350 Works

Genomic evidence of introgression and adaptation in a model subtropical tree species, Eucalyptus grandis

Marja Mostert-O'Neill, Sharon Reynolds, Juan Acosta, David Lee, Justin Borevitz & Alexander Myburg
The genetic consequences of adaptation to changing environments can be deciphered using landscape genomics, which may help predict species’ responses to global climate change. Towards this, we used genome-wide SNP marker analysis to determine population structure and patterns of genetic differentiation in terms of neutral and adaptive genetic variation in the natural range of Eucalyptus grandis, a widely cultivated subtropical and temperate species, serving as genomic reference for the genus. We analysed introgression patterns at...

Using different body size measures can lead to different conclusions about the effects of climate change

Liam Bailey, Loeske Kruuk, Richard Allen, Mark Clayton, John Stein & Janet Gardner
Aim: Declining animal body size has been proposed as a general response to increasing global temperatures that should be observed across a broad biogeographical scale. However, published studies have shown large variation in both the magnitude and direction of body size trends. We aim to investigate how the way body size is measured (body mass, structural size, body condition) may contribute to differences in body size trends between studies. Location: Semi-arid Australia. Taxon: White-plumed honeyeater...

Evolving thermal thresholds explain the distribution of temperature sex reversal in an Australian dragon lizard

Meghan Castelli, Arthur Georges, Caitlin Cherryh, Dan Rosauer, Stephen Sarre, Isabella Contador-Kelsall & Clare Holleley
Aim: Species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) are particularly vulnerable to climate change because a resultant skew in population sex ratio can have severe demographic consequences and increase vulnerability to local extinction. The Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) has a thermosensitive ZZ male/ZW female system of genetic sex determination (GSD). High incubation temperatures cause reversal of the ZZ genotype to a viable female phenotype. Nest temperatures in the wild are predicted to vary on...

Weighing the cost: the impact of serial heatwaves on body mass in a small Australian passerine

Lynda Sharpe, Belinda Cale & Janet Gardner
Rising temperatures pose a grave risk to arid zone birds because they are already living close to their physiological limits and must balance water conservation against the need for evaporative cooling. We assess how extreme temperatures affect a wild population of small passerines by monitoring daily mass change in individual Jacky Winters (a small Australasian robin; Microeca fascinans) across a series of severe heatwaves that afflicted southern Australia in the summer of 2018-19. Daily maximum...

Data S1 from \"Global scale drivers of crop visitor diversity and the historical development of agriculture.\"

Julian Brown & Saul Cunningham
Understanding diversity in flower visitor assemblages helps us improve pollination of crops and support better biodiversity conservation outcomes. Much recent research has focused on drivers of crop-visitor diversity operating over spatial scales from fields to landscapes, such as pesticide and habitat management, while drivers operating over larger scales of continents and biogeographic realms are virtually unknown. Flower and visitor traits influence attraction of pollinators to flowers, and evolve in the context of associations that can...

Bandicoots return to Booderee: initial survival, dispersal, home range and habitat preferences of reintroduced southern brown bandicoots (eastern sub species; Isoodon obesulus obesulus)

Natasha Robinson, C. I. MacGregor, B. A. Hradsky, N. Dexter & D. B. Lindenmayer
Context Reintroductions can be an effective means of re-establishing locally extinct or declining faunal populations. However, incomplete knowledge of variables influencing survival and establishment can limit successful outcomes. Aim We aimed to examine the factors (e.g. sex, body mass, release order) influencing the survival, dispersal, home range and habitat selection of reintroduced southern brown bandicoots (eastern subspecies; Isoodon obesulus obesulus) into an unfenced, predator-managed environment in south-eastern Australia (Booderee National Park). Methods Over 2 weeks...

Reduced avian body condition due to global warming has little reproductive or population consequences

Nina McLean, Henk Van Der Jeugd, Chris Van Turnhout, Jonathan Lefcheck & Martijn Van De Pol
Climate change has strong effects on traits such as phenology and physiology. Studies typically assume that climate-induced trait changes will have consequences for population dynamics, but explicit tests are rare. Body condition reflects energy storage and may directly affect how much can be invested in reproduction and survival. However, the causal pathway by which decreased body condition impacts population dynamics has never been quantified across multiple populations and species. Therefore, we lack a general understanding...

Speedy revelations: how alarm calls can convey rapid, reliable information about urgent danger

Jessica McLachlan & Robert Magrath
In the perpetual struggle between high-speed predators and their prey, individuals need to react in the blink of an eye to avoid capture. Alarm calls that warn of danger therefore need to do so sufficiently rapidly that listeners can escape in time. Paradoxically, many species produce more elements in their alarm calls when signalling about more immediate danger, thereby increasing the reliability of transmission of critical information but taking longer to convey the urgent message....

Data from: Phylogenomics, biogeography and morphometrics reveal rapid phenotypic evolution in pythons after crossing Wallace’s line

Damien Esquerre, Stephen Donnellan, Ian Brennan, Alan Lemmon, Emily Lemmon, Hussam Zaher, Felipe Grazziotin & Scott Keogh
Ecological opportunities can be provided to organisms that cross stringent biogeographic barriers towards environments with new ecological niches. Wallace’s and Lyddeker’s lines are arguably the most famous biogeographic barriers, separating the Asian and Australo-Papuan biotas. One of the most ecomorphologically diverse groups of reptiles, the pythons, is distributed across these lines, and are remarkably more diverse in phenotype and ecology east of Wallace’s line in Australo-Papua. We used an anchored hybrid enrichment approach, with near...

Data from: On and off the rocks: persistence and ecological diversification in a tropical Australian lizard radiation

Paul M. Oliver, Lauren G. Ashman, Sarah Bank, Rebecca J. Laver, Renae C. Pratt, Leonardo G. Tedeschi & Craig C. Moritz
Background: Congruent patterns in the distribution of biodiversity between regions or habitats suggest that key factors such as climatic and topographic variation may predictably shape evolutionary processes. In a number of tropical and arid biomes, genetic analyses are revealing deeper and more localised lineage diversity in rocky ranges than surrounding habitats. Two potential drivers of localised endemism in rocky areas are refugial persistence through climatic change, or ecological diversification and specialisation. Here we examine how...

Data from: Personal information about danger trumps social information from avian alarm calls

Jessica R. McLachlan, Chaminda P. Ratnayake & Robert D. Magrath
Information about predators can mean the difference between life and death, but prey face the challenge of integrating personal information about predators with social information from the alarm calls of others. This challenge might even affect the structure of interspecific information networks: species vary in response to alarm calls, potentially because different foraging ecologies constrain the acquisition of personal information. However, the hypothesis that constrained personal information explains a greater response to alarm calls has...

Data from: Spatially heterogeneous impact of climate change on small mammals of montane California

Kevin C. Rowe, Karen M. C. Rowe, Morgan W. Tingley, Michelle S. Koo, James L. Patton, Christopher J. Conroy, John D. Perrine, Steven R. Beissinger & Craig Moritz
Resurveys of historical collecting localities have revealed range shifts, primarily leading edge expansions, which have been attributed to global warming. However, there have been few spatially replicated community-scale resurveys testing whether species' responses are spatially consistent. Here we repeated early twentieth century surveys of small mammals along elevational gradients in northern, central and southern regions of montane California. Of the 34 species we analysed, 25 shifted their ranges upslope or downslope in at least one...

Data from: Inbreeding avoidance, patch isolation and matrix permeability influence dispersal and settlement choices by male agile antechinus in a fragmented landscape

Sam C. Banks & David B. Lindenmayer
1. Animal dispersal is highly non-random and has important implications for the dynamics of populations in fragmented habitat. We identified interpatch dispersal events from genetic tagging, parentage analyses and assignment tests and modelled the factors associated with apparent emigration and post-dispersal settlement choices by individual male agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis, a marsupial carnivore of south-east Australian forests). 2. Emigration decisions were best modelled with on data patch isolation and inbreeding risk. 3. The choice of...

Data from: Parasitic plants have increased rates of molecular evolution across all three genomes

Lindell Bromham, Peter F. Cowman & Robert Lanfear
Background: Theoretical models and experimental evidence suggests that rates of nucleotide substitution could be raised in parasitic organisms compared to non-parasitic taxa. Parasitic plants provide an ideal test for these predictions, as there are at least a dozen independent origins of the parasitic lifestyle in angiosperms. Studies of a number of parasitic plant lineages have suggested faster rates of molecular evolution, but the results of some studies have been mixed. Comparative analysis of all parasitic...

Data from: Amelioration of ocean acidification and warming effects through physiological buffering of a macroalgae

Steve Doo, Aero Leplastrier, Alexia Graba-Landry, Januar Harianto, Ross Coleman & Maria Byrne
Concurrent anthropogenic global climate change and ocean acidification is expected to have a negative impact on calcifying marine organisms. While knowledge of biological responses of organisms to oceanic stress has emerged from single species experiments, these do not capture ecologically relevant scenarios where the potential for multi-organism physiological interactions is assessed. Marine algae provide an interesting case study, as their photosynthetic activity elevates pH in the surrounding microenvironment, potentially buffering more acidic conditions for associated...

Data from: Ageing and senescence across reproductive traits and survival in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus)

Eve Cooper
Why do senescence rates of fitness-related traits often vary dramatically? By considering the full ageing trajectories of multiple traits we can better understand how a species’ life-history shapes the evolution of senescence within a population. Here, we examined age-related changes in sex-specific survival, reproduction, and several components of reproduction using a long-term study of a cooperatively-breeding songbird, the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus). We compared ageing patterns between traits by estimating standardized rates of maturation, the...

Data from: Cost of an elaborate trait: a tradeoff between attracting females and maintaining a clean ornament

Erin McCullough, Chun-Chia Chou & Patricia Backwell
Many sexually selected ornaments and weapons are elaborations of an animal’s outer body surface, including long feathers, colorful skin, and rigid outgrowths. The time and energy required to keep these traits clean, attractive, and in good condition for signaling may represent an important, but understudied cost of bearing a sexually selected trait. Male fiddler crabs possess an enlarged and brightly colored claw that is used both as a weapon to fight with rival males and...

Data from: Small tropical forest trees have a greater capacity to adjust carbon metabolism to long‐term drought than large canopy trees

David Bartholomew, Paulo Bittencourt, Antonio Da Costa, Lindsay Banin, Patrícia Costa, Sarah Coughlin, Tomas Domingues, Leandro Ferreira, André Giles, Maurizio Mencuccini, Lina Mercado, Raquel Miatto, Alex Oliveira, Rafael Oliveira, Patrick Meir & Lucy Rowland
The response of small understory trees to long‐term drought is vital in determining the future composition, carbon stocks and dynamics of tropical forests. Long‐term drought is, however, also likely to expose understory trees to increased light availability driven by drought‐induced mortality. Relatively little is known about the potential for understory trees to adjust their physiology to both decreasing water and increasing light availability. We analysed data on maximum photosynthetic capacity (J max, V cmax), leaf...

Data from: Where do animals come from during post-fire population recovery? Implications for ecological and genetic patterns in post-fire landscapes

Sam C. Banks, Lachlan McBurney, David Blair, Ian D. Davies & David B. Lindenmayer
Identifying where animals come from during population recovery can help to understand the impacts of disturbance events and regimes on species distributions and genetic diversity. Alternative recovery processes for animal populations affected by fire include external recolonization, nucleated recovery from refuges, or in situ survival and population growth. We used simulations to develop hypotheses about ecological and genetic patterns corresponding to these alternative models. We tested these hypotheses in a study of the recovery of...

Data from: Computational performance and statistical accuracy of *BEAST and comparisons with other methods

Huw A. Ogilvie, Joseph Heled, Dong Xie & Alexei J. Drummond
Under the multispecies coalescent model of molecular evolution, gene trees have independent evolutionary histories within a shared species tree. In comparison, supermatrix concatenation methods assume that gene trees share a single common genealogical history, thereby equating gene coalescence with species divergence. The multispecies coalescent is supported by previous studies which found that its predicted distributions fit empirical data, and that concatenation is not a consistent estimator of the species tree. *BEAST, a fully Bayesian implementation...

Data from: New findings in a 400 million-year-old Devonian placoderm shed light on jaw structure and function in basal gnathostomes

Yuzhi Hu, Jing Lu & Gavin C. Young
Arthodire placoderms have been proposed as the sister group of Chinese ‘maxillate’ placoderms plus all the more crownward gnathostomes. These basal groups provide key information for understanding the early evolution of jaws. Here, we test previous assumptions about placoderm jaw structure and function by using high-resolution computed tomography, digital dissection, and enlarged 3D printouts on a unique articulated 400 million-year-old buchanosteid arthrodire. The upper jaw has a double ethmoid and a palatobasal connection, but no...

Data from: Demography and growth of subadult savanna trees: interactions of life history, size, fire season, and grassy understory

Patricia A. Werner & Lynda D. Prior
Tree populations in mesic (>650 mm precipitation/yr) savannas of the world have strong demographic bottlenecks to the transition of subadult trees to the canopy layer. Although such bottlenecks are a major determinant of savanna physiognomy, the factors that allow subadults to traverse the bottleneck are little studied. In a landscape-scale field experiment in a northern Australia savanna, we determined the survival and growth of 1506 permanently marked juveniles (<150 cm tall) and saplings (150–599 cm...

Data from: Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae)

Rebecca J. Fox, David R. Bellwood & Michael D. Jennions
Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed...

Data from: Why does inbreeding reduce male paternity? Effects on sexually selected traits

Jason N. Marsh, Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael Dawson Jennions & Megan L. Head
Why does inbreeding reduce paternity? Effects on sexually selected traitsThis is the data associated with the manuscript "Why does inbreeding reduce paternity? Effects on sexually selected traits". The data file contains 5 worksheets. The first "association data" contains data from experiment 1 of the associated paper looking at female association time with inbred and outbred males. The second third and fourth contain data associated with the second experiment of the associated paper looking at the...

Data from: Relative costs of offspring sex and offspring survival in a polygynous mammal

Hannah Froy, Craig A. Walling, Josephine M. Pemberton, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Loeske E.B. Kruuk & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Costs of reproduction are expected to be ubiquitous in wild animal populations and understanding the drivers of variation in these costs is an important aspect of life-history evolution theory. We use a 43 year dataset from a wild population of red deer to examine the relative importance of two factors that influence the costs of reproduction to mothers, and to test whether these costs vary with changing ecological conditions. Like previous studies, our analyses indicate...

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