140 Works

Data from: Evaluating carbon storage, timber harvest, and habitat possibilities for a western Cascades (US) forest landscape

Jeffrey Kline, Mark Harmon, Thomas Spies, Anita Morzillo, Robert Pabst, Brenda McComb, Frank Schnekenburger, Keith Olsen, Blair Csuti, Jody Vogeler, Jeffrey D. Kline, Thomas A. Spies, Brenda C. McComb, Anita T. Morzillo, Mark E. Harmon, Robert J. Pabst, Keith A. Olsen & Jody C. Vogeler
Forest policymakers and managers have long sought ways to evaluate the capability of forest landscapes to jointly produce timber, habitat, and other ecosystem services in response to forest management. Currently, carbon is of particular interest as policies for increasing carbon storage on federal lands are being proposed. However, a challenge in joint production analysis of forest management is adequately representing ecological conditions and processes that influence joint production relationships. We used simulation models of vegetation...

Data from: Experimental insight into the process of parasite community assembly

Sarah A. Budischak, Eric P. Hoberg, Art Abrams, Anna E. Jolles & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
1.Community assembly is a fundamental process that has long been a central focus in ecology. Extending community assembly theory to communities of co-infecting parasites, we used a gastrointestinal nematode removal experiment in free-ranging African buffalo to examine community assembly patterns and processes. 2.We first asked whether reassembled communities differ from undisturbed communities by comparing anthelmintic-treated and control hosts. Next, we examined the temporal dynamics of assembly using a cross-section of communities that reassembled for different...

Data from: Geosmithia associated with bark beetles and woodborers in the western USA: taxonomic diversity and vector specificity

Miroslav Kolařík, Steven J. Seybold, Ned Tisserat, Wilhelm De Beer, David M. Rizzo, Jiri Hulcr & Martin Kostovčík
Fungi in the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are frequent associates of bark beetles and woodborers that colonize hardwood and coniferous trees. One species, Geosmithia morbida, is an economically damaging invasive species. The authors surveyed the Geosmithia species of California and Colorado, USA, to (i) provide baseline data on taxonomy of Geosmithia and beetle vector specificity across the western USA; (ii) investigate the subcortical beetle fauna for alternative vectors of the invasive G. morbida; and (iii)...

Data from: A novel molecular toolkit for rapid detection of the pathogen and primary vector of thousand cankers disease

Emel Oren, William Klingeman, Romina Gazis, John Moulton, Paris Lambdin, Mark Coggeshall, Jiri Hulcr, Steven J. Seybold & Denita Hadziabdic
Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) of Juglans and Pterocarya (Juglandaceae) involves a fungal pathogen, Geosmithia morbida, and a primary insect vector, Pityophthorus juglandis. TCD was described originally from dying Juglans nigra trees in the western United States (USA), but it was reported subsequently from the eastern USA and northern Italy. The disease is often difficult to diagnose due to the absence of symptoms or signs on the bark surface of the host. Furthermore, disease symptoms can...

Data from: The tortoise and the hare: reducing resource availability shifts competitive balance between plant species

Dean E. Pearson, Yvette K. Ortega & John L. Maron
1.Determining how changes in abiotic conditions influence community interactions is a fundamental challenge in ecology. Meeting this challenge is increasingly imperative in the Anthropocene where climate change and exotic species introductions alter abiotic context and biotic composition to reshuffle natural systems. 2.We created plant assemblages consisting of monocultures or equal abundance of the native community dominant bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) and the exotic spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe), a co-occurring invasive forb that has overtaken grasslands...

Data from: Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

František Sklenář, Željko Jurjević, Polona Zalar, J. C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Miroslav Kolařík, Jos Houbraken, Amanda J. Chen, Neriman Yilmaz, Keith A. Seifert, Monica Coton, Franck Déniel, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Robert A. Samson, Stephen W. Peterson & Vít Hubka
Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister sect. Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises osmophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 taxa comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported...

Data from: Colonization history, host distribution, anthropogenic influence and landscape features shape populations of white pine blister rust, an invasive alien tree pathogen

Simren Brar, Clement K. M. Tsui, Braham Dhillon, Marie-Josée Bergeron, David L. Joly, P. J. Zambino, Yousry A. El-Kassaby & Richard C. Hamelin
White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales). This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola....

Data from: Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida

Matthew D. Thom, Jaret C. Daniels, Leda N. Kobziar & Jonathan R. Colburn
Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with...

Data from: Leaf litter nutrient uptake in an intermittent blackwater river: influence of tree species and associated biotic and abiotic drivers

Andrew S. Mehring, Kevin A. Kuehn, Aaron Thompson, Catherine M. Pringle, Amy D. Rosemond, Matthew R. First, R. R. Lowrance, George Vellidis & R Richard Lowrance
1. Organic matter may sequester nutrients as it decomposes, increasing in total N and P mass via multiple uptake pathways. During leaf litter decomposition, microbial biomass and accumulated inorganic materials immobilize and retain nutrients, and therefore, both biotic and abiotic drivers may influence detrital nutrient content. We examined the relative importance of these types of nutrient immobilization and compared patterns of nutrient retention in recalcitrant and labile leaf litter. 2. Leaf packs of water oak...

Data from: The Genome sequence of a widespread apex predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

Jacqueline M. Doyle, Todd E. Katzner, Peter H. Bloom, Yanzhu Ji, Bhagya K. Wijayawardena & J. Andrew DeWoody
Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in western North America. We constructed genomic libraries that were sequenced using Illumina technology and assembled the high-quality data...

Data from: Interactive effects of a non-native invasive grass Microstegium vimineum and herbivore exclusion on experimental tree regeneration under differing forest management

Daniel J. Johnson, S. Luke Flory, Angela Shelton, Cynthia Huebner & Keith Clay
1. Invasive plants, herbivores and site management history can play crucial roles in determining plant community composition. The net effects of invasive species on plant communities are well known, but we have a poor understanding of the relative contributions of direct competitive effects of invasive species and their interactions with herbivores and management practices. Understanding interactions among plant invasions, herbivores and management history is critical for predicting and managing long-term ecological effects of invasions on...

Data from: How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics

Jonathan A. Walter, Marcia S. Meixler, Thomas Mueller, William F. Fagan, Patrick C. Tobin & Kyle J. Haynes
1. Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. 2. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony,...

Data from: Distance, flow, and PCR inhibition: eDNA dynamics in two headwater steams

Stephen F. Jane, Taylor M. Wilcox, Kevin S. McKelvey, Michael K. Young, Michael K. Schwartz, Winsor H. Lowe, Benjamin H. Letcher & Andrew R. Whiteley
Environmental DNA (eDNA) detection has emerged as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic organisms, but much remains unknown about the dynamics of aquatic eDNA over a range of environmental conditions. DNA concentrations in streams and rivers will depend not only on the equilibrium between DNA entering the water and DNA leaving the system through degradation, but also on downstream transport. To improve understanding of the dynamics of eDNA concentration in lotic systems, we introduced caged...

Data from: Niche differentiation and colonization of a novel environment by an asexual parasitic wasp.

Andrew A. Forbes, Laura A. Rice, Nicholas B. Stewart, Wee L. Yee, Maurine Neiman, A. A. Forbes, L. A. Rice, N. B. Stewart, M. Neiman & W. L. Yee
How do asexual taxa become adapted to a diversity of environments, and how do they persist despite changing environmental conditions? These questions are linked by their mutual focus on the relationship between genetic variation, which is often limited in asexuals, and the ability to respond to environmental variation. Asexual taxa originating from a single ancestor present a unique opportunity to assess rates of phenotypic and genetic change when access to new genetic variation is limited...

Data from: Forest structure provides the income for reproductive success in a southern population of Canada lynx

Megan K. Kosterman, John R. Squires, Joseph D. Holbrook, Daniel H. Pletscher & Mark Hebblewhite
Understanding intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of reproductive success is central to advancing animal ecology and characterizing critical habitat. Unfortunately, much of the work examining drivers of reproductive success is biased toward particular groups of organisms (e.g., colonial birds, large herbivores, capital breeders). Long-lived mammalian carnivores that are of conservation concern, solitary, and territorial present an excellent situation to examine intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of reproductive success, yet they have received little attention. Here, we used...

Data from: Intercomparison of photogrammetry software for three-dimensional vegetation modelling

Alexandra Probst, Demetrios Gatziolis & Nikolay Strigul
Photogrammetry-based 3D reconstruction of objects is becoming increasingly appealing in research areas unrelated to computer vision. It has the potential to facilitate the assessment of forest inventory-related parameters by enabling or expediting resource measurements in the field. We hereby compare several implementations of photogrammetric algorithms (CMVS/PMVS, CMPMVS, MVE, OpenMVS, SURE, and Agisoft PhotoScan) with respect to their performance in vegetation assessment. The evaluation is based on (a) a virtual scene where the precise location and...

Data from: Testing rangeland health theory in the Northern Great Plains

Kurt O. Reinhart, Matthew J. Rinella, Richard C. Waterman, Mark K. Petersen & Lance T. Vermeire
• Correctly assessing whether rangeland ecosystem services are stable, improving, or degrading is of global importance. Soil aggregate stability (SAS) is widely used to infer rangeland health, partly because high SAS is thought to reduce runoff by increasing infiltration. We studied the sensitivity of SAS to grazing and other disturbances, the effects of SAS on infiltration, and the utility of alternative indicators of infiltration in the Northern Great Plains.• To test grazing effects on SAS,...

Data from: Mediating water temperature increases due to livestock and global change in high elevation meadow streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness

Sébastien Nusslé, Kathleen R. Matthews & Stephanie M. Carlson
Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two “resting”...

Data from: Soil aggregate stability and grassland productivity associations in a northern mixed-grass prairie

Kurt O. Reinhart & Lance T. Vermeire
Soil aggregate stability data are often predicted to be positively associated with measures of plant productivity, rangeland health, and ecosystem functioning. Here we revisit the hypothesis that soil aggregate stability is positively associated with plant productivity. We measured local (plot-to-plot) variation in grassland community composition, plant (aboveground) biomass, root biomass, % water-stable soil aggregates, and topography. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, we observed a negative association between % water-stable soil aggregates (0.25-1 and 1-2 mm...

Data from: Genetic differentiation associated with host plants and geography among six widespread species of South American Blepharoneura fruit flies (Tephritidae)

Kristina Ottens, Isaac S. Winkler, Matthew L. Lewis, Sonja J. Scheffer, Gessica A. Gomes-Costa, Marty A. Condon, Andrew A. Forbes, G. A. Gomes-Costa, K. Ottens, A. A. Forbes, M. L. Lewis & S. J. Scheffer
Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse and many are highly host-specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host-plant diversity; yet, the diversity of some lineages exceeds the diversity of plants. Although most species of herbivorous fruit flies in the Neotropical genus Blepharoneura are strongly host-specific (they deposit their eggs in a single host plant species and flower sex), some species are collected from multiple hosts or flowers and these may...

Data from: Host use dynamics in a heterogeneous fitness landscape generates oscillations in host range and diversification

Mariana P. Braga, Sabrina B.L. Araujo, Salvatore Agosta, Daniel Brooks, Eric Hoberg, Soren Nylin, Niklas Janz & Walter A. Boeger
Colonization of novel hosts is thought to play an important role in parasite diversification, yet little consensus has been achieved about the macroevolutionary consequences of changes in host use. Here we offer a mechanistic basis for the origins of parasite diversity by simulating lineages evolved in silico. We describe an individual-based model in which (i) parasites undergo sexual reproduction limited by genetic proximity, (ii) hosts are uniformly distributed along a one-dimensional resource gradient, and (iii)...

Data from: Bioturbation by mammals and fire interact to alter ecosystem-level nutrient dynamics in longleaf pine forests

Kenneth L Clark, Lyn C Branch, Jennifer Farrington, Lyn C. Branch & Kenneth L. Clark
Activities of ecosystem engineers can interact with other disturbances to modulate rates of key processes such as productivity and nutrient cycling. Bioturbation, movement of soil by organisms, is a widespread form of ecosystem engineering in terrestrial ecosystems. We propose that bioturbation by southeastern pocket gophers (Geomys pinetis), an abundant but declining ecosystem engineer in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests, accelerates nutrient dynamics of the forest floor by burying litter and then reduces litter consumption...

Data from: The importance of growing up: juvenile environment influences dispersal of individuals and their neighbours

Stacy B. Endriss, Megan L. Vahsen, Ellyn V. Bitume, J. Grey Monroe, Kathryn G. Turner, Andrew P. Norton, Ruth A. Hufbauer & J. Grey Monroe
Dispersal is a key ecological process that is strongly influenced by both phenotype and environment. Here, we show that juvenile environment influences dispersal not only by shaping individual phenotypes, but also by changing the phenotypes of neighbouring conspecifics, which influence how individuals disperse. We used a model system (Tribolium castaneum, red flour beetles) to test how the past environment of dispersing individuals and their neighbours influences how they disperse in their current environment. We found...

Data from: The impact of prescribed burning on native bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in longleaf pine savannas in the North Carolina sandhills

Heather Moylett, Elsa Youngsteadt & Clyde Sorenson
Prescribed burning is a common silvicultural practice used in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas to reduce hardwood encroachment and ground cover and to maintain biodiversity. We investigated the response of the native bee community (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in the Sandhills of North Carolina to prescribed burning on a three-year rotation over two consecutive years (2012 and 2013). We deployed bee bowl traps in sites that had been burned the year of...

Relationships among wood-boring beetles, fungal endophytes and saprotrophs, and the decomposition of forest biomass.

James Skelton, Michelle Jusino, Paige Carlson, Katherine Smith, Mark Banik, Daniel Linder, Jonathan Palmer & Jiri Hulcr
A prevailing paradigm in forest ecology is that wood-boring beetles facilitate wood decay and carbon cycling, but empirical tests have yielded mixed results. We experimentally determined the effects of wood borers on fungal community assembly and wood decay within pine trunks in the southeastern United States. Pine trunks were made either beetle-accessible or inaccessible. Fungal communities were compared using culturing and high-throughput meta-barcode sequencing of DNA and RNA. Prior to beetle infestation, living pines had...

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