505 Works

Data from: Balanced genetic diversity improves population fitness

Yuma Takahashi, Ryoya Tanaka, Daisuke Yamamoto, Noriyuki Suzuki, Masakado Kawata & Suzuki Noriyuki
Although genetic diversity within a population is suggested to improve population-level fitness and productivity, the existence of these effects is controversial because empirical evidence for an ecological effect of genetic diversity and the underlying mechanisms is scarce and incomplete. Here, we show that the natural single-gene behavioural polymorphism (Rover and sitter) in Drosophila melanogaster has a positive effect on population fitness. Our simple numerical model predicted that the fitness of a polymorphic population would be...

Data from: Knock-on community impacts of a novel vector: spillover of emerging DWV-B from Varroa-infested honeybees to wild bumblebees

Robyn Manley, Ben Temperton, Toby Doyle, Daisy Gates, Sophie Hedges, Michael Boots & Lena Wilfert
Novel transmission routes can directly impact the evolutionary ecology of infectious diseases, with potentially dramatic effect on host populations and knock-on effects on the wider host community. The invasion of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic viral vector in Western honeybees, provides a unique opportunity to examine how a novel vector affects disease epidemiology in a host community. This specialist honeybee mite vectors deformed wing virus (DWV), an important re-emerging honeybee pathogen that also infects wild bumblebees....

Data from: Differential patterns of floristic phylogenetic diversity across a post‐glacial landscape

Ida M. Mienna, James D.M. Speed, Mika Bendiksby, Andrew H. Thornhill, Brent D. Mishler & Michael D. Martin
Aim In this study, we explored spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity (PD) and endemism in the flora of Norway and tested hypothesized post‐glacial environmental drivers of PD, including temperature, precipitation, edaphic factors and time since glacial retreat. Location Norway. Taxon Vascular plants (Trachaeophyta). Methods We produced a multi‐locus maximum‐likelihood (ML) phylogeny using a combination of newly produced DNA sequences from herbarium specimens and sequences available from public repositories. We combined the phylogeny with species occurrence...

Data from: Microbial functional diversity: from concepts to applications

Arthur Escalas, Lauren Hale, James Voordeckers, Yunfeng Yang, Mary Firestone, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen & Jizhong Zhou
Functional diversity is increasingly recognized by microbial ecologists as the essential link between biodiversity patterns and ecosystem functioning, determining the trophic relationships and interactions between microorganisms, their participation in biogeochemical cycles and their responses to environmental changes. Consequently, its definition and quantification have practical and theoretical implications. In this opinion paper, we present a synthesis on the concept of microbial functional diversity from its definition to its application. Initially, we revisit to the original definition...

Predicted percentage dissatisfied with vertical air temperature difference

Shichao Liu, Zhe Wang, Stefano Schiavon, Yingdong He, Maohui Luo, Hui Zhang & Edward Arens
We conducted laboratory tests with four nominal vertical air temperature differences, 0.4, 2.9, 5.9, and 8.4 °C, between the head (0.1 m) level and ankles (1.1 m) level. Ninety-eight college-age students participated in a blind within-subject experiment.

Data from: The return to water in ancestral Xenopus was accompanied by a novel mechanism for producing and shaping vocal signals

Ursula Kwong-Brown, Martha L. Tobias, Damian O. Elias, Ian C. Hall, Coen P.H. Elemans, Darcy B. Kelley, Martha L Tobias, Ian C Hall, Darcy B Kelley, Coen PH Elemans & Damian O Elias
Listeners locate potential mates using species-specific vocal signals. As tetrapods transitioned from water to land, lungs replaced gills, allowing expiration to drive sound production. Some frogs then returned to water. Here we explore how air-driven sound production changed upon re-entry to preserve essential acoustic information on species identity in the secondarily aquatic frog genus Xenopus. We filmed movements of cartilage and muscles during evoked sound production in isolated larynges. Results refute the current theory for...

Data from: Stochastic character mapping of state-dependent diversification reveals the tempo of evolutionary decline in self-compatible Onagraceae lineages

William A Freyman & Sebastian Höhna
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to identify key evolutionary transitions that correspond with shifts in speciation and extinction rates. Stochastic character mapping has become the primary method used to infer the timing, nature, and number of character state transitions along the branches of a phylogeny. The method is widely employed for standard substitution models of character evolution. However, current approaches cannot be used for models that specifically test the association of character state...

Recreating giants impacts in the laboratory: Shock compression of MgSiO3 bridgmanite to 14 Mbar

Marius Millot, Shuai Zhang, Dayne Fratanduono, Federica Coppari, Sebastien Hamel, Burkhard Militzer, Dariia Simonova, Svyatoslav Shcheka, Natalia Dubrovinskaia, Leonid Dubrovinsky & Jon Eggert
Understanding giant impacts requires accurate description of how extreme pressures and temperatures affect the physical properties of the constituent materials. Here, we report shock experiments on two polymorphs of MgSiO3: enstatite and bridgmanite (perovskite) crystals. We obtain pressure-density shock equation of state to 14 Mbar and more than 9 g/cm3 a 40 % increase in density from previous data on MgSiO3. Density-functional-theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations provide predictions for the shock Hugoniot curves for bridgmanite...

Tree functional traits as predictors of microburst-associated treefalls in tropical wet forests

Alana Rader, Amy Cotrell, Anna Kudla, Tiffany Lum, David Henderson & Harshad Karandikar
On 19 May 2018 a microburst caused 600 isolated forest gaps in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We surveyed fallen and standing trees within gaps to determine if certain variables are associated with treefalls. Our results highlight considerations for future research to understand the impacts of microbursts in tropical forests. Our results show that at the scale and locality of our study, treefall vulnerability to microbursts and characteristics of fall events are independent of the...

Intensification of the Pre‐Meiyu Rainband in the Late 21st Century

John Chiang, Johannes Fischer, Wenwen Kong & Michael Herman
This contains the SST forcing files and model output for the CESM idealized runs used in Chiang, JCH, J Fisher, W Kong, and MJ Herman, "Intensification of the pre-Meiyu rainband in the late 21st century", submitted to Geophysical Research Letters, April 2019

SanFranciscoBay_Adapt2SeaLevelRise_CountyData

Daniella Hirschfeld & Kristina Hill
In metropolitan regions made up of multiple independent jurisdictions, adaptation to increased coastal flooding due to sea level rise requires coordinated strategic planning of physical and organizational approaches. To better understand specific choices for sea level rise adaptation we examined potential costs to raise current protective infrastructure to future water levels. This data further explores our cost data at the county scale in an attempt to better characterize the region’s counties by their relative capacity...

Remote sensing spectral vegetation indices for 2011 NWCA wetland sites

Iryna Dronova, Sophie Taddeo & Kendall Harris
This dataset represents the values of Landsat-based spectral vegetation indices estimated for 1138 wetland sites included in the National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, represented by circular buffers with 40-m radius as described in Taddeo et al., Ecological Applications, In Press. Each spectral index is summarized as a mean and standard deviation of its 2011 maximum values for the Landsat pixels falling within the site boundaries. The dataset contains two...

Data from: Species richness, endemism, and abundance patterns: tests of two fractal models in a serpentine grassland

Jessica Green, John Harte & Annette Ostling
From Ecology Letters: Although scaling relationships that characterize fractal species distributions offer an exciting potential for unification in biogeography, empirical support for fractal theory remains the subject of debate. We synthesize and test multiple predictions of two interrelated fractal models and a null model of random placement using Californian serpentine grassland data describing the spatial location of over 37 000 individually identified plants. The endemics–area relationship and species‐abundance distribution recently derived from a community‐level fractal...

Sea Level Rise Impacts on Wastewater Treatment Systems along the U.S. Coasts

Michelle Hummel, Matthew Berry & Mark Stacey
This dataset contains location data for wastewater treatment plants located with 2 km of the U.S. coastline, based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Facility Registry Service. Wastewater treatment plant locations were verified using imagery to improve accuracy. Also included is an interpolated depth-to-groundwater surface for the San Francisco Bay Area. All other datasets used in this manuscript are available at the links provided in the text, which can be accessed at https://doi.org/10.1002/2017EF000805.

Ecosystem Scale Measurements of Methyl Halide Fluxes from a Brackish Tidal Marsh Invaded with Perennial Pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium)

Malte Julian Deventer, Yi Jiao, Sarah Knox, Frank Anderson, Matthew Ferner, Jared Lewis, Robert Rhew & Robert Rhew
Natural methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) emissions from coastal marsh ecosystems may constitute a significant proportion of stratospheric chlorine and bromine, which catalyze ozone depletion. Current inventories involve substantial uncertainties associated with up-scaling plot-scale footprints (i.e., ≤ 1m2). Here we present net ecosystem flux measurements of methyl halides from a brackish tidal marsh on the west coast of the United States between April 2016 and June 2017 using the relaxed eddy accumulation method....

ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II

Veronika Földváry Ličina, Toby Cheung, Hui Zhang, Richard De Dear, Thomas Parkinson, Edward Arens, Chungyoon Chun, Stefano Schiavon, Maohui Luo, Gail Brager, Peixian Li & Soazig Kaam
Recognizing the value of open-source research databases in advancing the art and science of HVAC, in 2014 the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II project was launched under the leadership of University of California at Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environment and The University of Sydney’s Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Laboratory. The exercise began with a systematic collection and harmonization of raw data from the last two decades of thermal comfort field studies around the...

MHD Field line tracing results

Shaosui Xu
The zip files contain field line tracing results from a MHD simulation, which are used to create Figures 3 and 4 of a GRL paper, titled as "Investigation of Martian magnetic topology response to 2017 September ICME."

STET modeling output files for 2017 Sept solar flare study at Mars

Shaosui PhD
The zip file contains 9 STET output files for the 2017 Sept solar flare study at Mars. File names with 'pre', 'pek', and 'pst' correspond to the pre-flare, peak-flare, and post-peak flare periods, respectively. File names with 'atm', 'all', and 'dep' include background inputs for the STET model, electron differential number flux for different altitudes and pitch angles, and ion production rates, respectively.

Salinity and Velocity in Lower South San Francisco Bay

Olivia Hoang
In order to measure salinity gradients in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions, a mesh of nine Ruskin RBR XR-420 CTDs and two Seabird SBE-37's were placed in various positions in all three dimensions. Lines 1, 2, 3, and 4 were placed in the channel. Lines 5 and 6 were placed in the shallows, lateral to line 2. Line 1 has two CTD's attached at the top and bottom of the water column. Lines 2...

Intraspecific variation in thermal acclimation and tolerance between populations of the winter ant, Prenolepis imparis

Maria Tonione, So Mi Cho, Gary Richmond, Christian Irian & Neil Tsutsui
Thermal phenotypic plasticity, otherwise known as acclimation, plays an essential role in how organisms respond to short‐term temperature changes. Plasticity buffers the impact of harmful temperature changes; therefore, understanding variation in plasticity in natural populations is crucial for understanding how species will respond to the changing climate. However, very few studies have examined patterns of phenotypic plasticity among populations, especially among ant populations. Considering that this intraspecies variation can provide insight into adaptive variation in...

Coalescent-based species delimitation is sensitive to geographic sampling and isolation by distance

Nicholas Mason, Nicholas Fletcher, Brian Gill, Chris Funk & Kelly Zamudio
Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity that are delimited via genetic data and coalescent-based methods with increasing frequency. Despite the widespread use of coalescent-based species delimitation, we do not fully understand the sensitivity of these methods to potential sources of bias and violations of their underlying assumptions. One implicit assumption of coalescent-based species delimitation is that geographic sampling is adequate and representative of genetic variation among populations within the lineage of interest. Yet exhaustive...

Data from: When policy and psychology meet: mitigating the consequences of bias in schools

Jason Okonofua
Harsh exclusionary discipline predicts major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. This breeds racial inequality, because Black students are disproportionately at risk for this type of discipline. Can a combination of policy and psychological interventions reduce this kind of discipline and mitigate this inequality? Two preregistered experiments (Nexperiment1 = 246 teachers; Nexperiment2 = 243 teachers) used an established paradigm to systematically test integration of two and then three policy and psychological interventions to...

Berkeley High Resolution (BEHR) OMI NO2 - Native pixels, monthly profiles

Joshua Laughner, Qindan Zhu & Ronald Cohen
The BEHR OMI NO2 product reprocesses tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite using high resolution a priori NO2 profiles, surface reflectivity, and surface elevation data. This product uses NO2 profiles for the day retrieved, simulated by the WRF-Chem model at 12 km spatial resolution. The use of high spatial resolution NO2 profiles has been shown to better resolve urban/rural differences in NO2 column densities, and the use of day-to-day (rather than...

The influence of dopamine on cognitive flexibility is mediated by functional connectivity in young but not older adults

Anne Berry
Dopaminergic signaling in striatum is strongly implicated in executive functions including cognitive flexibility. However, there is a paucity of multimodal research in humans defining the nature of relationships between endogenous dopamine, striatal network activity, and cognition. Here, we measured dopamine synthesis capacity in young and older adults using the PET tracer 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, and examined its relationship with cognitive performance and functional connectivity during an fMRI study of task switching. Aging is associated with alteration in...

A subset of Californian vascular plant species recognized by Baldwin et al. (2017), corresponding to to the “large and intermediate-sized genera” studied by Stebbins & Major (1965)

Bruce G. Baldwin, Andrew H. Thornhill, William A. Freyman, David D. Ackerly, Matthew M. Kling, Naia Morueta-Holme & Brent D. Mishler
Column one includes 2356 Californian vascular plant species recognized by Baldwin et al. (2017 Amer. J. Bot.), and column 2 includes their correspondence to the “large and intermediate-sized genera” studied by Stebbins & Major (1965 Ecol. Monogr.). These 2356 species represent 44.8% of the 5257 species examined by Baldwin et al. (2017) and include only the species that conform to the generic concepts of Stebbins & Major, which sometimes differ from revised generic concepts in...

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