123 Works

Data from: Proximate controls on semiarid soil greenhouse gas fluxes across 3 million years of soil development

Benjamin W. Sullivan, Megan K. Nasto, Stephen C. Hart & Bruce A. Hungate
Soils are important sources and sinks of three greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). However, it is unknown whether semiarid landscapes are important contributors to global fluxes of these gases, partly because our mechanistic understanding of soil GHG fluxes is largely derived from more humid ecosystems. We designed this study with the objective of identifying the important soil physical and biogeochemical controls on soil GHG fluxes in semiarid soils...

Data from: Parameterizing the robust design in the BUGS language: lifetime carry‐over effects of environmental conditions during growth on a long‐lived bird

Thomas V. Riecke, Alan G. Leach, Dan Gibson & James S. Sedinger
1. Since the initial development of the robust design, this capture‐recapture model structure has been modified to estimate temporary emigration, and expanded to include auxiliary information such as band recovery and live resight data using maximum likelihood approaches. These developments have allowed investigators to separately assess individual and group effects on true survival, site fidelity, and temporary emigration. Additionally, recent advances in the BUGS language have allowed researchers to develop increasingly complex, user‐specified models in...

Data from: Proximity to canopy mediates changes in the defensive chemistry and herbivore loads of an understory tropical shrub, Piper kelleyi

Andrea E. Glassmire, Casey Philbin, Lora A. Richards, Christopher S. Jeffrey, Joshua S. Snook & Lee A. Dyer
Phytochemical traits are a key component of plant defense theory. Chemical ecology has been biased towards studying effects of individual metabolites even though effective plant defenses are comprised of diverse mixtures of metabolites. We tested the phytochemical landscape hypothesis, positing that trophic interactions are contingent upon their spatial location across a phytochemically diverse landscape. Specifically, intraspecific phytochemical changes associated with vertical strata in forests were hypothesized to affect herbivore communities of the neotropical shrub Piper...

Data from: Genome divergence and diversification within a geographic mosaic of coevolution

Thomas L. Parchman, C. Alex Buerkle, Victor Soria-Carrasco & Craig W. Benkman
Despite substantial interest in coevolution's role in diversification, examples of coevolution contributing to speciation have been elusive. Here, we build upon past studies that have shown both coevolution between South Hills crossbills and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and high levels of reproductive isolation between South Hills crossbills and other ecotypes in the North American red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) complex. We used genotyping by sequencing to generate population genomic data and applied phylogenetic and population genetic...

Data from: Convergent adaptation to dangerous prey proceeds through the same first-step mutation in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis

Michael Thomas Jonathan Hague, Chris R. Feldman, , , Michael T.J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Convergent phenotypes often result from similar underlying genetics, but recent work suggests convergence may also occur in the historical order of substitutions en route to an adaptive outcome. We characterized convergence in the mutational steps to two independent outcomes of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in separate geographic lineages of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that coevolved with toxic newts. Resistance is largely conferred by amino acid changes in the skeletal muscle sodium channel (NaV1.4) that...

Data from: Assessing thermal adaptation using family-based association and FST-outlier tests in a threatened trout

Stephen J. Amish, Omar Ali, Mary Peacock, Michael Miller, Morgan Robinson, Seth Smith, Gordon Luikart & Helen Neville
Discovering genetic markers associated with phenotypic or ecological characteristics can improve our understanding of adaptation and guide conservation of key evolutionary traits. The Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi) of the northern Great Basin Desert, USA, demonstrated exceptional tolerance to high temperatures in the desert lakes where it resided historically. This trait is central to a conservation hatchery effort to protect the genetic legacy of the nearly extinct lake ecotype. We genotyped full‐sibling families from...

Data from: Effects of native bryophytes on exotic grass invasion across an environmental gradient

Andrew R. Kleinhesselink & J. Hall Cushman
Understanding the role that native biodiversity plays in controlling exotic species invasion is a critical goal in ecology. In terrestrial plant communities, most research has focused on the effects of native vascular plants on invasion by exotic vascular plants. However, in many ecosystems, native bryophytes and other non-vascular plants are common and can affect the establishment, survival and growth of vascular plants. A more complete picture of how native biodiversity affects exotic plant invasion, demands...

Data from: Changes in behavior are unable to disrupt a trophic cascade involving a specialist herbivore and its food plant

Madeleine G. Lohman, Thomas V. Riecke, Cheyenne R. Acevedo, Brian T. Person, Joel A. Schmutz, Brian D. Uher-Koch & James S. Sedinger
Changes in ecological conditions can induce changes in behavior and demography of wild organisms, which in turn may influence population dynamics. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nesting in colonies on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska have declined substantially (~50%) since the turn of the century. Black brant are herbivores that rely heavily on Carex subspathacea (Hoppner's sedge) during growth and development. The availability of C. subspathacea affects gosling growth rates, which subsequently affect...

Data from: Differential hippocampal gene expression is associated with climate-related natural variation in memory and the hippocampus in food-caching chickadees

Vladimir V. Pravosudov, , Matthew L. Forister, Lara D. LaDage, Robin Kramer, Faye Schilkey, Alexander M. Van Der Linden, V. V. Pravosudov, M. L. Forister, L. D. LaDage, A. M. Van Der Linden, T. C. Roth, F. Schilkey & R. Kramer
There is significant and often heritable variation in cognition and its underlying neural mechanisms, yet specific genetic contributions to such variation are not well characterized. Black-capped chickadees present a good model to investigate the genetic basis of cognition because they exhibit tremendous climate-related variation in memory, hippocampal morphology and neurogenesis rates throughout the North American continent, and these cognitive traits appear to have a heritable basis. We examined the hippocampal transcriptome profiles of laboratory-reared chickadees...

Data from: Identification of source-sink dynamics in mountain lions of the Great Basin

Alyson M. Andreasen, Kelley M. Stewart, William S. Longland, Jon P. Beckmann & Matthew L. Forister
Natural and anthropogenic boundaries have been shown to affect population dynamics and population structure for many species with movement patterns at the landscape level. Understanding population boundaries and movement rates in the field for species that are cryptic and occur at low densities is often extremely difficult and logistically prohibitive; however genetic techniques may offer insights that have previously been unattainable. We analyzed thirteen microsatellite loci for 739 mountain lions (Puma concolor) using muscle tissue...

Data from: Evaluation of downscaled, gridded climate data for the conterminous United States

Ruben Behnke, Stephen Vavrus, Andrew Allstadt, Thomas Albright, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Volker C. Radeloff, S. Vavrus, R. Behnke, T. Albright, A. Allstadt & V. C. Radeloff
Weather and climate affect many ecological processes, making spatially continuous yet fine-resolution weather data desirable for ecological research and predictions. Numerous downscaled weather data sets exist, but little attempt has been made to evaluate them systematically. Here we address this shortcoming by focusing on four major questions: (1) How accurate are downscaled, gridded climate data sets in terms of temperature and precipitation estimates? (2) Are there significant regional differences in accuracy among data sets? (3)...

Data from: A well-defined readily releasable pool with fixed capacity for storing vesicles at calyx of held

Kashif Mahfooz, Robert Renden & John F. Wesseling
The readily releasable pool (RRP) of vesicles is a core concept in studies of presynaptic function. However, operating principles lack consensus definition and the utility for quantitative analysis has been questioned. Here we confirm that RRPs at calyces of Held from 14 to 21 day old mice have a fixed capacity for storing vesicles that is not modulated by Ca2+. Discrepancies with previous studies are explained by a dynamic flow-through pool, established during heavy use,...

Data from: Colour learning when foraging for nectar and pollen: bees learn two colours at once

Felicity Muth, Daniel R. Papaj & Anne S. Leonard
Bees are model organisms for the study of learning and memory, yet nearly all such research to date has used a single reward, nectar. Many bees collect both nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein) on a single foraging bout, sometimes from different plant species. We tested whether individual bumblebees could learn colour associations with nectar and pollen rewards simultaneously in a foraging scenario where one floral type offered only nectar and the other only pollen. We...

Data from: Strong patterns of intraspecific variation and local adaptation in Great Basin plants revealed through a review of 75 years of experiments

Owen W. Baughman, Alison C. Agneray, Matthew L. Forister, Francis F. Kilkenny, Erin K. Espeland, Rob Fiegener, Matthew E. Horning, Richard C. Johnson, Thomas N. Kaye, Jeffery Ott, John Bradley St. Clair & Elizabeth A. Leger
Variation in natural selection across heterogeneous landscapes often produces 1) among-population differences in phenotypic traits, 2) trait-by-environment associations, and 3) higher fitness of local populations. Using a broad literature review of common garden studies published between 1941 and 2017, we documented the commonness of these three signatures in plants native to North America’s Great Basin, an area of extensive restoration and revegetation efforts, and asked which traits and environmental variables were involved. We also asked,...

Seeds of success: a conservation and restoration investment in the future of US lands

Sarah Barga, Elizabeth Leger, Peggy Olwell, Fred Edwards & Leah Prescott
Seeds of Success (SOS) is a national seed collection program led by the Bureau of Land Management. SOS represents the most comprehensive native seed repository in the US, supporting native plant restoration, management, and research. Since inception in 2000, SOS has collected seeds from over 24,400 native plant populations from ~5,600 taxa from 43 states. Collections include species important to wildlife, pollinators, and indigenous people, and over 10,000 collections have been shared for restoration and...

Data from: A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

Bernard W. M. Wone, Per Madsen, Edward R. Donovan, Marta K. Labocha, Michael W. Sears, Cynthia J. Downs, Daniel A. Sorensen & Jack P. Hayes
Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of...

Data from: Bees use the taste of pollen to determine which flowers to visit

Felicity Muth, Francis S. Jacob, Anne S. Leonard & Jacob S. Francis
Pollen plays a dual role as both a gametophyte and a nutritional reward for pollinators. Although pollen chemistry varies across plant species, its functional significance in pollination has remained obscure, in part because little is known about how floral visitors assess it. Bees rely on pollen for protein, but whether foragers evaluate its chemistry is unclear, as it is primarily consumed by larvae. We asked whether the chemical composition of pollen influences bumblebees' foraging behaviour....

LeafByte: A mobile application that measures leaf area and herbivory quickly and accurately

Zoe Getman-Pickering, Adam Campbell, Julie Davis, Nicholas Aflitto, Ari Grele, Todd Ugine, Zoe L. Getman‐Pickering, A. Campbell, Julie K. Davis & Todd A. Ugine
In both basic and applied studies, quantification of herbivory on foliage is a key metric in characterizing plant-herbivore interactions, which underpin many ecological, evolutionary, and agricultural processes. Current methods of quantifying herbivory are slow or inaccurate. We present LeafByte, a free iOS application for measuring leaf area and herbivory. LeafByte can save data automatically, read and record barcodes, handle both light and dark colored plant tissue, and be used non-destructively. We evaluate its accuracy and...

Data from: Habitat drives dispersal and survival of translocated juvenile desert tortoises

Melia G. Nafus, Todd C. Esque, Roy C. Averill-Murray, Kenneth E. Nussear & Ronald R. Swaisgood
In spite of growing reliance on translocations in wildlife conservation, translocation efficacy remains inconsistent. One factor that can contribute to failed translocations is releasing animals into poor-quality or otherwise inadequate habitat. Here, we used a targeted approach to test the relationship of habitat features to post-translocation dispersal and survival of juvenile Mojave desert tortoises Gopherus agassizii. We selected three habitat characteristics – rodent burrows, substrate texture (prevalence and size of rocks) and washes (ephemeral river...

Data from: Identifying demographic and environmental drivers of recruitment and population growth in a cavity nesting sea duck population

Abigail J. Lawson, James S. Sedinger & Eric J. Taylor
Traits with the greatest proportional effects on fitness are typically conserved (Stearns 1992), and traits with larger temporal variation frequently play a dominant role in population dynamics (Cooch et al. 2001). We examined recruitment patterns and population growth in Common Goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; hereafter goldeneye), using Pradel mark-recapture models from a long-term nest box study (1997-2010). Our objectives were to estimate recruitment (f) and population growth (λ) relative to recruitment origin group (in-situ or unknown),...

Data from: Invasive Bromus tectorum alters natural selection in arid systems

Elizabeth A. Leger & Erin M. Goergen
While much research has documented the impact of invaders on native communities and ecosystem services, there has been less work quantifying how invasion affects the genetic composition of native populations. That is, when invaders dominate a community, can they shift selection regimes and impact the evolutionary trajectory of native populations? The invasion of the annual grass Bromus tectorum in the Intermountain West provides an opportunity to quantify the effects of invasion on natural selection in...

Data from: Variable drivers of primary versus secondary nesting: density-dependence and drought effects on greater sage-grouse

Erik J. Blomberg, Daniel Gibson, Michael T. Atamian & James S. Sedinger
Organisms seek to maximize fitness by balancing reproductive allocations against mortality risk, given selection pressures inherent to the environment. However, environmental conditions are often dynamic and unpredictable, which complicates the ability to achieve such a balance, and may require reproductive adjustments depending on prevailing conditions. We evaluated the effects of density-dependent, density-independent (drought), and individual (age, body condition) factors on nesting decisions of female greater sage-grouse in the American Great Basin. We obtained relocations and...

Data from: Absence of population structure across elevational gradients despite large phenotypic variation in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli)

Carrie L. Branch, Joshua P. Jahner, Dovid Y. Kozlovsky, Thomas L. Parchman & Vladimir V. Pravosudov
Montane habitats are characterized by predictably rapid heterogeneity along elevational gradients and are useful for investigating the consequences of environmental heterogeneity for local adaptation and population genetic structure. Food-caching mountain chickadees inhabit a continuous elevation gradient in the Sierra Nevada, and birds living at harsher, high elevations have better spatial memory ability and exhibit differences in male song structure and female mate preference compared to birds inhabiting milder, low elevations. While high elevation birds breed,...

Data from: Genome of the pitcher plant Cephalotus reveals genetic changes associated with carnivory

Kenji Fukushima, Xiaodong Fang, David Alvarez-Ponce, Huimin Cai, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Cui Chen, Tien-Hao Chang, Kimberley M. Farr, Tomomichi Fujita, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Takamasa Imai, Masahiro Kasahara, Pablo Librado, Likai Mao, Hitoshi Mori, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Masafumi Nozawa, Gergő Pálfalvi, Stephen T. Pollard, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, David Sankoff, Tomoko F. Shibata, Shuji Shigenobu … & Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Carnivorous plants exploit animals as a nutritional source and have inspired long-standing questions about the origin and evolution of carnivory-related traits. To investigate the molecular bases of carnivory, we sequenced the genome of the heterophyllous pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis, in which we succeeded in regulating the developmental switch between carnivorous and non-carnivorous leaves. Transcriptome comparison of the two leaf types and gene repertoire analysis identified genetic changes associated with prey attraction, capture, digestion and nutrient...

Data from: A novel protocol for studying bee cognition in the wild

Felicity Muth, Trenton R. Cooper, Rene F. Bonilla & Anne S. Leonard
1.Understanding how animals perceive, learn and remember stimuli is critical for understanding both how cognition is shaped by natural selection, and how ecological factors impact behaviour. However, the majority of studies on cognition involve captive animals in laboratory settings. While controlled settings are required to accurately measure aspects of cognition, they may not yield realistic estimates of learning performance in natural environments. Wild bees offer a useful system in which to study cognitive ecology as...

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