135 Works

Grandparents raising grandchildren: A Strength-Based Perspective and Intervention

Fengyan Tang & Elizabeth Farmer

Safely Staging Sex and Violence for the Academic Performer

Karen Gilmer

Deciphering Redox Free Radical Mechanisms of 15LOX/PEBP1-Driven Ferroptosis in Skin

Yuri Bunimovich, Valerian E. Kagan & Sunil Saxena

Attacking the Global Plastics Waste Problem

Eric Beckman, Melissa Bilec, Vikas Khanna, Gotz Veser, Peng Liu, Amy Wildermuth & Joshua Galperin

The emergence of Corporate Venture Capital in China: A Field Study

Ravi Madhavan

CBA Survey Final Dataset 2019

Josephine Olson & Haimanti Banerjee

Recidivism in context: A meta-analysis of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and repeat offending

leah jacobs, Laura Ellen Ashcraft, Craig Sewall, Danielle Wallace & Barbara Folb

Data from: The effect of keystone individuals on collective outcomes can be mediated through interactions or behavioral persistence

Noa Pinter-Wollman, Carl Nick Keiser, Roy Wollman & Jonathan Pruitt
Collective behavior emerges from interactions among group members who often vary in their behavior. The presence of just one or a few keystone individuals, such as leaders or tutors, may have a large effect on collective outcomes. These individuals can catalyze behavioral changes in other group members, thus altering group composition and collective behavior. The influence of keystone individuals on group function may lead to trade-offs between ecological situations, because the behavioral composition they facilitate...

Negative frequency-dependent selection maintains coexisting genotypes during fluctuating selection

Vaughn Cooper, Caroline Turner, Sean Buskirk & Katrina Harris
Natural environments are rarely static; rather selection can fluctuate on time scales ranging from hours to centuries. However, it is unclear how adaptation to fluctuating environments differs from adaptation to constant environments at the genetic level. For bacteria, one key axis of environmental variation is selection for planktonic or biofilm modes of growth. We conducted an evolution experiment with Burkholderia cenocepacia, comparing the evolutionary dynamics of populations evolving under constant selection for either biofilm formation...

Data from: Behavioral types of predator and prey jointly determine prey survival: potential implications for the maintenance of within species behavioral variation

Jonathan N. Pruitt, John J. Stachowicz & Andrew Sih
Recent studies in animal behavior have emphasized the ecological importance of individual variation in behavioral types (e.g. boldness, activity). Such studies have emphasized how variation in one species affects its interaction with other species. But few (if any) studies simultaneously examine variation in multiple interacting species, despite the potential for coevolutionary responses to work to either maintain or eliminate variation in interacting populations. Here, we investigate how individual differences in behavioral types of both predators...

Data from: Correlations of behavioral deficits with brain pathology assessed through longitudinal MRI and histopathology in the HDHQ150/Q150 mouse model of Huntington's disease

Ivan Rattray, Edward J. Smith, William R. Crum, Thomas J. Walker, Richard Gale, Gillian P. Bates, Mike Modo & Michel Modo
A variety of mouse models have been developed that express mutant huntingtin (mHTT) leading to aggregates and inclusions that model the molecular pathology observed in Huntington’s disease. Here we show that although homozygous HdhQ150 knock-in mice developed motor impairments (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip strength) by 36 weeks of age, cognitive dysfunction (swimming T maze, fear conditioning, odor discrimination, social interaction) was not evident by 94 weeks. Concomitant to behavioral assessments, T2-weighted MRI volume measurements indicated...

Data from: Evolutionary rate covariation analysis of E-cadherin identifies Raskol as a regulator of cell adhesion and actin dynamics in Drosophila

Qanber Raza, Jae Young Choi, Yang Li, Roisin M. O'Dowd, Simon C. Watkins, Yang Hong, Maria Chikina, Nathan L. Clark & Adam V. Kwiatkowski
The adherens junction couples the actin cytoskeletons of neighboring cells to provide the foundation for multicellular organization. The core of the adherens junction is the cadherin-catenin complex that arose early in the evolution of multicellularity to link actin to intercellular adhesions. Over time, evolutionary pressures have shaped the signaling and mechanical functions of the adherens junction to meet specific developmental and physiological demands. Evolutionary rate covariation (ERC) identifies proteins with correlated fluctuations in evolutionary rate...

Data from: Magnetic resonance imaging and tensor-based morphometry in the MPTP non-human primate model of Parkinson’s disease

Michel Modo, William R. Crum, Madeline Gerwig, Anthony C. Vernon, Priya Patel, Michael J. Jackson, Sarah Rose, Peter Jenner & Mahmoud M. Iravani
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder producing a variety of motor and cognitive deficits with the causes remaining largely unknown. The gradual loss of the nigrostriatal pathway is currently considered the pivotal pathological event. To better understand the progression of PD and improve treatment management, defining the disease on a structural basis and expanding brain analysis to extra-nigral structures is indispensable. The anatomical complexity and the presence of neuromelanin, make the...

Data from: Proximity to roads disrupts rodents’ contributions to seed dispersal services and subsequent recruitment dynamics

Wenwen Chen, Jie Zhong, Walter Carson, Zhanhui Tang, Zongqiang Xie, Shucun Sun & Youbing Zhou
1. Seed dispersal and subsequent recruitment dynamics play a crucially important role in regulating species coexistence and structuring tree diversity in diverse forests. Wildlife, which can dually shape the tree recruitment process by simultaneously functioning as natural enemies and seed dispersers, are undergoing widespread changes in population and behaviour due to the detrimental effects of expanding global road networks. However, the impact of these changes on recruitment dynamics through the alteration of seed dispersal processes...

Data from: Persistent chaos of measles epidemics in the prevaccination United States caused by a small change in seasonal transmission patterns

Benjamin D. Dalziel, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Willem G. Van Panhuis, Donald S. Burke, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Bryan T. Grenfell & Ottar N. Bjørnstad
Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur in predictable limit cycles. Theory suggests these cycles can be disrupted by high amplitude seasonal fluctuations in transmission rates, resulting in deterministic chaos. However, persistent deterministic chaos has never been observed, in part because sufficiently large oscillations in transmission rates are uncommon. Where they do occur, the resulting deep epidemic troughs break the chain of transmission, leading to epidemic extinction, even in large cities. Here we demonstrate a new...

Data from: Historic disturbance regimes promote tree diversity only under low browsing regimes in eastern deciduous forest

Tim Nuttle, Alejandro A. Royo, Mary Beth Adams & Walter P. Carson
Eastern deciduous forests are changing in species composition and diversity outside of classical successional trajectories. Three disturbance mechanisms appear central to this phenomenon: fire frequency is reduced, canopy gaps are smaller, and browsers are more abundant. Which factor is most responsible is a matter of great debate and remains unclear, at least partly because few studies have simultaneously investigated more than one process. We conducted a large-scale experiment in mesophytic forests of West Virginia, USA,...

Data from: Behavioural hypervolumes of spider communities predict community performance and disbandment

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Daniel I. Bolnick, Andrew Sih, Nicholas DiRienzo & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Trait-based ecology argues that an understanding of the traits of interactors can enhance the predictability of ecological outcomes. We examine here whether the multidimensional behavioural-trait diversity of communities influences community performance and stability in situ. We created experimental communities of web-building spiders, each with an identical species composition. Communities contained one individual of each of five different species. Prior to establishing these communities in the field, we examined three behavioural traits for each individual spider....

Data from: Land use history and seed dispersal drive divergent plant community assembly patterns in urban vacant lots

Anna L. Johnson, Dorothy Borowy & Christopher M. Swan
1. Despite high levels of disturbance and habitat modification, urban ecosystems still host substantial levels of biodiversity. The processes that maintain existing levels of diversity, however, remain understudied. Identifying the links between urban ecological processes and patterns has, therefore, become a fundamental research goal to support urban biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We conducted a study to determine how the diversity and composition of urban plant communities is affected by spatially and temporally variable land...

Data from: Male-male aggression is unlikely to stabilize a poison frog polymorphism

Yusan Yang, Matthew B. Dugas, Houston J. Sudekum, Sean N. Murphy & Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Phenotypic polymorphism is common in animals, and the maintenance of multiple phenotypes in a population requires forces that act against homogenizing drift and selection. Male-male competition can contribute to the stability of a polymorphism when males compete primarily with males of the same phenotype. In and around a contact zone between red and blue lineages of the poison frog Oophaga pumilio, we used simulated territorial intrusions to test the non-exclusive predictions that males would direct...

Data from: Bioclimatic, ecological, and phenotypic intermediacy and high genetic admixture in a natural hybrid of octoploid strawberries

Isabella Salamone, Rajanikanth Govindarajulu, Stacey Falk, Matthew Parks, Aaron Liston & Tia-Lynn Ashman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Hybrid zones provide ‘natural laboratories’ for understanding the processes of selection, reinforcement and speciation. We sought to gain insight into the degree of introgression and the extent of ecological/phenotypic intermediacy in the natural hybrid strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia. METHODS: We used whole plastome sequencing to identify parental species-specific (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana) chloroplast SNPs, and combined the use of these with nuclear microsatellite markers to genetically characterize the...

Data from: Soil microbial communities alter leaf chemistry and influence allelopathic potential among coexisting plant species

Scott J. Meiners, Kelsey K. Phipps, , Thomas Canam, Walter P. Carson & Thomas H. Pendergast
While both plant–soil feedbacks and allelochemical interactions are key drivers of plant community dynamics, the potential for these two drivers to interact with each other remains largely unexplored. If soil microbes influence allelochemical production, this would represent a novel dimension of heterogeneity in plant–soil feedbacks. To explore the linkage between soil microbial communities and plant chemistry, we experimentally generated soil microbial communities and evaluated their impact on leaf chemical composition and allelopathic potential. Four native...

Data from: Poison frog color morphs express assortative mate preferences in allopatry but not sympatry

Yusan Yang, Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki, Anisha Devar & Matthew B. Dugas
The concurrent divergence of mating traits and preferences is necessary for the evolution of reproductive isolation via sexual selection, and such coevolution has been demonstrated in diverse lineages. However, the extent to which assortative mate preferences are sufficient to drive reproductive isolation in nature is less clear. Natural contact zones between lineages divergent in traits and preferences provide exceptional opportunities for testing the predicted evolutionary consequences of such divergence. The strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio)...

Data from: Public sharing of research datasets: a pilot study of associations

Heather A. Piwowar & Wendy W. Chapman
The public sharing of primary research datasets potentially benefits the research community but is not yet common practice. In this pilot study, we analyzed whether data sharing frequency was associated with funder and publisher requirements, journal impact factor, or investigator experience and impact. Across 397 recent biomedical microarray studies, we found investigators were more likely to publicly share their raw dataset when their study was published in a high-impact journal and when the first or...

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  • University of Pittsburgh
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