111 Works

Animal models to understand the etiology and pathophysiology in polycystic ovary syndrome

Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Kirsty A Walters, Rebecca E Campbell, Anna Benrick, Paolo Giacobini, Daniel A Dumesic & David H Abbott
More than one out of ten women worldwide are diagnosed with the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely under-diagnosed, averaging >2 years and 3 physicians changes before women are diagnosed. Despite intensive research, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and how to predict and prevent...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Time course and diagnostic utility of NfL, tau, GFAp, and UCH-L1 in subacute and chronic TBI

Pashtun Shahim, Adam Politis, Andre Van Der Merwe, Brian Moore, Vindhya Ekanayake, Sara Lippa, Yi-Yu Chou, Dzung Pham, John Butman, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jessica Gill, David Brody & Leighton Chan
Objective: To determine if neurofilament light (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp), tau, and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) measured in serum relate to traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosis, injury severity, brain volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of traumatic axonal injury in patients with TBI. Methods:Patients with TBI (n=162) and controls (n=68) were prospectively enrolled between 2009–2018. Of the 162 patients, 102 underwent repeated serum, functional outcome, brain MRI volumetry, and DTI assessments at...

Return to work following diagnosis of low-grade glioma: A nationwide matched cohort study.

Isabelle Rydén, Louise Carstam, Sasha Gulati, Anja Smits, Katharina S. Sunnerhagen, Per Hellström, Roger Henriksson, Bartek Jr., Jiri, Øyvind Salvesen & Asgeir Jakola
Objective: Return-to-work (RTW) following diagnosis of infiltrative low-grade gliomas (LGG) is unknown. Methods: Swedish patients with histopathological verified WHO grade II diffuse glioma diagnosed between 2005-2015 were included. Data were acquired from several Swedish registries. A total of 381 patients aged 18-60 were eligible. A matched control population (n=1900) was acquired. Individual data on sick leave, compensations, comorbidity and treatments assigned were assessed. Predictors were explored using multivariable logistic regression. Results: One year before surgery/index...

Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ozone damage for four global staple crops (2010-2012)

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ground-level ozone pollution (per 1 degree by 1 degree grid cell) are presented for the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) for the period 2010-2012. Data are on a global scale, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) crop production data for the year 2000. Modelled...

Pilgrimage and Ancestors: the importance of return

Jorgen Hellman
Drawing on ethnographic material from pilgrimages on West Java I argue that understandings of pilgrimage will benefit from including the return home in order to fully appreciate the meaning it holds for pilgrims. If we include into the study an extensive period after coming home, it facilitates situating the practice in a specific socio-cultural context and helps to understand how a pilgrimage partakes in these settings rather than being a ‘ “one off” transient and...

Data from: The role of hybridisation in the origin and evolutionary persistence of vertebrate parthenogens: a case study of Darevskia lizards

Susana Freitas, D. James Harris, Sillero Neftali, Arakelyan Marine, Roger Butlin & Miguel Carretero
Obligate parthenogenesis is found in only 0.1% of vertebrate species, is thought to be relatively short lived and is typically of hybrid origin. However, neither the evolutionary persistence of asexuality in vertebrates, nor the conditions that allow the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages are currently well understood. It has been proposed that vertebrate parthenogenetic lineages arise from hybridisation between two divergent taxa within a specific range of phylogenetic distances (the “Balance Hypothesis”). Moreover, parthenogenetic species...

Spatial genetic structure in a crustacean herbivore highlights the need for local considerations in Baltic Sea biodiversity management

Pierre De Wit
Incorporating species' eco-evolutionary responses to human-caused disturbances remains a challenge in marine management efforts. A prerequisite is knowledge of geographic structure and scale of genetic diversity and connectivity - the so-called seascape genetic patterns. The Baltic Sea is an excellent model system for studies linking seascape genetics with effects of anthropogenic stress. However, seascape genetic patterns in this area are only described for a few species and are completely unknown for invertebrate herbivores, which constitute...

Can Ownership Limit the Effectiveness of EU Consumer Contract Law Directives?

Wolfgang Faber & Claes Martinson
Does the acquisition of ownership form a strict barrier to the application of EU consumer contract law rules? In particular: does the acquisition of ownership prevent a national court from reviewing unfair terms in a mortgage agreement? The CJEU said so in its recent judgement C-598/15 Banco Santander, where a bank itself acquired a mortgaged apartment in a forced sale. We consider this a too formal way of reasoning. In order to make a constructive...

Can Ownership Limit the Effectiveness of EU Consumer Contract Law Directives?

Wolfgang Faber & Claes Martinson
Does the acquisition of ownership form a strict barrier to the application of EU consumer contract law rules? In particular: does the acquisition of ownership prevent a national court from reviewing unfair terms in a mortgage agreement? The CJEU said so in its recent judgement C-598/15 Banco Santander, where a bank itself acquired a mortgaged apartment in a forced sale. We consider this a too formal way of reasoning. In order to make a constructive...

Data from: Is embryo abortion a postzygotic barrier to gene flow between Littorina ecotypes?

Kerstin Johannesson, Zuzanna Zagrodzka, Rui Faria, Anja Westram & Roger Butlin
Genetic incompatibilities contribute to reproductive isolation between many diverging populations, but it is still unclear to what extent they play a role if divergence happens with gene flow. In contact zones between the "Crab" and "Wave" ecotypes of the snail Littorina saxatilis divergent selection forms strong barriers to gene flow, while the role of postzygotic barriers due to selection against hybrids remains unclear. High embryo abortion rates in this species could indicate the presence of...

Data from: Museums and cradles of diversity are geographically coincident for narrowly distributed Neotropical snakes

Josué Anderson Rêgo Azevedo, Thaís Guedes, Cristiano Nogueira, Paulo Passos, Ricardo Sawaya, Ana Prudente, Fausto Barbo, Christine Strussmann, Francisco Franco, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro Giraudo, Antônio Argôlo, Martin Jansen, Hussam Zaher, João Tonini, Soren Faurby & Alexandre Antonelli
Factors driving the spatial configuration of centres of endemism have long been a topic of broad interest and debate. Due to different eco-evolutionary processes, these highly biodiverse areas may harbour different amounts of ancient and recently diverged organisms (paleo- and neo-endemism, respectively). Patterns of endemism still need to be measured at distinct phylogenetic levels for most clades and, consequently, little is known about the distribution, the age and the causes of such patterns. Here we...

Secondary contacts and genetic admixture shape colonisation by an amphiatlantic epibenthic invertebrate

Jamie Hudson, Kerstin Johannesson, Christopher McQuaid & Marc Rius
Research on the genetics of invasive species often focuses on patterns of genetic diversity and population structure within the introduced range. However, a growing body of literature is demonstrating the need to study the native range, and how native genotypes affect both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms within the introduced range. Here we used genotyping-by-sequencing to study both native and introduced ranges [based on 1,653 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] of the amphiatlantic marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis....

Prenatal androgen exposure and transgenerational susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome

Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Sanjiv Risal, Yu Pei, Haojiang Lu, Maria Manti, Romina Fornes, Han-Pin Pui, Zhiyi Zhao, Julie Massart, Claes Ohlsson, Eva Lindgren, Nicolas Crisosto, Manuel Maliqueo, Barbara Echiburú, Amanda Ladrón De Guevara, Teresa Sir-Petermann, Henrik Larsson, Mina A. Rosenqvist, Carolyn E. Cesta, Anna Benrick & Qiaolin Deng
The effects of how obesity and elevated androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect their offspring are unclear. We found that daughters of PCOS mothers are more likely to be diagnosed with PCOS in a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort and a clinical case-control study from Chile. Further, female mice (F0) with PCOS-like traits induced by late gestation injection of dihydrotestosterone, with and without obesity, produced female F1–F3 offspring with a PCOS-like reproductive...

Data from: Genotype reconstruction of paternity in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

Charlie D. Ellis, David J. Hodgson, Carl André, Tonje K. Sørdalen, Halvor Knutsen & Amber G. F. Griffiths
Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Selection on outlier loci and their association with adaptive phenotypes in Littorina saxatilis contact zones

Johan Hollander, Juan Galindo, Roger K. Butlin, J. Hollander, J. Galindo & R. K. Butlin
A fundamental issue in speciation research is to evaluate phenotypic variation and the genomics driving the evolution of reproductive isolation between sister taxa. Above all, hybrid zones are excellent study systems for researchers to examine the association of genetic differentiation, phenotypic variation and the strength of selection. We investigated two contact zones in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis and utilized landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis together with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess phenotypic...

Data from: Phylogeny, classification, and fruit evolution of the species-rich Neotropical bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae)

Laura P. Lagomarsino, Alexandre Antonelli, Nathan Muchhala, Allan Timmermann, Sarah Mathews, Charles C. Davis, A. Timmermann, N. Muchhala, L. P. Lagomarsino, C. C. Davis, S. Mathews & A. Antonelli
Premise of the study: The species-rich Neotropical genera Centropogon, Burmeistera, and Siphocampylus represent more than half of the ∼1200 species in the subfamily Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae). They exhibit remarkable morphological variation in floral morphology and habit. Limited taxon sampling and phylogenetic resolution, however, obscures our understanding of relationships between and within these genera and underscores our uncertainty of the systematic value of fruit type as a major diagnostic character. Methods: We inferred a phylogeny from five...

Data from: From gene trees to a dated allopolyploid network: insights from the angiosperm genus Viola (Violaceae)

Thomas Marcussen, Lise Heier, Anne K. Brysting, Bengt Oxelman & Kjetill S. Jakobsen
Allopolyploidisation acounts for a significant fraction of speciation events in many eukaryotic lineages. However, existing phylogenetic and dating methods require tree-like topologies and are unable to handle the network-like phylogenetic relationships of lineages containing allopolyploids. No explicit framework has so far been established for evaluating competing network topologies, and few attempts have been made to date phylogenetic networks. We used a four-step approach to generate a dated polyploid species network for the cosmopolitan angiosperm genus...

Data from: Assignment of homoeologues to parental genomes in allopolyploids for species tree inference, with an example from Fumaria (Papaveraceae)

Yann J. K. Bertrand, Anne-Cathrine Scheen, Thomas Marcussen, Bernard E. Pfeil, Filipe De Sousa & Bengt Oxelman
There is a rising awareness that species trees are best inferred from multiple loci while taking into account processes affecting individual gene trees, such as substitution model error (failure of the model to account for the complexity of the data) and coalescent stochasticity (presence of incomplete lineage sorting). Although most studies have been carried out in the context of dichotomous species trees, these processes operate also in more complex evolutionary histories involving multiple hybridizations and...

Data from: ITS1: a DNA barcode better than ITS2 in eukaryotes?

Xin-Cun Wang, Chang Liu, Liang Huang, Haimei Chen, Jian-Hui Zhang, Dayong Cai, Jian-Qin Li & Johan Bengtsson-Palme
A DNA barcode is a short piece of DNA sequence used for species determination and discovery. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS/ITS2) region has been proposed as the standard DNA barcode for fungi and seed plants, and has been widely used in DNA barcoding analyses for other biological groups, e.g. algae, protists, and animals. The ITS region consists of both ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Here, a large scale meta-analysis was carried out to compare ITS1 and...

Data from: Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds

Per Alström, Daniel M. Hooper, Yang Liu, Urban Olsson, Dhananjai Mohan, Magnus Gelang, Hung Le Manh, Jian Zhao, Fumin Lei, Trevor D. Price, P. Alstrom, F. Lei, D. M. Hooper, T. D. Price, U. Olsson, Y. Liu, J. Zhao, M. Gelang & D. Mohan
Analysis of one of the most comprehensive datasets to date of the largest passerine bird clade, Passerida, identified 10 primary well-supported lineages corresponding to Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea, Passeroidea, the ‘bombycillids’ (here proposed to be recognized as Bombycilloidea), Paridae/Remizidae (proposed to be recognized as Paroidea), Stenostiridae, Hyliotidae, Regulidae (proposed to be recognized as Reguloidea) and spotted wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus. The latter was found on a single branch in a strongly supported clade with Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea and...

Data from: Integrative taxonomy of the freshwater worm Rhyacodrilus falciformis s.l. (Clitellata: Naididae), with the description of a new species

Svante Martinsson, Ainara Achurra, Marcus Svensson & Christer Erséus
The genetic and morphological variation within Rhyacodrilus falciformis Bretscher, 1901 (Clitellata: Naididae) in Europe was explored using an integrative approach, with three unlinked genetic markers [the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), the nuclear histone 3 (H3) and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS)] combined with morphology, to investigate whether this taxon constitutes a single or several species. Using Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery on the COI data set, the specimens were divided into seven clusters,...

Data from: ITS1 versus ITS2 as DNA metabarcodes for fungi

Rakel Blaalid, Surendra Kumar, R. Henrik Nilsson, Kessy Abarenkov, Paul M. Kirk, Håvard Kauserud, R. Blaalid, S. Kumar, H. Kauserud, R. H. Nilsson, P. M. Kirk & K. Abarenkov
The nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer ITS region is widely used as a DNA metabarcoding marker to characterize the diversity and composition of fungal communities. In amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity, one of the spacers ITS1 or ITS2 of the ITS region is normally used. In this methodological study we evaluate the usability of ITS1 vs. ITS2 as a DNA metabarcoding marker for fungi. We analyse three data sets: two comprising ITS1 and ITS2...

Data from: Calcium transfer across the outer mantle epithelium in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

J. Kirsikka Sillanpää, Henrik Sundh & Kristina S. Sundell
Calcium transport is essential for bivalves to be able to build and maintain their shells. Ionized calcium (Ca2+) is taken up from the environment and eventually transported through the outer mantle epithelium (OME) to the shell growth area. However, the mechanisms behind this process are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to characterize the Ca2+ transfer performed by the OME of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, as well as to develop an...

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