280 Works

Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes (CO2) were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites.

Data from: Parental age influences offspring telomere loss

Britt J. Heidinger, Katherine A. Herborn, Hanna M. V. Granroth-Wilding, Winnie Boner, Sarah Burthe, Mark Newell, Sarah Wanless, Francis Daunt, Pat Monaghan & Hanna M.V. Granroth-Wilding
The age of the parents at the time of offspring production can influence offspring longevity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The effect of parental age on offspring telomere dynamics (length and loss rate) is one mechanism that could be important in this context. Parental age might influence the telomere length that offspring inherit or age-related differences in the quality of parental care could influence the rate of offspring telomere loss. However, these routes...

Data from: The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

Nicola S. Lewis, Colin A. Russell, Tavis K. Anderson, Kathryn Berger, David F. Burke, Judith M. Fonville, Ronald A.M. Fouchier, Paul Kellam, Bjorn F. Koel, Tung Nguyen, Bundit Nuansrichy, J. S. Malik Peiris, Takehiko Saito, Gaelle Simon, Eugene Skepner, Nobuhiro Takemae, ESNIP3 Consortium, Richard J. Webby, Kristien Van Reeth, Sharon M. Brookes, Lars Larsen, Ian H. Brown, Amy L. Vincent, Pinky Langat, Filip Bielejec … & JS Malik Peiris
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the...

Data from: Maternal effects alter the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring

Natalie Pilakouta & Per T. Smiseth
A maternal effect is a causal influence of the maternal phenotype on the offspring phenotype over and above any direct effects of genes. There is abundant evidence that maternal effects can have a major impact on offspring fitness. Yet, no previous study has investigated the potential role of maternal effects in influencing the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring. Inbreeding depression is a reduction in the fitness of inbred offspring relative to outbred offspring....

Data from: Robust extraction of quantitative structural information from high-variance histological images of livers from necropsied Soay sheep

Quentin Caudron, Romain Garnier, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Christina Hansen, Bryan T. Grenfell, Tawfik Aboellail, Andrea L. Graham, T. Aboellail, Q. Caudron, R. Garnier, A. L. Graham, B. T. Grenfell, C. Hansen, J. G. Pilkington & K. A. Watt
Quantitative information is essential to the empirical analysis of biological systems. In many such systems, spatial relations between anatomical structures is of interest, making imaging a valuable data acquisition tool. However, image data can be difficult to analyse quantitatively. Many image processing algorithms are highly sensitive to variations in the image, limiting their current application to fields where sample and image quality may be very high. Here, we develop robust image processing algorithms for extracting...

Data from: Sex differences in leucocyte telomere length in a free-living mammal

Rebecca L. Watson, Ellen J. Bird, Sarah Underwood, Rachael V. Adams, Jennifer Fairlie, Kathryn Watt, Eliane Salvo-Chirnside, Jill G. Pilkington, Josephine M. Pemberton, Tom N. McNeilly, Hannah Froy, Daniel H. Nussey & Rachael V. Wilbourn
Mounting evidence suggests that average telomere length reflects previous stress and predicts subsequent survival across vertebrate species. In humans, leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is consistently shorter during adulthood in males than in females, although the causes of this sex difference and its generality to other mammals remain unknown. Here, we measured LTL in a cross-sectional sample of free-living Soay sheep and found shorter telomeres in males than in females in later adulthood (>3 years of...

Data from: The effect of selection history on extinction risk during severe environmental change

Josianne Lachapelle, Nick Colegrave, Graham Bell, J. Lachapelle, N. Colegrave & G. Bell
Environments rarely remain the same over time, and populations are therefore frequently at risk of going extinct when changes are significant enough to reduce fitness. While many studies have investigated what attributes of the new environments and of the populations experiencing these changes will affect their probability of going extinct, limited work has been directed toward determining the role of population history on the probability of going extinct during severe environmental change. Here we compare...

Data from: Nonlinear disease tolerance curves reveal distinct components of host responses to viral infection

Vanika Gupta & Pedro F. Vale
The ability to tolerate infection is a key component of host defence and offers potential novel therapeutic approaches for infectious diseases. To yield successful targets for therapeutic intervention, it is important that the analytical tools employed to measure disease tolerance are able to capture distinct host responses to infection. Here, we show that commonly used methods that estimate tolerance as a linear relationship should be complemented with more flexible, nonlinear estimates of this relationship which...

Data from: Phenotypic and genetic integration of personality and growth under competition in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni

Kay Boulton, Craig A. Walling, Andrew J. Grimmer, Gil G. Rosenthal, Alastair Wilson & Alastair J. Wilson
Competition for resources including food, physical space, and potential mates is a fundamental ecological process shaping variation in individual phenotype and fitness. The evolution of competitive ability, in particular social dominance, depends on genetic (co)variation among traits causal (e.g., behavior) or consequent (e.g., growth) to competitive outcomes. If dominance is heritable, it will generate both direct and indirect genetic effects (IGE) on resource-dependent traits. The latter are expected to impose evolutionary constraint because winners necessarily...

Data from: Quantitative genetics of immunity and life history under different photoperiods

Katrin Hammerschmidt, Peter Deines, Alastair J. Wilson, Jens Rolff, K Hammerschmidt, P Deines, J Rolff & A J Wilson
Insects with complex life-cycles should optimize age and size at maturity during larval development. When inhabiting seasonal environments, organisms have limited reproductive periods and face fundamental decisions: individuals that reach maturity late in season have to either reproduce at a small size or increase their growth rates. Increasing growth rates is costly in insects due to higher juvenile mortality, decreased adult survival, or increased susceptibility to parasitism by bacteria and viruses via compromised immune function....

Data from: NEMBASE4: the nematode transcriptome resource

Mark L. Blaxter, James Wasmuth, Benjamin Elsworth & Mark Blaxter
Nematode parasites are of major importance in human health and agriculture, and free-living species deliver essential ecosystem services. The genomics revolution has resulted in the production of many datasets of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a phylogenetically wide range of nematode species, but these are not easily compared. NEMBASE4 presents a single portal onto extensively functionally annotated, EST-derived transcriptomes from over sixty species of nematodes, including plant and animal parasites and free-living taxa. Using the...

Data from: Selection on parental performance opposes selection for larger body mass in a wild population of blue tits

Caroline Elizabeth Thomson, Florian Bayer, Nicholas Crouch, Samantha Farrell, Elizabeth Heap, Elizabeth Mittell, Mar Zurita-Cassinello, Jarrod D. Hadfield & Caroline E. Thomson
There is abundant evidence in many taxa for positive directional selection on body size, and yet little evidence for microevolutionary change. In many species, variation in body size is partly determined by the actions of parents, so a proposed explanation for stasis is the presence of a negative genetic correlation between direct and parental effects. Consequently, selecting genes for increased body size would result in a correlated decline in parental effects, reducing body size in...

Data from: Existing infection facilitates establishment and density of malaria parasites in their mosquito vector

Laura C. Pollitt, Joshua T. Bram, Simon Blanford, Matthew J. Jones & Andrew F. Read
Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together...

Data from: Conflict of interest and signal interference lead to the breakdown of honest signalling

Roman Popat, Eric Pollitt, Freya J. G. Harrison, Hardeep Naghra, Kar-Wai Hong, Kok-Gan Chan, Ashleigh S. Griffin, Paul Williams, Sam P. Brown, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle, Eric J. G. Pollitt & Freya Harrison
Animals use signals to coordinate a wide range of behaviours, from feeding offspring to predator avoidance. This poses an evolutionary problem, because individuals could potentially signal dishonestly to coerce others into behaving in ways that benefit the signaller. Theory suggests that honest signalling is favoured when individuals share a common interest and signals carry reliable information. Here, we exploit the opportunities offered by bacterial signalling, to test these predictions with an experimental evolution approach. We...

Data from: Contrasting responses of male and female foraging effort to year-round wind conditions

Sue Lewis, Richard A. Phillips, Sarah J. Burthe, Sarah Wanless & Francis Daunt
1. There is growing interest in the effects of wind on wild animals, given evidence that wind speeds are increasing and becoming more variable in some regions, particularly at temperate latitudes. Wind may alter movement patterns or foraging ability, with consequences for energy budgets and, ultimately, demographic rates. 2. These effects are expected to vary among individuals due to intrinsic factors such as sex, age or feeding proficiency. Furthermore, this variation is predicted to become...

Data from: The cranial endocast of the Middle Devonian dipnonan Dipterus valenciennesi and a fossilized dipnoan otoconial mass

Tom J. Challands & Thomas J. Challands
The well known Middle Devonian (Eifelian–Givetian) lungfish Dipterus valenciennesi from Scotland, UK, has been studied for more than one hundred years though our understanding of the neurocranium and cranial cavity is incomplete. Micro-CT scanning demonstrates that the internal cast of the cranial cavity, the endocast, possesses a mix of primitive and derived characters. The olfactory bulbs are sessile, as in the derived extant Lepidosirenidae. However, Dipterus valenciennesi possesses the primitive condition of a shallow telencephalon...

Data from: Genome-wide tests for introgression between cactophilic Drosophila implicate a role of inversions during speciation

Konrad Lohse, Magnus Clarke, Michael G. Ritchie & William J. Etges
Models of speciation-with-gene-flow have shown that the reduction in recombination between alternative chromosome arrangements can facilitate the fixation of locally adaptive genes in the face of gene flow and contribute to speciation. However, it has proven frustratingly difficult to show empirically that inversions have reduced gene flow and arose during or shortly after the onset of species divergence rather than represent ancestral polymorphisms. Here we present an analysis of whole genome data from a pair...

Data from: Repeatability of adaptation in experimental populations of different sizes

Josianne Lachapelle, Joshua Reid, Nick Colegrave, N. Colegrave, J. Lachapelle & J. Reid
The degree to which evolutionary trajectories and outcomes are repeatable across independent populations depends on the relative contribution of selection, chance and history. Population size has been shown theoretically and empirically to affect the amount of variation that arises among independent populations adapting to the same environment. Here, we measure the contribution of selection, chance and history in different-sized experimental populations of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii adapting to a high salt environment to determine...

Data from: Phylogenetic eigenvectors and non-stationarity in the evolution of theropod dinosaur skulls

Jose A. F. Diniz-Filho, Davi M. C. C. Alves, Fabricio Villalobos, Manabu Sakamoto, Steve L. Brusatte, Luis M. Bini, M. Sakamoto, S. L. Brusatte, J. A. F. Diniz-Filho, F. Villalobos, L. M. Bini & D. M. C. C. Alves
Despite the longstanding interest in non-stationarity of both phenotypic evolution and diversification rates, only recently have methods been developed to study this property. Here, we propose a methodological expansion of the Phylogenetic Signal Representation (PSR) curve based on phylogenetic eigenvectors to test for non-stationarity. The PSR is built by plotting the coefficients of determination R2 from Phylogenetic Eigenvector Regression (PVR) models increasing the number of phylogenetic eigenvectors against the accumulated eigenvalues. The PSR curve is...

Data from: Image analysis of weaverbird nests reveals signature weave textures

Ida E. Bailey, André Backes, Patrick T. Walsh, Kate V. Morgan, Simone L. Meddle & Susan D. Healy
In nature, many animals build structures that can be readily measured at the scale of their gross morphology (e.g. length, volume and weight). Capturing individuality as can be done with the structures designed and built by human architects or artists, however, is more challenging. Here, we tested whether computer-aided image texture classification approaches can be used to describe textural variation in the nests of weaverbirds (Ploceus species) in order to attribute nests to the individual...

Data from: Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer

Jean-François Lemaître, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Josephine M. Pemberton, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Daniel H. Nussey, D. H. Nussey, T. H. Clutton-Brock, J.-F. Lemaitre & J.-M. Gaillard
The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence. There is now growing support for such trade-offs in wild vertebrates, but these exclusively come from females. Here, we test this prediction in male red deer (Cervus elaphus) using detailed longitudinal data collected over a 40-year field study. We show that males which had larger harems...

Data from: A systematic review and meta-analysis of gene therapy in animal models of cerebral glioma: why did promise not translate to human therapy?

Theodore C. Hirst, Hanna M. Vesterinen, Samantha Conlin, Kieren J. Egan, Ana Antonic, Aaron Lawson McLean, Malcolm R. Macleod, Robin Grant, Paul M. Brennan, Emily S. Sena, Ian R. Whittle, A. Antonic, E. S. Sena, T. C. Hirst, H. M. Vesterinen, S. Conlin, K. J. Egan, A. Lawson McLean, M. R. Macleod, R. Grant, P. M. Brennan & I. R. Whittle
Background: The development of therapeutics is often characterized by promising animal research that fails to translate into clinical efficacy; this holds for the development of gene therapy in glioma. We tested the hypothesis that this is because of limitations in the internal and external validity of studies reporting the use of gene therapy in experimental glioma. Method: We systematically identified studies testing gene therapy in rodent glioma models by searching three online databases. The number...

Data from: Additive genetic variance and developmental plasticity in growth trajectories in a wild cooperative mammal

Elise Huchard, Anne Charmantier, Sinead English, Andrew Bateman, Johanna F. Nielsen, Tim Clutton-Brock, J. F. Nielsen, S. English, A. Charmantier, E. Huchard, A. Bateman & T. Clutton-Brock
Individual variation in growth is high in cooperative breeders and may reflect plastic divergence in developmental trajectories leading to breeding vs. helping phenotypes. However, the relative importance of additive genetic variance and developmental plasticity in shaping growth trajectories is largely unknown in cooperative vertebrates. This study exploits weekly sequences of body mass from birth to adulthood to investigate sources of variance in, and covariance between, early and later growth in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a...

Data from: Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island Southeast Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Ole Madsen, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Martien A. M. Groenen & Konrad Lohse
In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed...

Data from: Multivariate immune defences and fitness in the wild: complex but ecologically important associations among plasma antibodies, health and survival

Daniel H. Nussey, Kathryn A. Watt, Abigail Clark, Jill G. Pilkington, Josephine M. Pemberton, Andrea L. Graham, Tom N. McNeilly, A. L. Graham, A. Clark, D. H. Nussey, J. M. Pemberton, J. G. Pilkington, K. A. Watt & T. N. McNeilly
Despite our rapidly advancing mechanistic understanding of vertebrate immunity under controlled laboratory conditions, the links between immunity, infection and fitness under natural conditions remain poorly understood. Antibodies are central to acquired immune responses, and antibody levels circulating in vivo reflect a composite of constitutive and induced functional variants of diverse specificities (e.g. binding antigens from prevalent parasites, self tissues or novel non-self sources). Here, we measured plasma concentrations of 11 different antibody types in adult...

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  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Sussex
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology