208 Works

Constraint summation in phonological theory

Benjamin Storme & Giorgio Magri

Winter is coming: harsh environments limit independent reproduction of cooperative-breeding queens in a socially polymorphic ant

Ornela De Gasperin, Pierre Blacher, Guglielmo Grasso & Michel Chapuisat
Animals that live in cooperative breeding groups frequently inhabit harsh environments. It is widely accepted that harsh environments hinder independent reproduction, and this constraint favours individuals staying in family groups. Yet the assumption that harsh ecological conditions reduce the success of members of cooperative breeding groups when breeding independently has not been experimentally tested. We addressed this shortcoming using the socially polymorphic Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. This species has single-queen (independent breeders), and multiple-queen...

Characterization and mutagenesis of Chinese hamster ovary cells endogenous retroviruses to inactivate viral particle release

Pierre-Olivier Duroy, Sandra Bosshard, Emanuel Schmid‐Siegert, Samuel Neuenschwander, Ghislaine Arib, Philippe Lemercier, Jacqueline Masternak, Lucien Roesch, Flavien Buron, Pierre‐Alain Girod, Ioannis Xenarios & Nicolas Mermod
The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells used to produce biopharmaceutical proteins are known to contain type‐C endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences in their genome and to release retroviral‐like particles. Although evidence for their infectivity is missing, this has raised safety concerns. As the genomic origin of these particles remained unclear, we characterized type‐C ERV elements at the genome, transcriptome, and viral particle RNA levels. We identified 173 type‐C ERV sequences clustering into three functionally conserved groups....

Sexual selection reveals a cost of pathogen resistance undetected in life history assays

Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Mechanisms of resistance to pathogens and parasites are thought to be costly and thus to lead to evolutionary trade-offs between resistance and life history traits expressed in the absence of the infective agents. On the other hand, sexually selected traits are often proposed to indicate "good genes" for resistance, which implies a positive genetic correlation between resistance and success in sexual selection. Here I show that experimental evolution of improved resistance to the intestinal pathogen...

Low adaptive potential for tolerance to ethynylestradiol, but also low toxicity, in a grayling population (Thymallus thymallus)

Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Diane Maitre & Claus Wedekind
Background: The presence of a novel pollutant can induce rapid evolution if there is additive genetic variance for the tolerance to the stressor. Continuous selection over some generations can then reduce the toxicity of the pollutant but also deplete the additive genetic variance for the tolerance and thereby slow down adaptation. One common pollutant that has been ecologically relevant for some time is 17alpha-ethynyestradiol (EE2), a synthetic compound of oral contraceptives since their market launch...

Embryo survival in the oviduct not significantly influenced by major histocompatibility complex social signaling in the horse

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Claus Wedekind, Dominik Burger & Carolina Herrera
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influences sexual selection in various vertebrates. Recently, MHC-linked social signaling was also shown to influence female fertility in horses (Equus caballus) diagnosed 17 days after fertilization. However, it remained unclear at which stage the pregnancy was terminated. Here we test if MHC-linked cryptic female choice in horses happens during the first days of pregnancy, i.e., until shortly after embryonic entrance into the uterus and before fixation in the endometrium. We...

Phylogeography, more than elevation, accounts for sex-chromosome differentiation in Swiss populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Barret Phillips, Nicolas Rodrigues, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg & Nicolas Perrin
Sex chromosomes in vertebrates range from highly heteromorphic (as in most birds and mammals) to strictly homomorphic (as in many fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles). Reasons for these contrasted evolutionary trajectories remain unclear, but species such as common frogs with polymorphism in the extent of sex-chromosome differentiation may potentially deliver important clues. By investigating 92 common-frog populations from a wide range of elevations throughout Switzerland, we show that sex-chromosome differentiation strongly correlates with alleles at...

Lack of statistical power as a major limitation in understanding MHC-mediated immunocompetence in wild vertebrate populations

Arnaud Gaigher, Reto Burri, Luis M. San-Jose, Alexandre Roulin & Luca Fumagalli
Disentangling the sources of variation in developing an effective immune response against pathogens is of major interest to immunoecology and evolutionary biology. To date, the link between immunocompetence and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received little attention in wild animals, despite the key role of MHC genes in activating the adaptive immune system. Although several studies point to a link between MHC and immunocompetence, negative findings have also been reported. Such...

Data from: How to evaluate community predictions without thresholding?

Daniel Scherrer, Heidi Mod & Antoine Guisan
Stacked species distribution models (S-SDM) provide a tool to make spatial predictions about communities by first modelling individual species and then stacking the modelled predictions to form assemblages. The evaluation of the predictive performance is usually based on a comparison of the observed and predicted community properties (e.g., species richness, composition). However, the most available and widely used evaluation metrics require the thresholding of single species’ predicted probabilities of occurrence to obtain binary outcomes (i.e.,...

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Katja Hoedjes, Joost Van Den Heuvel, Martin Kapun, Laurent Keller, Thomas Flatt & Bas Zwaan
Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, while studies of large-effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomes of experimentally evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to a factorial combination of...

Data from: Feeding increases the number of offspring but decreases parental investment of Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata

Jessica Bellworthy, Jorge Spangenberg & Maoz Fine
1. Successful reproductive output and recruitment is crucial to coral persistence and recovery following anthropogenic stress. Feeding is known to alter coral physiology and increase resilience to bleaching. 2. The goal of the study was to address the knowledge gap of the influence of feeding on reproductive output and offspring phenotype. 3. Colonies of Stylophora pistillata from the Northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) were fed an Artemia diet or unfed for five months during...

Spatial structure affects phage efficacy in infecting dual-strain biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Samuele Testa, Sarah Berger, Philippe Piccardi, Frank Oechslin, Grégory Resch & Sara Mitri
Bacterial viruses, or phage, are key members of natural microbial communities. Yet much research on bacterial-phage interactions has been conducted in liquid cultures involving single bacterial strains. Here we explored how bacterial diversity affects the success of lytic phage in structured communities. We infected a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 with a lytic phage Pseudomonas 352 in the presence versus absence of an insensitive P. aeruginosa strain PA14, in liquid culture versus colonies on agar....

Data from: Predicting species occurrences with habitat network models

Damian Omar Ortiz-Rodríguez, Antoine Guisan, Rolf Holderegger & Maarten Van Strien
1. Biodiversity conservation requires modelling tools capable of predicting the presence or absence (i.e. occurrence-state) of species in habitat patches. Local habitat characteristics of a patch (lh), the cost of traversing the landscape matrix between patches (weighted connectivity; (wc), and the position of the patch in the habitat network topology (nt) all influence occurrence-state. Existing models are data demanding or consider only local habitat characteristics. We address these shortcomings and present a network-based modelling approach,...

Data from: Tipping the scales: evolution of the allometric slope independent of average trait size

R. Craig Stillwell, Alexander W. Shingleton, Ian Dworkin & W. Anthony Frankino
The scaling of body parts is central to the expression of morphology across body sizes and to the generation of morphological diversity within and among species. Although patterns of scaling-relationship evolution have been well documented for over one hundred years, little is known regarding how selection acts to generate these patterns. In part, this is because it is unclear the extent to which the elements of log-linear scaling relationships – the intercept or mean trait...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology

T. Jonathan Davies, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Nicolas Salamin, Jenica M. Allen, Toby R. Ault, Julio L. Betancourt, Kjell Bolmgren, Elsa E. Cleland, Benjamin I. Cook, Theresa M. Crimmins, Susan J. Mazer, Gregory J. McCabe, Stephanie Pau, Jim Regetz, Mark D. Schwartz & Steven E. Travers
Phenological events – defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal – have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism – the tendency...

Data from: Systematics of snow voles (Chionomys, Arvicolinae) revisited

Glenn Yannic, Reto Burri, Vladimir G. Malikov & Peter Vogel
To elucidate the evolutionary history of snow voles, genus Chionomys, we studied the phylogeography of Chionomys nivalis across its range and investigated its relationships with two congeneric species, C. gud and C. roberti, using independent molecular markers. Analyses were based on mitochondrial (~940 bp cyt b) and Y-chromosomal (~2020 bp from three introns) genetic variation. Our data provide conclusive evidence for a Caucasian and Middle Eastern origin for the three species and a subsequent westward...

Data from: Evolution of reduced postcopulatory molecular interactions in Drosophila populations lacking sperm competition

Brian Hollis, David Houle, Tadeusz J. Kawecki, B. Hollis, D. Houle & T. J. Kawecki
In many species with internal fertilization, molecules transferred in the male ejaculate trigger and interact with physiological changes in females. It is controversial to what extent these interactions between the sexes act synergistically to mediate the female switch to a reproductive state or instead reflect sexual antagonism evolved as a byproduct of sexual selection on males. To address this question, we eliminated sexual selection by enforcing monogamy in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for 65 generations...

Data from: Double brooding and offspring desertion in the barn owl (Tyto alba)

Paul Béziers & Alexandre Roulin
Many bird species produce two annual broods during a single breeding season. However, not all individuals reproduce twice in the same year suggesting that double brooding is condition-dependent. In contrast to most raptors and owls, the barn owl Tyto alba produces two annual clutches in most worldwide distributed populations. Nevertheless, the determinants of double brooding are still poorly studied. We performed such a study in a Swiss barn owl population monitored between 1990 and 2014....

Data from: Stable eusociality via maternal manipulation when resistance is costless

Mauricio González-Forero
In many eusocial species, queens use pheromones to influence offspring to express worker phenotypes. While evidence suggests that queen pheromones are honest signals of the queen's reproductive health, here I show that queen's honest signaling can result from ancestral maternal manipulation. I develop a mathematical model to study the coevolution of maternal manipulation, offspring resistance to manipulation, and maternal resource allocation. I assume that (1) maternal manipulation causes offspring to be workers against offspring's interests;...

Data from: Systematic site selection for multispecies monitoring networks

Silvia B. Carvalho, João Gonçalves, Antoine Guisan & João Honrado
The importance of monitoring biodiversity to detect and understand changes throughout time and to inform management is increasingly recognized. Monitoring schemes should be globally unified, spatially integrated across scales, long term, and cost-efficient. We propose a framework to design optimized multispecies-targeted monitoring networks over large areas. The method builds upon previous developments on systematic conservation planning in terms of optimizing resource allocation in space, and comprises seven steps: (a) determine which questions will be addressed,...

Data from: Very high resolution digital elevation models: are multi-scale derived variables ecologically relevant?

Kevin Leempoel, Christian Parisod, Céline Geiser, Lucas Daprà, Pascal Vittoz & Stéphane Joost
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are often used in landscape ecology to retrieve elevation or first derivative terrain attributes such as slope or aspect in the context of species distribution modelling. However, DEM-derived variables are scale-dependent and, given the increasing availability of very high resolution (VHR) DEMs, their ecological relevance must be assessed for different spatial resolutions. In a study area located in the Swiss Western Alps, we computed VHR DEMs-derived variables related to morphometry, hydrology...

Data from: Local effects drive heterozygosity-fitness correlations in an outcrossing long-lived tree

Isabel Rodriguez-Quilon, Luis Santos-Del-Blanco, Delphine Grivet, Juan Pablo Jaramillo-Correa, Juan Majada, Giovanni Vendramin, Ricardo Alía & Santiago Gonzalez-Martinez
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been used to understand the complex interactions between inbreeding, genetic diversity and evolution. Although frequently reported for decades, evidence for HFCs was often based on underpowered studies or inappropriate methods, and hence their underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Here, we used 6,100 genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to test for general and local effect HFCs in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), an iconic Mediterranean forest tree. Survival was used as...

Data from: Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae)

Juan Pablo Jaramilo-Correa, Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Delphine Grivet, Camille Lepoittevin, Federico Sebastiani, Myriam Heuertz, Pauline H. Garnier-Géré, Ricardo Alía, Christophe Plomion, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Santiago C. González-Martínez, J.-P. Jaramillo-Correa, S. C. Gonzalez-Martinez, F. Sebastiani, G. G. Vendramin, C. Lepoittevin, M. Heuertz, P. H. Garnier-Gere & C. Plomion
Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) can be used as predictors...

Data from: Genomics of the divergence continuum in an African plant biodiversity hotspot, I: drivers of population divergence in Restio capensis (Restionaceae)

Christian Lexer, Rafael O. Wüest, Sofia Mangili, Myriam Heuertz, Kai N. Stolting, Peter B. Pearman, Felix Forest, Nicolas Salamin, Niklaus E. Zimmermann & Eligio Bossolini
Understanding the drivers of population divergence, speciation and species persistence is of great interest to molecular ecology, especially for species-rich radiations inhabiting the world’s biodiversity hotspots. The toolbox of population genomics holds great promise for addressing these key issues, especially if genomic data are analyzed within a spatially and ecologically explicit context. We have studied the earliest stages of the divergence continuum in the Restionaceae, a species-rich and ecologically important plant family of the Cape...

Data from: Trait decoupling promotes evolutionary diversification of the trophic and acoustic system of damselfishes

Bruno Frédérich, Damien Olivier, Glenn Litsios, Michael E. Alfaro, Eric Parmentier, M. E. Alfaro, G. Litsios, B. Frederich, D. Olivier & E. Parmentier
Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal diversity. However, few empirical tests of this hypothesis exist. A central prediction, that the tempo of morphological evolution and ecological diversification should increase following decoupling events, remains inadequately tested. In damselfishes (Pomacentridae), a ceratomandibular ligament links the hyoid bar and lower jaws, coupling two main morphofunctional units directly involved in both feeding...

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