97 Works

Data from: Genetic change for earlier migration timing in a population of pink salmon

Ryan P. Kovach, Anthony J. Gharrett & David A. Tallmon
To predict how climate change will influence populations it is necessary to understand the mechanisms, particularly microevolution and phenotypic plasticity, which allow populations to persist in novel environmental conditions. Although evidence for climate-induced phenotypic change in populations is widespread, evidence documenting that these phenotypic changes are due to microevolution is exceedingly rare. In this study we use 32 years of genetic data (17 complete generations) to determine whether there has been genetic change toward earlier...

Data from: Resting and daily energy expenditures during reproduction are adjusted in opposite directions in free-living birds

Jorg Welcker, John R. Speakman, Kyle H. Elliott, Scott A. Hatch & Alexander S. Kitaysky
1. Reproduction is energetically expensive, and daily energy expenditure (DEE) often peaks during the period of rearing young. The “potentiation” hypothesis predicts that high DEE needs to be sustained by a corresponding up-regulation of metabolic machinery, thus a concomitant increase of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) is expected. Alternatively, the “compensation” hypothesis predicts that DEE and RMR are regulated independently and animals may maintain low RMR to maximize the energy available for reproduction. This might...

Data from: Shifts and disruptions in resource-use trait syndromes during the evolution of herbaceous crops

Rubén Milla, Javier Morente-López, Jose Miguel Alonso-Rodrigo, Nieves Martín-Robles, , F. Stuart Chapin, N. Martin-Robles & J. Morente-Lopez
Trait-based ecology predicts that evolution in high-resource agricultural environments should select for suites of traits that enable fast resource acquisition and rapid canopy closure. However, crop breeding targets specific agronomic attributes rather than broad trait syndromes. Breeding for specific traits, together with evolution in high-resource environments, might lead to reduced phenotypic integration, according to predictions from the ecological literature. We provide the first comprehensive test of these hypotheses, based on a trait-screening programme of 30...

Data from: Effects of developmental conditions on growth, stress, and telomeres in black-legged kittiwake chicks

Rebecca C. Young, Jorg Welcker, Christopher P. Barger, Scott A. Hatch, Thomas Merkling, Evgenia V. Kitaiskaia, Mark F. Haussmann & Alexander S. Kitaysky
Early-life conditions can drive ageing patterns and life history strategies throughout the lifespan. Certain social, genetic, and nutritional developmental conditions are more likely to produce high-quality offspring: those with good likelihood of recruitment and productivity. Here we call such conditions “favored states” and explore their relationship with physiological variables during development in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). Two favored states were experimentally generated by manipulation of food availability and brood size, while...

Data from: Humpback whales feed on hatchery-released juvenile salmon

Ellen M. Chenoweth, Janice M. Straley, Megan V. McPhee, Shannon Atkinson, Steve Reifenstuhl & Ellen Chenoweth
Humpback whales are remarkable for the behavioural plasticity of their feeding tactics and the diversity of their diets. Within the last decade at hatchery release sites in Southeast Alaska, humpback whales have begun exploiting juvenile salmon, a previously undocumented prey. The anthropogenic source of these salmon and their important contribution to local fisheries makes the emergence of humpback whale predation a concern for the Southeast Alaska economy. Here, we describe the frequency of observing humpback...

Data from: Spatial variability in size at maturity of golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) and implications for fisheries management

Andrew P. Olson, Chris E. Siddon & Ginny L. Eckert
Many crab fisheries around the world are managed by size, sex and season, where males are given at least one opportunity to reproduce before being harvested. Golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) supports a commercial fishery in Southeast Alaska and legal size is based on growth and maturity information from other parts of their range. Size at maturity estimates varied for crabs among seven management areas in Southeast Alaska, where male maturity estimates increased in size...

Data from: Species distribution models of an endangered rodent offer conflicting measures of habitat quality at multiple scales

William T. Bean, R. Stafford, H. Scott Butterfield, Laura R. Prugh, Michael Westphal & Justin S. Brashares
1. The high cost of directly measuring habitat quality has led ecologists to test alternate methods for estimating and predicting this critically important ecological variable. In particular, it is frequently assumed but rarely tested that models of habitat suitability (“species distribution models”, SDMs) may provide useful indices of habitat quality, either from an individual animal or manager’s perspective. Critically, SDMs are increasingly used to estimate species’ ranges, with an implicit assumption that areas of high...

Data from: A genetic discontinuity in moose (Alces alces) in Alaska corresponds with fenced transportation infrastructure

Robert E. Wilson, Sean D. Farley, Thomas J. McDonough, Sandra L. Talbot & Perry S. Barboza
The strength and arrangement of movement barriers can impact the connectivity among habitat patches. Anthropogenic barriers (e.g. roads) are a source of habitat fragmentation that can disrupt these resource networks and can have an influence on the spatial genetic structure of populations. Using microsatellite data, we evaluated whether observed genetic structure of moose (Alces alces) populations were associated with human activities (e.g. roads) in the urban habitat of Anchorage and rural habitat on the Kenai...

Data from: Of 11 candidate steroids, corticosterone concentration standardized for mass is the most reliable steroid-biomarker of nutritional stress across different feather types

Alexis Will, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Ruokun Zhou & Alexander Kitaysky
1. Measuring corticosterone in feathers has become an informative tool in avian ecology, enabling researchers to investigate carry-over effects and responses to environmental variability. Few studies have, however, explored whether corticosterone is the only hormone expressed in feathers, and is the most indicative of environmental stress. Essential questions remain as to how to compare hormone concentrations across different types of feathers and whether preening adds steroids, applied after feather growth. 2. We used liquid chromatography...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Data from: Skeletal microstructure of Stenopterygius quadriscissus (Reptilia, Ichthyosauria) from the Posidonienschiefer (Posidonia Shale, Lower Jurassic) of Germany

Katherine L. Anderson, Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Gregory M. Erickson & Erin E. Maxwell
Ichthyosaurians (Ichthyosauria) are a major clade of secondarily aquatic marine tetrapods that occupied several major predatory niches during the Mesozoic Era. Multiple lines of evidence including isotopic, body shape and swimming modality analyses suggest they exhibited elevated growth and metabolic rates, and body temperatures. However, applications of osteohistological methods to test hypotheses regarding their physiology are few. Previous studies focused on the humeri, vertebrae and ribs from a small number of taxa. Here, we use...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism modifies habitat‐associated divergence: evidence from beach and creek breeding sockeye salmon

Krista B. Oke, Elena Motivans, Thomas P. Quinn & Andrew P. Hendry
Studies of parallel or convergent evolution (the repeated, independent evolution of similar traits in similar habitats) rarely explicitly quantify the extent of parallelism (i.e., variation in the direction and/or magnitude of divergence) between the sexes; instead they often investigate both sexes together or exclude one sex. However, differences in male and female patterns of divergence could contribute to overall variation in the extent of parallelism among ecotype pairs, especially in sexually dimorphic traits. Failing to...

rhinoceros auklet microsatellite data

Theresa Burg, Marie Prill, Katharine Studholme, Alice Domalik, Strahan Tucker, Catherine Jardine, Mark Maftei, Kenneth Wright, Jesse Beck, Russell Bradley, Ryan Carle, Thomas Good, Scott Hatch, Peter Hodum, Motohiro Ito, Scott Pearson, Nora Rojek, Leslie Slater, Yutaka Watanuki, Alexis Will, Aidan Bindoff, Glenn Crossin, Mark Drever & Mark Hipfner
We tested the hypothesis that segregation in wintering areas promotes population differentiation in a sentinel North Pacific seabird, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata). We collected tissue samples for genetic analyses on five breeding colonies in the western Pacific Ocean (Japan) and 13 in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California to Alaska), and deployed light-level geologgers on 12 eastern Pacific colonies to delineate wintering areas. Loggers were deployed previously on one colony in Japan. There was strong...

Spatially anonymized data from: Novel step selection analyses on energy landscapes reveal how linear features alter migrations of soaring birds

Joseph Eisaguirre
This dataset consists of spatially anonymized movement data as well as environmental covariate data to estimate energy landscape step selection selections for migratory golden eagles that summer in Alaska. Human modification of landscapes includes extensive addition of linear features, such as roads and transmission lines. These can alter animal movement and space use and affect the intensity of interactions among species, including predation and competition. Effects of linear features on animal movement have seen relatively...

Scale modeling of dust capture through a flooded-bed dust scrubber integrated within a longwall shearer

Sampurna Arya, Ashish R. Kumar, Kozo Saito, Thomas Novak & Adam Levy
Meeting federal dust standards at a longwall mine face is among the more difficult challenges for a longwall mine operator. With recent changes in federal dust regulations requiring lower worker exposure, maintaining compliance has become increasingly difficult. The authors recommend the concept of controlling respirable and float dust, which is inherent in longwall mining, through the application of a flooded-bed dust scrubber to a longwall shearer. A full-scale physical model of a longwall shearer, modified...

Data from: Reindeer introgression and the population genetics of caribou in Southwestern Alaska

Kevin E. Colson, Karen H. Mager & Kris J. Hundertmark
Alaska caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in southwestern Alaska are a poorly understood system, with differing descriptions of their regional population structure, population abundance that has varied greatly through time and instances of the release of domestic reindeer (R. t. tarandus) into their range. Here, we use 21 microsatellites and 297 individuals to investigate the genetic population structure of herds and examine for population bottlenecks. Then, using genetic characteristics of existing reindeer populations, we examine introgression...

Data from: Pleistocene speciation in the genus Populus (Salicaceae)

Nicholas D. Levsen, Peter Tiffin & Matthew S. Olson
The macro-evolutionary consequences of recent climate change remain controversial and there is little paleobotanical or morphological evidence that Pleistocene (1.8-0.12 Ma) glacial cycles acted as drivers of speciation, especially among lineages with long generation times, such as trees. We combined genetic and ecogeographic data from two closely related North American tree species, Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa (Salicacaeae) to determine if their divergence coincided with and was possibly caused by Pleistocene climatic events. We analyzed...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae)

Derek S. Sikes & Chandra Venables
Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae’s currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences

Matthew A. Cronin, Gonzalo Rincon, Robert W. Meredith, Michael D. MacNeil, Alma Islas-Trejo, Angela Canovas & Juan F. Medrano
We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25X for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads was assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the three species aligned to the polar bear genome....

Data from: Nitrogen deposition alters plant–fungal relationships: linking belowground dynamics to aboveground vegetation change

Sarah L. Dean, Emily C. Farrer, D. Lee Taylor, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Katharine N. Suding & Robert L. Sinsabaugh
Nitrogen (N) deposition rates are increasing globally due to anthropogenic activities. Plant community responses to N are often attributed to altered competitive interactions between plants, but may also be a result of microbial responses to N, particularly root-associated fungi (RAF), which are known to affect plant fitness. In response to N, Deschampsia cespitosa, a codominant plant in the alpine tundra at Niwot Ridge (CO), increases in abundance, while Geum rossii, its principal competitor, declines. Importantly,...

Data from: Strong maternal fidelity and natal philopatry shape genetic structure in North Pacfic humpback whales

C. Scott Baker, Debbie Steel, John Calambokidis, Erin A. Falcone, Ursula Gozález-Peral, Jay Barlow, Alexander M. Burdin, Phillip J. Clapham, John K. B. Ford, Christine M. Gabriele, David Mattila, Janice M. Straley, Barbara L. Taylor, Jorge Urbán, Paul R. Wade, David Weller, Briana H. Witteveen, Manami Yamaguchi, CS Baker, BH Witteveen, E Falcone, BL Taylor, JKB Ford, AM Burdin, PJ Clapham … & JM Straley
We quantified the relative influence of maternal fidelity to feeding grounds and natal fidelity to breeding grounds in humpback whales based on an ocean-wide survey of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in the North Pacific. For 2,193 biopsy samples collected from whales in 10 feeding regions and 8 breeding regions during the winter and summer of 2004 to 2006, we first used microsatellite genotyping (average, 9.5 loci) to identify replicate samples. From sequences of the mtDNA...

Impact of calving dynamics on Kangilernata Sermia, Greenland

Emily Kane, Eric Rignot, Jeremie Mouginot, Romain Millan, Xin Li, Bernd Scheuchl & Mark Fahnestock
Iceberg calving is a major component of glacier mass ablation that is not well understood due to a lack of detailed temporal and spatial observations. Here, we measure glacier speed and surface elevation at 3-minute interval, 5 meter spacing, using a portable radar interferometer at Kangilernata Sermia, Greenland in July 2016. We detect a 20% diurnal variation in glacier speed peaking at high spring tide when basal drag is high and lowering at neap tide....

Microsite conditions in retrogressive thaw slumps may facilitate increased seedling recruitment in the Alaskan Low Arctic

Diane Christine Huebner & Marion Syndonia Bret-Harte
In Low Arctic tundra, thermal erosion of ice‐rich permafrost soils (thermokarst) has increased in frequency since the 1980s. Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTS) are thermokarst disturbances forming large open depressions on hillslopes through soil wasting and vegetation displacement. Tall (>0.5 m) deciduous shrubs have been observed in RTS a decade after disturbance. RTS may provide conditions suitable for seedling recruitment, which may contribute to Arctic shrub expansion. We quantified in situ seedling abundance, and size and...

The allometry of daily energy expenditure in hummingbirds: an energy budget approach

Anusha Shankar, Donald R Powers, Liliana M Dávalos & Catherine H Graham
1. Within-clade allometric relationships represent standard laws of scaling between energy and size, and their outliers provide new avenues for physiological and ecological research. According to the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, metabolic rates as a function of mass are expected to scale closer to 0.67 when driven by surface-related processes (e.g., heat or water flux), while volume-related processes (e.g., activity) generate slopes closer to one. 2. In birds, daily energy expenditure (DEE) scales with body...

Data from: Montane regions shape patterns of diversification in small mammals and reptiles from Madagascar’s moist evergreen forest

Kathryn Everson, Sharon Jansa, Steven Goodman & Link Olson
Aim Madagascar is renowned for its exceptional species diversity and endemism. The island’s mountainous regions are thought to have played a role in lineage and species diversification, but this has yet to be explored across taxonomic groups and a temporal context has not yet been identified. We tested whether montane regions have promoted population divergence in Madagascar’s vertebrate fauna and, if so, whether these divergence events were contemporaneous. Location Moist evergreen forests of Madagascar. Taxa...

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