96 Works

Data from: Vascular epiphytes show low physiological resistance and high recovery capacity to episodic, short-term drought in Monteverde, Costa Rica

Cameron Williams, Jessica Murray, Andrew Glunk, Todd Dawson, Nalini Nadkarni & Sybil Gotsch
Tropical montane cloud forests support abundant epiphytic vascular plant communities that serve important ecosystem functions, but their reliance on atmospheric inputs of water may make them susceptible to the drying effects of rising cloud bases and more frequent droughts. We conducted a common garden experiment to explore the combined effects of decreasing cloud influence—lower humidity, warmer temperature, brighter light—and meteorological drought (i.e., absence of rain) on the physiology and morphology of vascular epiphytes native to...

First come, first served: possible role for priority effects in marine populations under different degrees of dispersal potential

Christiaan De Leeuw, Katja Peijnenburg, Rosemary Gillespie, Diede Maas, Naoto Hanzawa, Yosephine Tuti, Abdul Toha, Ludi Aji & Leontine Becking
Aim Studying clearly delineated populations in marine lakes, islands of sea, we investigate the interplay of habitat size, immigration, and priority effects in shaping marine population genetic structure. Location Marine lakes and coastal locations in Indonesia, Palau, Papua New-Guinea and Australia. Taxon Mussels (Mytillidae, Brachidontes spp.) Methods Populations were sampled from four coastal locations and 22 marine lakes of similar age (~8,000 years), yet differing in size (0.04 - 4.7 km2) and degree of connection...

Data from: Complex interactions between temperature, sexual signals, and mate choice in a desert-dwelling jumping spider

Erin Brandt, Malcolm Rosenthal & Damian Elias
Environmental context is a crucial factor that influences sexual communication systems. Particularly in ectotherms, which cannot metabolically regulate their body temperature, temperature has an outsized effect on these intraspecific interactions. Using a desert-dwelling jumping spider Habronattus clypeatus, we assessed how temperature impacts various parts of the male signal and female mate choice for the signal. These spiders have multimodal, temporally-structured courtship displays that begin with visual-only “sidling” displays and proceed to multimodal visual and vibratory...

Three eco-physiological strategies of response to drought maintain the form and function of a tropical montane grassland

Ilaíne Matos
1. Ecologists seek a general scheme to classify the diversity of plant responses to environmental factors into a few strategies (e.g. competitor -C, stress-tolerant -S, ruderal-R), while plant physiologists seek a mechanistic scheme to explain such different responses (e.g. tolerance, escape, avoidance). So far, few attempts have been made to combine both perspectives into plant eco-physiological strategies. Moreover, the relative contribution of different strategies to maintain both community structure and ecosystem functioning during drought has...

Genomic differentiation and local adaptation on a microgeographic scale in a resident songbird

Jennifer Walsh, Stepfanie Aguillon, Yvonne Chan, Peter Arcese, Phred Benham, Irby Lovette & Chloe Mikles
Elucidating forces capable of driving species diversification in the face of gene flow remains a key goal in evolutionary biology. Song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, occur as 25 subspecies in diverse habitats across North America, are among the continent’s most widespread vertebrate species, and are exemplary of many highly variable species for which the conservation of locally adapted populations may be critical to their range-wide persistence. We focus here on six morphologically distinct subspecies resident in...

Recreating giants impacts in the laboratory: Shock compression of MgSiO3 bridgmanite to 14 Mbar

Marius Millot, Shuai Zhang, Dayne Fratanduono, Federica Coppari, Sebastien Hamel, Burkhard Militzer, Dariia Simonova, Svyatoslav Shcheka, Natalia Dubrovinskaia, Leonid Dubrovinsky & Jon Eggert
Understanding giant impacts requires accurate description of how extreme pressures and temperatures affect the physical properties of the constituent materials. Here, we report shock experiments on two polymorphs of MgSiO3: enstatite and bridgmanite (perovskite) crystals. We obtain pressure-density shock equation of state to 14 Mbar and more than 9 g/cm3 a 40 % increase in density from previous data on MgSiO3. Density-functional-theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations provide predictions for the shock Hugoniot curves for bridgmanite...

Tree functional traits as predictors of microburst-associated treefalls in tropical wet forests

Alana Rader, Amy Cotrell, Anna Kudla, Tiffany Lum, David Henderson & Harshad Karandikar
On 19 May 2018 a microburst caused 600 isolated forest gaps in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We surveyed fallen and standing trees within gaps to determine if certain variables are associated with treefalls. Our results highlight considerations for future research to understand the impacts of microbursts in tropical forests. Our results show that at the scale and locality of our study, treefall vulnerability to microbursts and characteristics of fall events are independent of the...

Intraspecific variation in thermal acclimation and tolerance between populations of the winter ant, Prenolepis imparis

Maria Tonione, So Mi Cho, Gary Richmond, Christian Irian & Neil Tsutsui
Thermal phenotypic plasticity, otherwise known as acclimation, plays an essential role in how organisms respond to short‐term temperature changes. Plasticity buffers the impact of harmful temperature changes; therefore, understanding variation in plasticity in natural populations is crucial for understanding how species will respond to the changing climate. However, very few studies have examined patterns of phenotypic plasticity among populations, especially among ant populations. Considering that this intraspecies variation can provide insight into adaptive variation in...

Coalescent-based species delimitation is sensitive to geographic sampling and isolation by distance

Nicholas Mason, Nicholas Fletcher, Brian Gill, Chris Funk & Kelly Zamudio
Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity that are delimited via genetic data and coalescent-based methods with increasing frequency. Despite the widespread use of coalescent-based species delimitation, we do not fully understand the sensitivity of these methods to potential sources of bias and violations of their underlying assumptions. One implicit assumption of coalescent-based species delimitation is that geographic sampling is adequate and representative of genetic variation among populations within the lineage of interest. Yet exhaustive...

Data from: When policy and psychology meet: mitigating the consequences of bias in schools

Jason Okonofua
Harsh exclusionary discipline predicts major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. This breeds racial inequality, because Black students are disproportionately at risk for this type of discipline. Can a combination of policy and psychological interventions reduce this kind of discipline and mitigate this inequality? Two preregistered experiments (Nexperiment1 = 246 teachers; Nexperiment2 = 243 teachers) used an established paradigm to systematically test integration of two and then three policy and psychological interventions to...

The interplay of climate, intervention and imported cases as determinants of the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangzhou

Qu Cheng, Qinlong Jing, Robert C. Spear, John M. Marshall, Zhicong Yang & Peng Gong
Dengue is a fast spreading mosquito-borne disease that affects more than half of the population worldwide. An unprecedented outbreak happened in Guangzhou, China in 2014, which contributed 52 percent of all dengue cases that occurred in mainland China between 1990 and 2015. Our previous analysis, based on a deterministic model, concluded that the early timing of the first imported case that triggered local transmission and the excessive rainfall thereafter were the most important determinants of...

Tributary confluences are dynamic thermal refuges for a juvenile salmonid in a warming river network

Terrance Wang, Suzanne Kelson, George Greer, Sally Thompson & Stephanie Carlson
As rivers warm, cold-water fish species may alleviate thermal stress by moving into localized thermal refuges such as cold-water plumes created by cool tributary inflows. We quantified use of two tributary confluence plumes by juvenile steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss, throughout the summer, including how trout positioned themselves in relation to temperature within confluence plumes. At two confluences, Cedar and Elder creeks, along the South Fork Eel River, California, USA, we monitored temperatures using in-situ logger grids...

Data from: Allocation of gene products to daughter cells is determined by the age of the mother in single Escherichia coli cells

Ulla Rang, Chao Shi, Lin Chao, Audrey Proenca, Andrew Qiu & Jasper Chao
Gene expression and growth rate are highly stochastic in E. coli. Some of the growth rate variations result from the deterministic and asymmetric partitioning of damage by the mother to its daughters. One daughter, denoted the old daughter, receives more damage, grows more slowly, and ages. To determine if expressed gene products are also allocated asymmetrically, we compared the levels of expressed green fluorescence protein in growing daughters descending from the same mother. Our results...

Five-years of ocrelizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis: OPERA studies open-label extension

Stephen L Hauser, Ludwig Kappos, Douglas L Arnold, Amit Bar-Or, Bruno Brochet, Robert T Naismith, Anthony Traboulsee, Jerry S Wolinsky, Shibeshih Belachew, Harold Koendgen, Victoria Levesque, Marianna Manfrini, Fabian Model, Stanislas Hubeaux, Lahar Mehta & Xavier Montalban
Objective To assess over 3 years of follow-up, the effects of maintaining or switching to ocrelizumab (OCR) therapy on clinical and MRI outcomes and safety measures in the open-label extension (OLE) phase of the pooled OPERA studies in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods After 2 years of double-blind, controlled treatment, patients continued OCR (600 mg infusions every 24 weeks) or switched from interferon (IFN) β-1a (44 μg 3 times weekly) to OCR when entering the OLE...

Data from: Ecological convergence of secondary phytochemicals along elevational gradients

Sergio Rasmann, Moe Bakhtiari, Emmanuel Defossez & Gaetan Glauser
Biologists still strive to identify the ecological and evolutionary drivers of phytochemical variation that mediate biotic interactions. We hypothesized that plant species growing at sites characterized by high herbivore pressure would converge to produce highly toxic blends of secondary metabolites, independent of phylogenetic constraints. To address the role of shared evolutionary history and ecological niches in driving variation in plant phytochemistry, we combined targeted metabolomics with insect herbivore bioassays and with a set of growth-related...

A survey of small-scale waves and wave-like phenomena in Jupiter's atmosphere detected by JunoCam

Glenn Orton, Fachreddin Tabataba-Vakili, Gerald Eichstaedt, John Rogers, Candice Hansen, Thomas Momary, Andrew Ingersoll, Shawn Brueshaber, Michael H. Wong, Amy Simon, Leigh Fletcher, Michael Ravine, Michael Caplinger, Dakota Smith, Scott Bolton, Stephen Levin, James Sinclair, Chloe Thepenier, Hamish Nicholson & Abigail Anthony
In the first 20 orbits of the Juno spacecraft around Jupiter, we have identified a variety of wave-like features in images made by its public-outreach camera, JunoCam. Because of Juno’s unprecedented and repeated proximity to Jupiter’s cloud tops during its close approaches, JunoCam has detected more wave structures than any previous surveys. Most of the waves appear in long wave packets, oriented east-west and populated by narrow wave crests. Spacing between crests were measured as...

The target of selection matters: an established resistance – development-time negative genetic trade-off is not found when selecting on development time.

Lewis Bartlett, Elisa Visher, Yazmin Haro, Katherine Roberts & Mike Boots
Trade-offs are fundamental to evolutionary outcomes and play a central role in eco-evolutionary theory. They are often examined by experimentally selecting on one life-history trait and looking for negative correlations in other traits. For example, populations of the moth Plodia interpunctella selected to resist viral infection show a life-history cost with longer development times. However, we rarely examine whether the detection of such negative genetic correlations depends on the trait on which we select. Here...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

The rescue effect and inference from isolation-extinction relationships

Nathan Van Schmidt & Steven Beissinger
The rescue effect in metapopulations hypothesizes that less isolated patches are unlikely to go extinct because recolonization may occur between breeding seasons (“recolonization rescue”), or immigrants may sufficiently bolster population size to prevent extinction altogether (“demographic rescue”). These mechanisms have rarely been demonstrated directly, and most evidence of the rescue effect is from relationships between isolation and extinction. We determined the frequency of recolonization rescue for metapopulations of black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis) and Virginia rails...

Environmental and ecological correlates of avian field metabolic rate and water flux

Soorim Song & Steven Beissinger
1. The field metabolic rate (FMR) of an endothermic animal represents its energy expenditure in a natural environment, or its energy budget, and its field water flux (FWF) reflects the animal’s water requirements. 2. We examined FMR of 103 species and FWF of 75 species of adult birds from direct field measurements by the doubly-labelled water method, and used the phylogenetic generalised least squares method to conduct a phylogenetically-informed, comprehensive analysis of the relationship between...

Snow depth, air temperature, humidity, soil moisture and temperature, and solar radiation data from the basin-scale wireless-sensor network in American River Hydrologic Observatory (ARHO)

Roger Bales, Guotao Cui, Robert Rice, Xiande Meng, Ziran Zhang, Peter Hartsough, Steven Glaser & Martha Conklin
Snow depth, air temperature, humidity, soil moisture and temperature, and solar radiation are measured by a basin-scale wireless-sensor network in the American River Hydrologic Observatory (ARHO). The wireless-sensor network is deployed across the upper, snow-covered areas of the American River basin from 1510 to 2723 m elevation on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. The network comprises 13 sensor clusters (Schneiders, Echo Peak, MT Lincoln, Caples Lake, Alpha, Duncan Peak, Van Vleck,...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

Data from: Enriched East Asian oxygen isotope of precipitation indicates reduced summer seasonality in regional climate and westerlies

John Chiang, Michael Herman, Kei Yoshimura & Inez Fung
This archive contain the isoGSM2 model output used in the publication Chiang, J. C. H., M. J. Herman, K. Yoshimura, and I. Y. Fung: Enriched East Asian oxygen isotope of precipitation indicates reduced summer seasonality in regional climate and westerlies. In press for Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 2020

Dynamic post-translational modification profiling of M. tuberculosis-infected primary macrophages

Jonathan M Budzik, Danielle L Swaney, David Jimenez-Morales, Jeffrey R Johnson, Nicholas E Garelis, Teresa Repasy, Allison W Roberts, Lauren M Popov, Trevor J Parry, Dexter Pratt, Trey Ideker, Nevan J Krogan & Jeffery S Cox
Macrophages are highly plastic cells with critical roles in immunity, cancer, and tissue homeostasis, but how these distinct cellular fates are triggered by environmental cues is poorly understood. To uncover how primary murine macrophages respond to bacterial pathogens, we globally assessed changes in post-translational modifications of proteins during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a notorious intracellular pathogen. We identified hundreds of dynamically regulated phosphorylation and ubiquitylation sites, indicating that dramatic remodeling of multiple host pathways, both...

Temporal dynamics of migration-linked genetic variation are driven by streamflows and riverscape permeability

Suzanne Kelson, Michael Miller, Tasha Thompson, Sean O'Rourke & Stephanie Carlson
The permeability of landscapes is often explored spatially, but may also vary across time. For example, highways are more passable with low traffic, and mountain landscapes are more passable once snow-free. Landscape permeability especially influences migratory animals. Partial barriers are features that are passable in some conditions. Partial barriers are common in rivers due to the two-dimensional nature of river networks: aquatic organisms cannot circumvent in-river barriers. Barriers in river networks include waterfalls, logjams, or...

Registration Year

  • 2020

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  • Dataset
  • Text


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