142 Works

Data from: Modifications during early plant development promote the evolution of nature’s most complex woods

Joyce G. Chery, Marcelo R. Pace, Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, Chelsea D. Specht & Carl J. Rothfels
Secondary growth is the developmental process by which woody plants grow radially. The most complex presentations of secondary growth are found in lianas (woody vines) as a result of their unique demand to maintain stems that can twist without breaking. The complex woody forms in lianas arise as non-circular stem outlines, aberrant tissue configurations, and/or shifts in the relative abundance of secondary tissues. Previous studies demonstrate that abnormal activity of the vascular cambium leads to...

Atmospheric and soil drought risks combined shape community assembly of trees in a Tropical Dry Forest

Moises Méndez-Toribio, Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez, Horacio Paz & Edwin Lebrija-Trejos
1. Predicting plant community assembly is challenging in part because the influence of environmental conditions via plant functional strategies and the relevance of mechanisms of community assembly change across habitats and these changes remain poorly studied. 2. To assess how environmental conditions drive species sorting in a tropical dry forest, we used the combined RLQ and Fourth-Corner methods to analyze changes in tree species assemblages among sites with distinct atmospheric and soil drought risks. We...

The evolution of sexual signaling is linked to odorant receptor tuning in perfume-collecting orchid bees

Philipp Brand, Ismael A. Hinojosa-Diaz, Ricardo Ayala, Michael Daigle, Carmen L. Yurrita Obiols, Thomas Eltz & Santiago Ramirez
Sexual signaling is an important reproductive barrier known to evolve early during the formation of new species, but the genetic mechanisms that facilitate the divergence of sexual signals remain elusive. Here we isolate a gene linked to the rapid evolution of a signaling trait in a pair of nascent neotropical orchid bee lineages, Euglossa dilemma and E. viridissima. Male orchid bees acquire chemical compounds from their environment to concoct species-specific perfumes to later expose during...

Mineralogy and origin of aerosol from an arc basaltic eruption: case study of Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka

Michael Zelenski, Vadim Kamenetsky, Yuri Taran & Andrew Kovalskii
Intense emission of volcanic aerosol accompanied the 2012-13 basaltic effusive eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka. The aerosols sampled contain sulfuric acid droplets, glassy particles and 70 mineral phases. All aerosol particles may be classified by their origin. The fragmentation aerosol includes magma fragments: silicate glass clasts, silicate microspheres and small phenocrysts (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite). The alteration aerosol comprises particles of quenched silicate melt covered with secondary minerals (fluorides, sulfates and oxides/hydroxides of rock-forming elements)...

Grad-Shafranov equation: MHD simulation of the new solution obtained from the Fadeev and Naval models

Arian Ojeda Gonzalez, Leandro Nunes Dos Santos, José Juan González-Avilés, Victor De La Luz & Pablo Rubén Muñoz-Gutberlet
This article aims to obtain a new analytical solution of a specific form of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation using Walker's formula. The new solution has magnetic field lines with X-type neutral points, magnetic islands and singular points. The singular points are located on the x-axis. The X-points and the center of the magnetic islands do not appear on the x-axis an island appears at $z>0$ and the other two at $z<0$. The aforementioned property allows...

Data from: Mate fidelity in a polygamous shorebird, the snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus)

Naerhulan Halimubieke, José Valdebenito, Philippa Harding, Medardo Cruz-López, Martín Serrano-Meneses, Richard James, Krisztina Kupán & Tamas Szekely
Social monogamy has evolved multiple times and is particularly common in birds. However, it is not well understood why some species live in long-lasting monogamous partnerships while others change mates between breeding attempts. Here, we investigate mate fidelity in a sequential polygamous shorebird, the snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus), a species in which both males and females may have several breeding attempts within a breeding season with the same or different mates. Using six years of...

Beyond pairwise interactions: multispecies character displacement in Mexican freshwater fish communities

Andrea J Roth-Monzón, Mark C Belk, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega & Jerald B Johnson
Competition has long been recognized as a central force in shaping evolution, particularly through character displacement. Yet research on character displacement is biased as it has focused almost exclusively on pairs of interacting species, while ignoring multispecies interactions. Communities are seldom so simple that only pairs of species interact, and it is not clear if inferences from pairwise interactions are sufficient to explain patterns of phenotypes in nature. Here we test for character displacement in...

Data from: Background matching, disruptive coloration and differential use of microhabitats in two neotropical grasshoppers with sexual dichromatism

Víctor Hugo Ramírez-Delgado & Raúl Cueva Del Castillo
Cryptic coloration is an adaptative defensive mechanism against predators. Color patterns can become cryptic through background coloration-matching and disruptive coloration. Disruptive coloration may evolve in visually heterogeneous microhabitats, whereas background matching could be favored in chromatically homogeneous microhabitats. In this work, we used digital photography to explore the potential use of disruptive coloration and background matching in males and females of two grasshopper species of the Sphenarium genus in different habitats. We found chromatic differences...

Data from: High genetic diversity and stable Pleistocene distributional ranges in the widespread Mexican red oak Quercus castanea Née (1801) (Fagaceae)

Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez, Hernando Rodríguez-Correa, Antonio González-Rodríguez & Ken Oyama
The Mexican highlands are areas of high biological complexity where taxa of Nearctic and Neotropical origin and different population histories are found. To gain a more detailed view of the evolution of the biota in these regions, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of historical tectonic and climate events on species. Here, we analyzed the phylogeographic structure, historical demographic processes, and the contemporary period, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) ecological niche...

Biotic predictors with phenological information improve range estimates for migrating monarch butterflies in Mexico

Jamie M. Kass, Robert P. Anderson, Alejandro Espinosa-Lucas, Verónica Juárez-Jaimes, Esteban Martínez-Salas, Francisco Botello, Gloria Tavera, José Juan Flores-Martínez & Víctor Sánchez-Cordero
Although long-standing theory suggests that biotic variables are only relevant at local scales for explaining the patterns of species’ distributions, recent studies have demonstrated improvements to species distribution models (SDMs) by incorporating predictor variables informed by biotic interactions. However, some key methodological questions remain, such as which kinds of interactions are permitted to include in these models, how to incorporate the effects of multiple interacting species, and how to account for interactions that may have...

West Nile Virus evolves at the pace of its avian hosts’ life-history

Gabriel Ernesto García Peña
Disease resistant hosts are central in the spread, persistence, adaptation and diversification of infectious pathogens. In theory, resistant hosts must compromise on reproduction and invest more energy in self maintenance and immune defence. Here we investigated these hypotheses on the emergence of West Nile Virus (WNV) from 1999 to 2012 in the United States, when the virus caused mass mortality in some bird species. Our study comprehends two steps: First, we used regression tree meta-analysis...

Environmental correlates of Leguminosae species richness in Mexico: quantifying the contributions of energy and environmental seasonality

Maribel Arenas-Navarro, Oswaldo Téllez-Valdés, Gabriel López-Segoviano, Miguel Murguía-Romero & Sebastián Tello
Explaining species richness patterns is a central issue in ecology, but a general explanation remain elusive. Environmental conditions have been proposed to be important drivers of these patterns, but we still need to better understand the relative contribution of environmental factors. Here we aim at testing two environmental hypotheses for richness gradients: energy availability and environmental seasonality using diversity patterns of the family Leguminosae across Mexico. We compiled a database of 502 species and 32,962...

The spatial analysis of biological interactions: morphological variation responding to the co-occurrence of competitors and resources

Leonel Herrera-Alsina, Rosa Daniela Tovilla-Sierra, Rafael Bribiesca & Hector T Arita
By sharing geographic space, species are forced to interact with one another and the contribution of this process to evolutionary and ecological patterns of individual species is not fully understood. At the same time, species turnover makes that species composition varies from one area to another, so the analysis of biological interaction cannot be uncoupled from the spatial context. This is particularly important for clades that show high degree of specialization such as hummingbirds, where...

In vitro impact of distinct FSH glycosylation variants on FSH receptor-stimulated signal transduction and functional selectivity

Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exists as different major glycoforms that differ in glycosylation of the hormone-specific β-subunit. Tetra-glycosylated FSH (FSH24) and tri-glycosylated FSH (FSH21) are the most abundant forms found in humans. Employing distinct readouts in HEK293 cells stably expressing the human FSH receptor, we here compared intracellular signaling triggered by human pituitary FSH preparations (FSH21and FSH24) as well as by equine FSH (eFSH), and human recombinant FSH (recFSH), each exhibiting distinct glycosylation patterns. The potencies...

Data from: Immune response declines with age in a wild lizard

Melissa Plasman, Estela Sandoval-Zapotitla & Roxana Torres
The immune system allows animals to survive the constant attacks of pathogens. Even though it is essential for survival and fitness, the performance of the immune system can decline with age -a process known as immunosenescence- which may be responsible for the increased mortality of older individuals. There are few studies regarding the effect of age on the immune system in reptiles, and no evidence of immunosenescence has yet been reported in lizards. In a...

Data from: The sex determination pattern in crocodilians: a systematic review after three decades of research

Edgar Javier González, Marcela Martínez-López, Marco Antonio Morales-Garduza, Rodrigo García-Morales, Pierre Charruau & José Alberto Gallardo Cruz
1. Sex in crocodilians is not determined by chromosomes, but by egg incubation temperature, where different temperatures produce different clutch sex ratios. Two patterns have been proposed to describe these changes in sex ratios: a 100% female proportion at low and high temperatures with male predominance at intermediate ones (FMF) or a simpler pattern with a single female to male transition (FM). Over the last three decades, researchers have provided empirical information to support either...

Data from: Patterns and predictors of β-diversity in the fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest: a multiscale analysis of forest specialist and generalist birds

José Carlos Morante-Filho, Victor Arroyo-Rodríguez & Deborah Faria
1. Biodiversity maintenance in human-altered landscapes (HALs) depends on the species turnover among localities, but the patterns and determinants of β-diversity in HALs are poorly known. In fact, declines, increases, and neutral shifts in β-diversity have all been documented, depending on the landscape, ecological group and spatial scale of analysis. 2. We shed some light on this controversy by assessing the patterns and predictors of bird β-diversity across multiple spatial scales considering forest specialist and...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

(LPWG), Legume Phylogeny Working Group, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication

Seth M. Bybee, Furong Yuan, Monica D. Ramstetter, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Robert D. Reed, Daniel Osorio & Adriana D. Briscoe
Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated UV opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed using reflectance and mass...

Data from: The evolution of bat nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors

Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Lisandra M. Zepeda-Mendoza, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Maria L. Méndez-Ojeda, Carlos F. Arias, Alex D. Greenwood & M. Lisandra Zepeda-Mendoza
We characterized the nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is...

Data from: Speciation genomics and a role for the Z chromosome in the early stages of divergence between Mexican ducks and mallards

Philip Lavretsky, Jeffrey M. DaCosta, Blanca E. Hernández-Baños, Engilis Jr, Andrew, Michael D. Sorenson, Jeffrey L. Peters & Andrew Engilis
Speciation is a continuous and dynamic process, and studying organisms during the early stages of this process can aid in identifying speciation mechanisms. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Mexican duck (A. [p.] diazi) are two recently diverged taxa with a history of hybridization and controversial taxonomy. To understand their evolutionary history, we conducted genomic scans to characterize patterns of genetic diversity and divergence across the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, 3523 autosomal loci and 172...

Data from: Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae)

Juan Pablo Jaramilo-Correa, Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Delphine Grivet, Camille Lepoittevin, Federico Sebastiani, Myriam Heuertz, Pauline H. Garnier-Géré, Ricardo Alía, Christophe Plomion, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Santiago C. González-Martínez, J.-P. Jaramillo-Correa, S. C. Gonzalez-Martinez, F. Sebastiani, G. G. Vendramin, C. Lepoittevin, M. Heuertz, P. H. Garnier-Gere & C. Plomion
Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) can be used as predictors...

Data from: A metacalibrated time-tree documents the early rise of flowering plant phylogenetic diversity

Susana Magallón, Sandra Gómez-Acevedo, Luna L. Sánchez-Reyes & Tania Hernández-Hernández
The establishment of modern terrestrial life is indissociable from angiosperm evolution. While available molecular clock estimates of angiosperm age range from the Paleozoic to the Late Cretaceous, the fossil record is consistent with angiosperm diversification in the Early Cretaceous. The time-frame of angiosperm evolution is here estimated using a sample representing 87% of families and sequences of five plastid and nuclear markers, implementing penalized likelihood and Bayesian relaxed clocks. A literature-based review of the palaeontological...

Data from: Estimating the temporal and spatial extent of gene flow among sympatric lizard populations (genus Sceloporus) in the southern Mexican highlands

Jared A. Grummer, Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa, Adrián Nieto-Montes De Oca, Eric N. Smith, Fausto R. Méndez De La Cruz & Adam D. Leaché
Interspecific gene flow is pervasive throughout the tree of life. Although detecting gene flow between populations has been facilitated by new analytical approaches, determining the timing and geography of hybridization has remained difficult, particularly for historical gene flow. A geographically explicit phylogenetic approach is needed to determine the overlap of ancestral populations. In this study, we performed population genetic analyses, species delimitation, simulations and a recently developed approach of species tree diffusion to infer the...

Data from: The role of mitochondrial introgression in illuminating the evolutionary history of Nearctic treefrogs

Bryson Jr, Robert W., Brian Tilston Smith, Adrian Nieto-Montes De Oca, Uri Omar Garcia-Vazquez, Brett R. Riddle & Robert W. Bryson
Inferring the evolutionary history of lineages often becomes difficult when gene histories are in conflict with each other. Introgression, for example, can cause DNA sequences from one species to be more similar to sequences of a different species and lead to incongruence amongst gene trees. However, incorporating congruent and incongruent locus-specific phylogenetic estimates with the geographical distribution of lineages may provide valuable insight into evolutionary processes important to speciation. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial...

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