55 Works

The allometry of daily energy expenditure in hummingbirds: an energy budget approach

Anusha Shankar, Donald R Powers, Liliana M Dávalos & Catherine H Graham
1. Within-clade allometric relationships represent standard laws of scaling between energy and size, and their outliers provide new avenues for physiological and ecological research. According to the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, metabolic rates as a function of mass are expected to scale closer to 0.67 when driven by surface-related processes (e.g., heat or water flux), while volume-related processes (e.g., activity) generate slopes closer to one. 2. In birds, daily energy expenditure (DEE) scales with body...

Oceanographic drivers of winter habitat use in Cassin's auklets

Michael Johns, Pete Warzybok, Jaime Jahncke, Mark Lindberg, Greg Breed & Michael E. Johns
Reduced prey abundance and severe weather can lead to a greater risk of mortality for seabirds during the non-breeding winter months. Resource patterns in some regions are shifting and becoming more variable in relation to past conditions, potentially further impacting survival and carryover to the breeding season. As animal tracking technologies and methods to analyze movement data have advanced, it has become increasingly feasible to draw fine-scale inference about how environmental variation affects foraging behavior...

Data from: Of 11 candidate steroids, corticosterone concentration standardized for mass is the most reliable steroid-biomarker of nutritional stress across different feather types

Alexis Will, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Ruokun Zhou & Alexander Kitaysky
1. Measuring corticosterone in feathers has become an informative tool in avian ecology, enabling researchers to investigate carry-over effects and responses to environmental variability. Few studies have, however, explored whether corticosterone is the only hormone expressed in feathers, and is the most indicative of environmental stress. Essential questions remain as to how to compare hormone concentrations across different types of feathers and whether preening adds steroids, applied after feather growth. 2. We used liquid chromatography...

Data from: Population structure of two rabies hosts relative to the known distribution of rabies virus variants in Alaska

Elizabeth W. Goldsmith, Benjamin Renshaw, Christopher J. Clement, Elizabeth A. Himschoot, Kris J. Hundertmark & Karsten Hueffer
For pathogens that infect multiple species the distinction between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts is often difficult. In Alaska, three variants of the arctic rabies virus exist with distinct spatial distributions. We test the hypothesis that rabies virus variant distribution corresponds to the population structure of the primary rabies hosts in Alaska, arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (V. vulpes) in order to possibly distinguish reservoir and spill over hosts. We used mitochondrial DNA...

Data from: Distinguishing between convergent evolution and violation of the molecular clock for three taxa

Jonathan D. Mitchell, Jeremy G. Sumner, Barbara R. Holland, Jonathan D Mitchell, Jeremy G Sumner & Barbara R Holland
We give a non-technical introduction to convergence-divergence models, a new modeling approach for phylogenetic data that allows for the usual divergence of lineages after lineage-splitting but also allows for taxa to converge, i.e. become more similar over time. By examining the 3-taxon case in some detail we illustrate that phylogeneticists have been ``spoiled'' in the sense of not having to think about the structural parameters in their models by virtue of the strong assumption that...

Data from: Heterogeneity in genetic diversity among non-coding loci fails to fit neutral coalescent models of population history

Jeffrey L. Peters, Trina E. Robert, Kevin Winker, Kevin G. McCracken & Trina E. Roberts
Inferring aspects of the population histories of species using coalescent analyses of non-coding nuclear DNA has grown in popularity. These inferences, such as divergence, gene flow, and changes in population size, assume that genetic data reflect simple population histories and neutral evolutionary processes. However, violating model assumptions can result in a poor fit between empirical data and the models. We sampled 22 nuclear intron sequences from at least 19 different chromosomes (a genomic transect) to...

Data from: Pleistocene speciation in the genus Populus (Salicaceae)

Nicholas D. Levsen, Peter Tiffin & Matthew S. Olson
The macro-evolutionary consequences of recent climate change remain controversial and there is little paleobotanical or morphological evidence that Pleistocene (1.8-0.12 Ma) glacial cycles acted as drivers of speciation, especially among lineages with long generation times, such as trees. We combined genetic and ecogeographic data from two closely related North American tree species, Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa (Salicacaeae) to determine if their divergence coincided with and was possibly caused by Pleistocene climatic events. We analyzed...

Data from: Spatial soil heterogeneity has a greater effect on symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and plant growth than genetic modification with Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes

Tanya E. Cheeke, Ursel M. Schütte, Chris M. Hemmerich, Mitchell B. Cruzan, Todd N. Rosenstiel & James D. Bever
Maize, genetically modified with the insect toxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is widely cultivated, yet its impacts on soil organisms are poorly understood. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbiotic associations with plant roots and may be uniquely sensitive to genetic changes within a plant host. In this field study, the effects of nine different lines of Bt maize and their corresponding non-Bt parental isolines were evaluated on AMF colonization and community diversity in plant...

Data from: Evolution: are the monkeys’ typewriters rigged?

Michael R. Garvin, Anthony J. Gharrett, M. R. Garvin & A. J. Gharrett
Evolution is presumed to proceed by random mutations, which increase an individual’s fitness. Increased fitness produces a higher survival rate for those individuals within populations and drives the variants to fixation over large timescales to produce new species. We recently identified positively selected sites in mitochondrial complex I in numerous, diverse taxa. In one taxon, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) encompassed the positively selected sites. We hypothesized a model in which: (i) slip-strand mis-pairing during...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae)

Derek S. Sikes & Chandra Venables
Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae’s currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and...

Data from: The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes

Ricardo Betancur-R., Adela Roa-Varon, Nancy I. Holcroft, W. Calvin Borden, Terry Grande, Kent Carpenter, Millicent Sanciangco, Chenhong Li, Dahiana Arcila, Jesus A Ballesteros, Guillermo Ortí, J. Andrés López, Matthew A. Campbell, Edward O. Wiley, Gloria Arratia, Guoqing Lu, Stuart Willis, Richard E. Broughton, Cureton II, James C, Feifei Zhang & Daniel J. Hough
The tree of life of fishes is in a state of flux because we still lack a comprehensive phylogeny that includes all major groups. The situation is most critical for a large clade of spiny-finned fishes, traditionally referred to as percomorphs, whose uncertain relationships have plagued ichthyologists for over a century. Most of what we know about the higher-level relationships among fish lineages has been based on morphology, but rapid influx of molecular studies is...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism modifies habitat‐associated divergence: evidence from beach and creek breeding sockeye salmon

Krista B. Oke, Elena Motivans, Thomas P. Quinn & Andrew P. Hendry
Studies of parallel or convergent evolution (the repeated, independent evolution of similar traits in similar habitats) rarely explicitly quantify the extent of parallelism (i.e., variation in the direction and/or magnitude of divergence) between the sexes; instead they often investigate both sexes together or exclude one sex. However, differences in male and female patterns of divergence could contribute to overall variation in the extent of parallelism among ecotype pairs, especially in sexually dimorphic traits. Failing to...

Data from: Spatial variability in size at maturity of golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) and implications for fisheries management

Andrew P. Olson, Chris E. Siddon, Ginny L. Eckert, G. L. Eckert, A. P. Olson & C. E. Siddon
Many crab fisheries around the world are managed by size, sex and season, where males are given at least one opportunity to reproduce before being harvested. Golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) supports a commercial fishery in Southeast Alaska and legal size is based on growth and maturity information from other parts of their range. Size at maturity estimates varied for crabs among seven management areas in Southeast Alaska, where male maturity estimates increased in size...

Data from: Accommodating temporary emigration in spatial distance sampling models

Jeremy D. Mizel, Joshua H. Schmidt & Mark S. Lindberg
1.Model-based distance sampling is commonly used to understand spatial variation in the density of wildlife species. The standard approach assumes that individuals are distributed uniformly and models spatial variation in density using plot-level effects. Thinned point process (TPP) models for surveys of unmarked populations (spatial distance sampling) better leverage the spatial information underlying individual encounters, and in the presence of within-plot variation in density, may explain a larger proportion of the spatial variation in density....

Data from: Development of a genotype-by-sequencing immunogenetic assay as exemplified by screening for variation in red fox with and without endemic rabies exposure

Michael E. Donaldson, Yessica Rico, Karsten Hueffer, Halie M. Rando, Anna V. Kukekova & Christopher J. Kyle
Pathogens are recognized as major drivers of local adaptation in wildlife systems. By determining which gene variants are favored in local interactions among populations with and without disease, spatially explicit adaptive responses to pathogens can be elucidated. Much of our current understanding of host responses to disease comes from a small number of genes associated with an immune response. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, such as genotype-by-sequencing (GBS), facilitate expanded explorations of genomic variation among populations....

Data from: Limited stand expansion by a long-lived conifer at a leading northern range edge, despite available habitat

John Krapek & Brian Buma
1. In an era of rapid climate change, understanding the natural capacity of species’ ranges to track shifting climatic niches is a critical research and conservation need. Because species do not move across the landscape through empty space, but instead have to migrate through existing biotic communities, basic dispersal ecology and biotic interactions are important considerations beyond simple climate niche tracking. 2. Yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis), a long-lived conifer of the North Pacific coastal temperate rainforest...

Data from: Physiological, morphological, and ecological tradeoffs influence vertical habitat use of deep-diving toothed-whales in the Bahamas

Trevor W. Joyce, John W. Durban, Diane E. Claridge, Charlotte A. Dunn, Holly Fearnbach, Kim M. Parsons, Russel D. Andrews & Lisa T. Ballance
Dive capacity among toothed whales (suborder: Odontoceti) has been shown to generally increase with body mass in a relationship closely linked to the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. However, two odontocete species tagged in this study, the Blainville’s beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris and the Cuvier’s beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, confounded expectations of a simple allometric relationship, with exceptionally long (mean: 46.1 min & 65.4 min) and deep dives (mean: 1129 m & 1179 m), and...

Data from: A new genus of horse from Pleistocene North America

Peter D. Heintzman, Grant D. Zazula, Ross D.E. MacPhee, Eric Scott, James A. Cahill, Brianna K. McHorse, Joshua D. Kapp, Mathias Stiller, Matthew J. Wooller, Ludovic Orlando, John R. Southon, Duane G. Froese, Beth Shapiro, Matthew J Wooller, Duane G Froese, Brianna K McHorse, Peter D Heintzman, James A Cahill, Joshua D Kapp & John Southon
The extinct “New World stilt-legged”, or NWSL, equids constitute a perplexing group of Pleistocene horses endemic to North America. Their slender distal limb bones resemble those of Asiatic asses, such as the Persian onager. Previous palaeogenetic studies, however, have suggested a closer relationship to caballine horses than to Asiatic asses. Here, we report complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes from NWSL equids from across their geographic range. Although multiple NWSL equid species have been named,...

Data from: Early-branching euteleost relationships: areas of congruence between concatenation and coalescent model inferences

Matthew A. Campbell, Michael E. Alfaro, Max Belasco & J. Andrés López
Phylogenetic inference based on evidence from DNA sequences has led to significant strides in the development of a stable and robustly supported framework for the vertebrate tree of life. To date, the bulk of those advances have relied on sequence data from a small number of genome regions that have proven unable to produce satisfactory answers to consistently recalcitrant phylogenetic questions. Here, we re-examine phylogenetic relationships among early-branching euteleostean fish lineages classically grouped in the...

Data from: Spatio-temporal models reveal subtle changes to demersal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

Andrew O. Shelton, Mary E. Hunsicker, Eric J. Ward, Blake E. Feist, Rachael Blake, Colette L. Ward, Benjamin C. Williams, Janet T. Duffy-Anderson, Anne B. Hollowed, Alan C. Haynie, Andrew O Shelton, Eric J Ward, Blake E Feist, Mary E Hunsicker, Janet T Duffy-Anderson, Anne B Hollowed, Alan C Haynie, Benjamin C Williams & Colette L Ward
Toxic pollutants such as crude oil have direct negative effects for a wide array of marine life. While mortality from acute exposure to oil is obvious, sub-lethal consequences of exposure to petroleum derivatives for growth and reproduction are less evident and sub-lethal effects in fish populations are obscured by natural environmental variation, fishing, and measurement error. We use fisheries independent surveys in the Gulf of Alaska to examine the consequences of the 1989 Exxon Valdez...

Data from: Quantifying the dark data in museum fossil collections as palaeontology undergoes a second digital revolution

Charles R. Marshall, Seth Finnegan, Erica C. Clites, Patricia A. Holroyd, Nicole Bonuso, Crystal Cortez, Edward Davis, Gregory P. Dietl, Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Ron C. Eng, Christine Garcia, Kathryn Estes-Smargiassi, Austin Hendy, Kathy A. Hollis, Holly Little, Elizabeth A. Nesbitt, Peter Roopnarine, Leslie Skibinski, Jann Vendetti, Lisa D. White, C. R. Marshall, E. A. Nesbitt, K. Estes-Smargiassi, A. Hendy, J. Vendetti … & L. D. White
Large-scale analysis of the fossil record requires aggregation of palaeontological data from individual fossil localities. Prior to computers these synoptic datasets were compiled by hand, a laborious undertaking that took years of effort and forced palaeontologists to make difficult choices about what types of data to tabulate. The advent of desktop computers ushered in palaeontology’s first digital revolution – online literature-based databases, such as the Paleobiology Database (PBDB). However, the published literature represents only a...

Data from: Dead before detection: addressing the effects of left truncation on survival estimation and ecological inference for neonates

Sophie L. Gilbert, Mark S. Lindberg, Kris J. Hundertmark & David K. Person
1. Neonate survival is a key life history trait, yet remains challenging to measure in wild populations because neonates can be difficult to capture at birth. Estimates of survival from neonates that are opportunistically captured might be inaccurate because some individuals die before sampling, resulting in data that are left truncated. The resulting overestimation of survival rates can further affect ecological inference through biased estimates of covariate effects in survival models, yet is not addressed...

Data from: The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts

Thomas Larsen, Marc Ventura, Kristine Maraldo, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Emilio O. Casamayor, Yiming V. Wang, Nils Andersen & Diane M. O'Brien
Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts has been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make...

Data from: Migration and stress during reproduction govern telomere dynamics in a seabird

Jannik Schultner, Børge Moe, Olivier Chastel, Claus Bech, Alexander S. Kitaysky, C. Bech, J. Schultner, A. S. Kitaysky & O. Chastel
Changes in telomere length are believed to reflect changes in physiological state and life expectancy in animals. However, much remains unknown about the determinants of telomere dynamics in wild populations, and specifically the influence of conditions during highly mobile life-history stages, for example migration. We tested whether telomere dynamics were associated with migratory behaviour and/or with stress during reproduction in free-living seabirds. We induced short-term stress during reproduction in chick-rearing, black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), tracked...

Data from: Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?

Troy W. Grovenburg, Kevin L. Monteith, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. DePerno, Todd J. Brinkman, Kyle B. Monteith, Sophie L. Gilbert, Joshua B. Smith, Vernon C. Bleich, Christopher C. Swanson & Jonathan A. Jenks
New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus...

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  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • University of California System
  • University of Alaska System
  • University of Washington
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game
  • University of Alaska Southeast
  • University of Alberta
  • University of Minnesota
  • Alaska Fisheries Science Center
  • McGill University
  • University of British Columbia
  • National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
  • Alaska SeaLife Center
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Saskatchewan