasps have been widely described as parasitoids of insect pests associated with crop plants, it...

Data from: Asexual reproduction in introduced and native populations of the ant Cerapachys biroi

Daniel J. C. Kronauer, Naomi E. Pierce & Laurent Keller
Asexual reproduction is particularly common among introduced species, probably because it helps to overcome the negative effects associated with low population densities during colonization. The ant Cerapachys biroi has been introduced to tropical and subtropical islands around the world since the beginning of the last century. In this species, workers can reproduce via thelytokous parthenogenesis. Here we use genetic markers to reconstruct the history of anthropogenic introductions of C. biroi, and to address the prevalence...

Data from: Evolutionary history of almond tree domestication in the Mediterranean basin

Malou Delplancke, Nadir Alvarez, Laure Benoit, Maria Anahi Espindola, Helene I. Joly, Samuel Neuenschwander & Nils Arrigo
Genetic diversity of contemporary domesticated species is shaped by both natural and human-driven processes. However, until now, little is known about how domestication has imprinted the variation of fruit tree species. In this study, we reconstruct the recent evolutionary history of the domesticated almond tree, Prunus dulcis, around the Mediterranean Basin, using a combination of nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites (i.e. SSRs) to investigate patterns of genetic diversity. Whereas conservative chloroplast SSRs show a widespread haplotype...

Data from: Within-population polymorphism of sex-determination systems in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Nicolas Rodrigues, Caroline Betto-Colliard, Hélène Jourdan-Pineau, Nicolas Perrin, N. Rodrigues, C. Betto-Colliard, H. Jourdan-Pineau & N. Perrin
In sharp contrast with birds and mammals, the sex chromosomes of ectothermic vertebrates are often undifferentiated, for reasons that remain debated. A linkage map was recently published for Rana temporaria (Linnaeus, 1758) from Fennoscandia (Eastern European lineage), with a proposed sex-determining role for linkage group 2 (LG2). We analysed linkage patterns in lowland and highland populations from Switzerland (Western European lineage), with special focus on LG2. Sibship analyses showed large differences from the Fennoscandian map...

Data from: Conservation phylogeography: does historical diversity contribute to regional vulnerability in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea)

Christophe Dufresnes, Jérôme Wassef, Karim Ghali, Alan Brelsford, Matthias Stöck, Petros Lymberakis, Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailović & Nicolas Perrin
Documenting and preserving the genetic diversity of populations, which conditions their long-term survival, has become a major issue in conservation biology. The loss of diversity often documented in declining populations is usually assumed to result from human disturbances; however, historical biogeographic events, otherwise known to strongly impact diversity, are rarely considered in this context. We apply a multi-locus phylogeographic study to investigate the late-Quaternary history of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) with declining populations in...

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