313 Works

Data from: Evidence for morphological and adaptive genetic divergence between lake and stream habitats in European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus, Cyprinidae)

Hélène Collin & Luca Fumagalli
Natural selection drives local adaptation, potentially even at small temporal and spatial scales. As a result, adaptive genetic and phenotypic divergence can occur among populations living in different habitats. We investigated patterns of differentiation between contrasting lake and stream habitats in the cyprinid fish European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) at both the morphological and genomic level using geometric morphometrics and AFLP markers, respectively. We also used a spatial correlative approach to identify AFLP loci associated with...

Data from: Decoupled post-glacial history in mutualistic plant-insect interactions: insights from the yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris) and its associated oil-collecting bees (Macropis europaea and M. fulvipes)

Yann Triponez, Anahí Espíndola, Nils Arrigo & Nadir Alvarez
Aim: We take a comparative phylogeographical approach to assess whether three species involved in a specialized oil-rewarding pollination system (i.e. Lysimachia vulgaris and two oil-collecting bees within the genus Macropis) show congruent phylogeographical trajectories during post-glacial colonization processes. Our working hypothesis is that within specialized mutualistic interactions, where each species relies on the co-occurrence of the other for survival and/or reproduction, partners are expected to show congruent evolutionary trajectories, because they are likely to have...

Data from: MHC class I expression dependent on bacterial infection and parental factors in whitefish embryos (Salmonidae)

Emily S. Clark, Laetitia G. E. Wilkins & Claus Wedekind
Ecological conditions can influence not only the expression of a phenotype, but also the heritability of a trait. As such, heritable variation for a trait needs to be studied across environments. We have investigated how pathogen challenge affects the expression of MHC genes in embryos of the lake whitefish Coregonus palaea. In order to experimentally separate paternal (i.e. genetic) from maternal and environmental effects, and determine whether and how stress affects the heritable variation for...

Data from: Variation in thermal performance and reaction norms among populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Peter Klepsatel, Martina Galikova, Nicola De Maio, Christian D. Huber, Christian Schlötterer & Thomas Flatt
The major goal of evolutionary thermal biology is to understand how variation in temperature shapes phenotypic evolution. Comparing thermal reaction norms among populations from different thermal environments allows us to gain insights into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation. Here, we have examined thermal adaptation in six wild populations of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) from markedly different natural environments by analyzing thermal reaction norms for fecundity, thorax length, wing area and ovariole number under...

Data from: Epistasis and maternal effects in experimental adaptation to chronic nutritional stress in Drosophila

Tadeusz J. Kawecki & Roshan Kumar Vijendravarma
Based on ecological and metabolic arguments some authors predict that adaptation to novel, harsh environments should involve alleles showing negative (diminishing return) epistasis and/or that it should be mediated in part by evolution of maternal effects. While the first prediction has been supported in microbes, there has been little experimental support for either prediction in multicellular eukaryotes. Here we use a line-cross design to study the genetic architecture of adaptation to chronic larval malnutrition in...

Data from: Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies

Simon Tragust, Line V. Ugelvig, Michel Chapuisat, Jürgen Heinze & Sylvia Cremer
Background: The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned...

Data from: Human cooperation based on punishment reputation

Miguel Dos Santos, Daniel J. Rankin & Claus Wedekind
The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in non-human animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We...

A Contractual Justification for Strong Measures against COVID-19

Laetitia Ramelet
Many countries have taken extensive measures to slow COVID-19’s progress and attempt to avert a sanitary collapse. Although the necessity of saving lives seems evident to many of us, these measures will nevertheless have dire economic effects and impose major costs on much of the population. A solid public justification is essential, for which a social contract perspective is useful. I argue that it helps us understand why such measures not only do justice to...

Erbschaften in der Schweiz: Entwicklung seit 1911 und Bedeutung für die Steuern

Marius Bruelhart

Taxinomie des constructions en si dans un corpus de français oral L'exemple d'OFROM

Gilles Corminboeuf & Timon Jahn

Embryo survival in the oviduct not significantly influenced by major histocompatibility complex social signaling in the horse

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Claus Wedekind, Dominik Burger & Carolina Herrera
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influences sexual selection in various vertebrates. Recently, MHC-linked social signaling was also shown to influence female fertility in horses (Equus caballus) diagnosed 17 days after fertilization. However, it remained unclear at which stage the pregnancy was terminated. Here we test if MHC-linked cryptic female choice in horses happens during the first days of pregnancy, i.e., until shortly after embryonic entrance into the uterus and before fixation in the endometrium. We...

Data from: Feeding increases the number of offspring but decreases parental investment of Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata

Jessica Bellworthy, Jorge Spangenberg & Maoz Fine
1. Successful reproductive output and recruitment is crucial to coral persistence and recovery following anthropogenic stress. Feeding is known to alter coral physiology and increase resilience to bleaching. 2. The goal of the study was to address the knowledge gap of the influence of feeding on reproductive output and offspring phenotype. 3. Colonies of Stylophora pistillata from the Northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) were fed an Artemia diet or unfed for five months during...

Spatial structure affects phage efficacy in infecting dual-strain biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Samuele Testa, Sarah Berger, Philippe Piccardi, Frank Oechslin, Grégory Resch & Sara Mitri
Bacterial viruses, or phage, are key members of natural microbial communities. Yet much research on bacterial-phage interactions has been conducted in liquid cultures involving single bacterial strains. Here we explored how bacterial diversity affects the success of lytic phage in structured communities. We infected a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 with a lytic phage Pseudomonas 352 in the presence versus absence of an insensitive P. aeruginosa strain PA14, in liquid culture versus colonies on agar....

Data from: The genetic basis of color-related local adaptation in a ring-like colonization around the Mediterranean

Reto Burri, Sylvain Antoniazza, Arnaud Gaigher, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Céline Simon, The European Barn Owl Network, Luca Fumagalli, Jerome Goudet & Alexandre Roulin
Uncovering the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and the population history under which it established is key to understand the trajectories along which local adaptation evolves. Here, we investigated the genetic basis and evolutionary history of a clinal plumage color polymorphism in European barn owls (Tyto alba). Our results suggest that barn owls colonized the Western Palearctic in a ring-like manner around the Mediterranean and meet in secondary contact in Greece. Rufous coloration appears to...

Data from: Diffantom: whole-brain diffusion MRI phantoms derived from real datasets of the Human Connectome Project

Oscar Esteban, Emmanuel Caruyer, Alessandro Daducci, Meritxell Bach-Cuadra, María J. Ledesma-Carbayo & Andres Santos
Diffantom is a whole-brain diffusion MRI (dMRI) phantom publicly available through the Dryad Digital Repository (doi:10.5061/dryad.4p080). The dataset contains two single-shell dMRI images, along with the corresponding gradient information, packed following the BIDS standard (Brain Imaging Data Structure, Gorgolewski et al., 2015). The released dataset is designed for the evaluation of the impact of susceptibility distortions and benchmarking existing correction methods. In this Data Report we also release the software instruments involved in generating diffantoms,...

Data from: Asymmetrical nature of the Trollius-Chiastocheta interaction: insights into the evolution of nursery pollination systems

Tomasz Suchan, Mélanie Beauverd, Naïké Trim & Nadir Alvarez
The mutualistic versus antagonistic nature of an interaction is defined by costs and benefits of each partner, which may vary depending on the environment. Contrasting with this dynamic view, several pollination interactions are considered as strictly obligate and mutualistic. Here, we focus on the interaction between Trollius europaeus and Chiastocheta flies, considered as a specialized and obligate nursery pollination system – the flies are thought to be exclusive pollinators of the plant and their larvae...

Data from: Sex chromosome turnovers and genetic drift: a simulation study

Paul A Saunders, Samuel Neuenschwander & Nicolas Perrin
The recent advances of new genomic technologies has enabled to identify and characterize sex chromosomes in an increasing number of non-model species, revealing that many plants and animals undergo frequent sex chromosome turnovers. What evolutionary forces drive these turnovers remains poorly understood, but it was recently proposed that drift might play a more important role than generally assumed. We analyzed the dynamics of different types of turnovers using individual-based simulations, and show that when mediated...

Data from: Impact of deleterious mutations, sexually antagonistic selection and mode of recombination suppression on transitions between male and female heterogamety.

Paul A. Saunders, Samuel Neuenschwander & Nicolas Perrin
Deleterious mutations accumulating on non-recombining Y chromosomes can drive XY to XY turnovers, as they allow to replace the old mutation-loaded Y by a new mutation-free one. The same process is thought to prevent XY to ZW turnovers, because the latter requires fixation of the ancestral Y, assuming dominance of the emergent feminizing mutation. Using individual-based simulations, we explored whether and how an epistatically dominant W allele can spread in a young XY system that...

Data from: Two decades of non-invasive genetic monitoring of the grey wolves recolonizing the Alps support very limited dog introgression

Christophe Dufresnes, Nadège Remollino, Céline Stoffel, Ralph Manz, Jean-Marc Weber & Luca Fumagalli
Potential hybridization between wolves and dogs has fueled the sensitive conservation and political debate underlying the recovery of the grey wolf throughout Europe. Here we provide the first genetic analysis of wolf-dog admixture in an area entirely recolonized, the northwestern Alps. As part of a long-term monitoring program, we performed genetic screening of thousands of non-invasive samples collected in Switzerland and adjacent territories since the return of the wolf in the mid-1990s. We identified a...

Data from: The early-life environment and individual plasticity in life history

Ornela De Gasperin, Ana Duarte, Sinead English, Alfredo Attisano & Rebecca M. Kilner
We tested whether the early-life environment can influence the extent of individual plasticity in a life history trait. We asked: can the early-life environment explain why, in response to the same adult environmental cue, some individuals invest more than others in current reproduction? And can it additionally explain why investment in current reproduction trades off against survival in some individuals, but is positively correlated with survival in others? We addressed these questions using the burying...

Data from: No mate preference associated with the supergene controlling social organization in Alpine silver ants

Amaury Avril, Sacha Zahnd, Jelisaveta Djordjevic & Michel Chapuisat
Disassortative mating is a powerful mechanism stabilizing polymorphisms at sex chromosomes and other supergenes. The Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi, has two forms of social organization – single‐queen and multiple‐queen colonies – determined by alternate haplotypes at a large supergene. Here, we explore whether mate preference contributes to the maintenance of the genetic polymorphism at the social supergene. With mate choice experiments, we found that females and males mated randomly with respect to social form....

On the effect of asymmetrical trait inheritance on models of trait evolution

Pablo Duchen, Michael Alfaro, Jonathan Rolland, Nicolas Salamin & Daniele Silvestro
Current phylogenetic comparative methods modelling quantitative trait evolution generally assume that, during speciation, phenotypes are inherited identically between the two daughter species. This, however, neglects the fact that species consist of a set of individuals, each bearing its own trait value. Indeed, because descendent populations after speciation are samples of a parent population, we can expect their mean phenotypes to randomly differ from one another potentially generating a ``jump'' of mean phenotypes due to asymmetrical...

Multiple cleaner species provide simultaneous services to coral reef fish clients

Dan Exton & Benjamin Titus
Cleaning symbioses on tropical coral reefs are typically documented between two species: a single client fish and one or more conspecific cleaners. However, multiple Caribbean cleaner species often live sympatrically and have been anecdotally reported to simultaneously clean the same client. The patterns and processes driving these interactions are poorly understood and cleaning interactions involving multiple cleaner species may be subject to different driving forces than those involving a single cleaner species. Here we used...

Data from: Haemosporidian infection and co-infection affect host survival and reproduction in wild populations of great tits

Romain Pigeault, Camille-Sophie Cozzarolo, Remi Choquet, Marie Strehler, Tania Jenkins, Jessica Delhaye, Lucille Bovet, Jérôme Wassef, Olivier Glaizot, Philippe Christe & C.-S. Cozzarolo
Theoretical studies predict that parasitic infection may impact host longevity and ultimately modify the trade-off between reproduction and survival. Indeed, a host may adjust its energy allocation in current reproduction to balance the negative effects of parasitism on its survival prospects. However, very few empirical studies tested this prediction. Avian haemosporidian parasites provide an excellent opportunity to assess the influence of parasitic infection on both host survival and reproduction. They are represented by three main...

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