Global patterns of species and evolutionary diversity in plants are primarily determined by a temperature gradient, but precipitation gradients may be more important within the tropics, where plant species richness is positively associated with the amount of rainfall. The impact of precipitation on the distribution of evolutionary diversity, however, is largely unexplored. Here we detail how evolutionary diversity varies along precipitation gradients by bringing together a comprehensive database on the composition of angiosperm tree communities...
The percentage of total agricultural area under maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production, by country, subject to water scarcity in 2050 as estimated from a multi-model ensembleN. Fitton, P. Alexander, N. Arnell, B. Bajzelj, K. Calvin, J. Doelman, J.S. Gerber, P. Havlik, T. Hasegawa, M. Herrero, T. Krisztin, H. Van Meijl, T. Powell, R. Sands, E. Stehfest, P.C. West & P. Smith
Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities availability in 2050.
Household composition, income and assets survey data (including environmental product collection) from Mabalane, Gurue and Marrupa districts, Mozambique in 2014 and 2015F. Vollmer, J. Fisher, C.M. Ryan, S. Baumert, E. Woollen, A. Luz, I. Cossa, R. Stedham & H. Smith
This dataset includes data collected as part of the Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services (ACES) project on the composition, income (including consumption and sale of environmental resources), ownership of assets (e.g. farming equipment, household furnishings and own transport) and wellbeing of respondent households in rural Mozambique. Data are also included from a participatory wealth ranking exercise carried out in each village. Data were collected in a total of 27 villages: 7 villages in Mabalane District...
This dataset contains concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, nutrients and concentrations of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O from nine sites across the River Tay catchment. Water was sampled on a monthly basis between February 2009 and December 2010. The locations of sampling sites were based on existing flow gauging and water sampling sites of the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA).
Data from: Preserved collagen reveals species identity in archaeological marine turtle bones from Caribbean and Florida sitesMichael Buckley, Virginia L. Harvey, Michelle J. LeFebvre, Susan D. DeFrance, Casper Toftgaard & Andrew C. Kitchener
Advancements in molecular science are continually improving our understanding of marine turtle biology and evolution. However, there are still considerable gaps in our understanding, such as past marine turtle distributions, which can benefit from advanced zooarchaeological analyses. Here we apply collagen fingerprinting to 130 archaeological marine turtle bone samples up to 2500 years old from the Caribbean and Florida’s Gulf Coast for faunal identification, finding the vast majority of samples (88%) to contain preserved collagen...
Life history evolution, species differences and phenotypic plasticity in hemiparasitic eyebrights (Euphrasia)Max Brown, Natacha Frachon, Edgar Wong & Alex Twyford
Premise of the study: Species delimitation in parasitic organisms is challenging as traits used in the identification of species are often plastic and vary depending on the host. Here, we use species from a recent radiation of generalist hemiparasitic Euphrasia to investigate trait variation and trait plasticity. We test whether Euphrasia species show reliable trait differences, investigate whether these differences correspond to life history trade-offs between growth and reproduction, and quantify plasticity in response to...
The electricity gas and heat networks are finding it necessary to increase their ad hoc interactions as they develop their contribution to the net zero1 targets for green house gases for the UK and Scotland. The organisations involved in the “Getting to Net Zero” working group are all directly engaged in the energy sector encountering day-to-day challenges around how to include “getting to net zero” in their operations. The working group met to consider the...
Objective To investigate cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), blood flow, vascular and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility, and their independent relationship to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) features, in patients with minor ischaemic stroke and MRI evidence of SVD. Methods We recruited patients with minor ischaemic stroke and assessed CVR using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI during a hypercapnic challenge, cerebral blood flow, vascular and CSF pulsatility using phase contrast MRI, and structural MR brain imaging to...
The time taken for a selectively favorable allele to spread through a single population was investigated early in the history of population genetics. The resulting formulae are based on deterministic dynamics, leading to inaccuracies at allele frequencies close to zero or one. To remedy this problem, the properties of the stochastic phases at either endpoint of allele frequency need to be analysed. This paper uses a heuristic approach to determining the expected times spent in...
Changing environments and genetic variation: natural variation in inbreeding does not compromise short-term physiological responsesJames Buckley, Rónán Daly, Christina Cobbold, Karl Burgess & Barbara Mable
Selfing plant lineages are surprisingly widespread and successful in a broad range of environments, despite showing reduced genetic diversity, which is predicted to reduce long-term evolutionary potential. However, appropriate short-term plastic responses to new environmental conditions might not require high levels of standing genetic variation. In this study, we tested whether mating system variation among populations, and associated changes in genetic variability, affected short-term responses to environmental challenges. We compared relative fitness and metabolome profiles...
Life history theory predicts that reproductive allocation draws resources away from immunity, resulting in increased parasitism. However, studies of reproductive tradeoffs rarely examine multiple measures of reproduction, immunity, and parasitism. It is therefore unclear whether the immune costs of reproductive traits correlate with their resource costs, and whether increased parasitism emerges from weaker immunity. We examined these relationships in wild female red deer (Cervus elaphus) with variable reproductive allocation and longitudinal data on mucosal antibody...
Data from: The genetic architecture of helminth-specific immune responses in a wild population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries)Alexandra Sparks, Kathryn Watt, Rona Sinclair, Jill Pilkington, Josephine Pemberton, Tom McNeilly, Daniel Nussey & Susan Johnston
Much of our knowledge of the drivers of immune variation, and how these responses vary over time, comes from humans, domesticated livestock or laboratory organisms. While the genetic basis of variation in immune responses have been investigated in these systems, there is a poor understanding of how genetic variation influences immunity in natural, untreated populations living in complex environments. Here, we examine the genetic architecture of variation in immune traits in the Soay sheep of...
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...
Typhoid fever affects 21 million people globally, 1% of whom succumb to the disease. The social, economic and public health consequences of this disease disproportionately affect people in Africa and Asia. In order to design context specific prevention strategies, we need to holistically characterise outbreaks in these settings. Here we used retrospective data (2013-2016) at national and district level to characterize temporal and spatial dynamics of typhoid fever outbreaks using time series and spatial analysis....
Data from: Consistent within‐individual plasticity is sufficient to explain temperature responses in red deer reproductive traitsHannah Froy, Julien Martin, Katie Stopher, Alison Morris, Sean Morris, Tim Clutton-Brock, Josephine Pemberton & Loeske Kruuk
Warming global temperatures are affecting a range of aspects of wild populations, but the exact mechanisms driving associations between temperature and phenotypic traits may be difficult to identify. Here, we use a 36‐year data set on a wild population of red deer to investigate the causes of associations between temperature and two important components of female reproduction: timing of breeding and offspring size. By separating within‐ versus between‐individual associations with temperature for each trait, we...
Data from: Inferring HIV-1 transmission networks and sources of epidemic spread in Africa with deep-sequence phylogenetic analysisOliver Ratmann, M. Kate Grabowski, Matthew Hall, Tanya Golubchik, Chris Wymant, Lucie Abeler-Dörner, David Bonsall, Anne Hoppe, Andrew Leigh Brown, Tulio De Oliveira, Astrid Gall, Paul Kellam, Deenan Pillay, Joseph Kagaayi, Godfrey Kigozi, Thomas C. Quinn, Maria J. Wawer, Oliver Laeyendecker, David Serwadda, Ronald H. Gray, Christophe Fraser, PANGEA Consortium, _ & Rakai Health Sciences Program, _
To prevent new infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa, UNAIDS recommends targeting interventions to populations that are at high risk of acquiring and passing on the virus. Yet it is often unclear who and where these ‘source’ populations are. Here we demonstrate how viral deep-sequencing can be used to reconstruct HIV-1 transmission networks and to infer the direction of transmission in these networks. We are able to deep-sequence virus from...
The Local Engagement in UK Energy Systems (LEUKES) Database is about local authority energy projects. The data being made available is a database of 458 UK local authority energy projects collated from 29 different data sources.
University of Edinburgh17
University of Leeds3
University of Glasgow2
University of Cambridge2
University of Aberdeen2
University of Lisbon2
University of Exeter2
University of Oxford2
University of Bath1
Victoria University of Wellington1
Sun Yat-sen University1
The University of Texas at Austin1
University of Strathclyde1
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology1
State University of Norte Fluminense1