44 Works

Kelp forests at the end of the earth: 45 years later

Alan Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Tom Bell, Jennifer Caselle, Claudio Campagna, Mathias Hune, Alex Munoz, Pelayo Salinas-De-Leon, Enric Sala & Paul Dayton
The kelp forests of southern South America are some of the least disturbed on the planet. The remoteness of this region has, until recently, spared it from many of the direct anthropogenic stressors that have negatively affected these ecosystems elsewhere. Re-surveys of 11 locations at the easternmost extent of Tierra del Fuego originally conducted in 1973 showed no significant differences in the densities of adult and juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera kelp or kelp holdfast diameter between...

Project Report NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai, Project HA-18-01 (Legs 1, 2, and 3)

United States. National Marine Fisheries Service. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (U.S.), Pacific Services Center (U.S.), University of Hawaii at Manoa. Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research NOAA Diving Program (U.S.), NOAA Corps, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego State University & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
PIFSC project report ; Project HA-18-01 (Legs 1, 2, and 3)

Structural defence is coupled with the leaf economic spectrum across saplings of spiny species

Mohammed Armani, Uromi M. Goodale, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Kasey E. Barton, Xin Yao & Kyle W. Tomlinson
Given that the rate of resource capture constrains plant growth and defence, understanding the linkage between the leaf economic spectrum (LES) and defence and how it contributes to growth is central to predicting species performance. In spite of the prevalence of spiny plants in many plant communities, little is known about how the LES relates to defence and growth rate across these species. We grew 42 spiny species, from diverse environments, under common garden conditions...

Phylogeography of lionfishes (Pterois) indicate taxonomic over splitting and hybrid origin of the invasive Pterois volitans

Christie L. Wilcox, Hiroyuki Motomura, Mizuki Matsunuma & Brian W. Bowen
The evolutionary consequences of hybridization are poorly understood, especially in the marine realm where hybridization was once thought to be a rare occurrence. Previous research indicated that the lionfishes Pterois volitans and P. miles are sister species, both of which have been detected in the recent invasion of the Atlantic. Anecdotal data from the invasive range indicates they may hybridize, but previous studies have not examined the potential for these species to hybridize in the...

Tree functional traits as predictors of microburst-associated treefalls in tropical wet forests

Alana Rader, Amy Cotrell, Anna Kudla, Tiffany Lum, David Henderson & Harshad Karandikar
On 19 May 2018 a microburst caused 600 isolated forest gaps in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We surveyed fallen and standing trees within gaps to determine if certain variables are associated with treefalls. Our results highlight considerations for future research to understand the impacts of microbursts in tropical forests. Our results show that at the scale and locality of our study, treefall vulnerability to microbursts and characteristics of fall events are independent of the...

Local adaptation constrains drought tolerance in a tropical foundation tree

Kasey Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle Edwards, Aaron Shiels & Tiffany Knight
1. Plant species with broad climatic ranges might be more vulnerable to climate change than previously appreciated due to intraspecific variation in climatic stress tolerance. In tropical forests, drought is increasingly frequent and severe, causing widespread declines and altering community dynamics. Yet, little is known about whether foundation tropical trees vary in drought tolerance throughout their distributions, and how intraspecific variation in drought tolerance might contribute to their vulnerability to climate change. 2. We tested...

The Depiction of Japanese Homosexuality through Masks and Mirrors

Thomas Schmidt
Matsumoto Toshio’s avant-garde documentary Funeral Parade of Roses (bara no sōretsu) depicts life in Shinjuku’s 1960s underground culture. Using Sakabe Megumi’s hermeneutical theory, the film’s depiction of sexuality is analysed through its use of literal and figurative mirrors and masks. It is argued that sexuality is highly performative and that the film itself is structured like a play of mirrors, questioning the nature of reality by deferring hypostasis ad infinitum. Keywords: Sakabe Megumi, Mirror and...

Deficits in functional trait diversity following recovery on coral reefs

Mike McWilliam
The disturbance regimes of ecosystems are changing, and prospects for continued recovery remain unclear. New assemblages with altered species composition may be functionally deficient. Alternatively, key functional traits may be sustained by species that replace those in decline (response diversity). Here, we quantify the recovery and response diversity of coral assemblages using case studies of disturbance in three locations. Despite return trajectories of coral cover, the original assemblages with diverse functional attributes failed to recover...

Data from: Picoplankton carbon biomass assessments and distribution of Prochlorococcus ecotypes linked to Loop Current Eddies during summer in the southern Gulf of Mexico

L. Linacre, R. Durazo, V. F. Camacho‐Ibar, K.E. Selph, J.R. Lara‐Lara, U. Mirabal‐Gómez, C. Bazán‐Guzmán, A. Lago‐Lestón, E.M. Fernández‐Martín & K. Sidón‐Ceseña
Assessments of picoplankton carbon biomass in the pelagic ecosystem over the deep region of the southern Gulf of Mexico were conducted during three consecutive summer cruises. Notably, the relationship between carbon distribution of Prochlorococcus (PRO) and Loop Current (LC) dynamics was evaluated. Seawater samples were collected from the euphotic zone (~150 m) for estimating the abundance of the picoplankton populations using flow cytometry analyses. Carbon biomass estimates were based on cell abundance and variable conversion...

Data from: Developmental constraints and resource environment shape early emergence and investment in spines in saplings

Mohammed Armani, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Kasey E Barton, Kyle W Tomlinson, Kasey E. Barton & Kyle W. Tomlinson
Abstract Background and Aims Herbivory by large mammals imposes a critical recruitment bottleneck on plants in many systems. Spines defend plants against large herbivores and how early they emerge in saplings may be one of the strongest predictors of sapling survival in herbivore-rich environments. Yet little effort has been directed at understanding the variability in spine emergence across saplings. Methods We present a multi-species study examining whether and how sapling size,spine type and species’ environmental...

Data from: Interaction among ploidy, breeding system, and lineage diversification

Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, J. Gordon Burleigh, William A. Freyman, Boris Igic, Itay Mayrose & Emma E. Goldberg
If particular traits consistently affect rates of speciation and extinction, broad macroevolutionary patterns can be interpreted as consequences of selection at high levels of the biological hierarchy. Identifying traits associated with diversification rates is difficult because of the wide variety of characters under consideration and the statistical challenges of testing for associations from comparative phylogenetic data. Ploidy (diploid vs. polyploid states) and breeding system (self-incompatible vs. self-compatible states) are both thought to be drivers of...

Diel temperature and pH variability scale with depth across diverse coral reef habitats

Tyler Cyronak, Yui Takeshita, Travis A. Courtney, Eric H. DeCarlo, Bradley D. Eyre, David I. Kline, Todd Martz, Heather Page, Nichole N. Price, Jennifer Smith, Laura Stoltenberg, Martin Tresguerres & Andreas J. Andersson
Coral reefs are facing intensifying stressors, largely due to global increases in seawater temperature and decreases in pH. However, there is extensive environmental variability within coral reef ecosystems which can impact how organisms respond to global trends. We deployed spatial arrays of autonomous sensors across distinct shallow coral reef habitats to determine patterns of spatiotemporal variability in seawater physicochemical parameters. Temperature and pH were positively correlated over the course of a day due to solar...

Data from: HiMAP: robust phylogenomics from highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing

Julian R. Dupuis, Forest T. Bremer, Angela Kauwe, Michael San Jose, Luc Leblanc, Daniel Rubinoff & Scott M. Geib
High-throughput sequencing has fundamentally changed how molecular phylogenetic datasets are assembled, and phylogenomic datasets commonly contain 50-100-fold more loci than those generated using traditional Sanger-based approaches. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for building phylogenomic datasets using single tube, highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing, which we name HiMAP (Highly Multiplexed Amplicon-based Phylogenomics), and present bioinformatic pipelines for locus selection based on genomic and transcriptomic data resources and post-sequencing consensus calling and alignment. This method is inexpensive...

Data from: Seasonal dynamics of megafauna on the deep West Antarctic Peninsula shelf in response to variable phytodetrital influx

Paulo Y. G. Sumida, Craig R. Smith, Angelo F. Bernardino, Paulo S. Polito, Danilo R. Vieira, C. R. Smith, P. S. Polito & D. R. Vieira
The deep West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf is characterized by intense deposition of phytodetritus during spring/summer months, while very little food material reaches the seafloor during winter. The response of the shelf benthic megafauna to this highly variable food supply is still poorly understood. In order to characterize the deposition of phytodetritus and the megabenthic community response, we deployed a seafloor time-lapse camera at approximately 590 m depth on the mid WAP shelf west of...

Data from: Large-scale introduction of the Indo-Pacific damselfish Abudefduf viagiensis into Hawai‘i promotes genetic swamping of the endemic congener A. abdominalis

Richard R. Coleman, Michelle R. Gaither, Kimokeo Bethany, Stanton Frank, Brian W. Bowen, Robert J. Toonen & Bethany Kimokeo
Hybridization in the ocean was once considered rare, a process prohibited by the rapid evolution of intrinsic reproductive barriers in a high-dispersal medium. However, recent genetic surveys have prompted a reappraisal of marine hybridization as an important demographic and evolutionary process. The Hawaiian Archipelago offers an unusual case history in this arena, due to the recent arrival of the widely distributed Indo-Pacific Sergeant (Abudefduf vaigiensis), which is hybridizing with the endemic congener, A. abdominals. Surveys...

Data from: Persistence at the final stage of volcanic island ontogeny: abiotic predictors explain native plant species richness on 111 remote Pacific atolls

Sebastien Larrue, Jean-François Butaud, Curtis C. Daehler, Stéphane Ballet, Julien Chadeyron & Roger Oyono
Aim: The final island ontogeny of the General Dynamic Model (GDM) (i.e. before island submergence) in tropical oceans corresponds to the coral atoll stage. Here, we examined whether the species richness of native vascular plants (indigenous and endemic species) on atolls is controlled by spatial and/or physical processes. We also predicted that atolls strongly affected by anthropogenic disturbance would have lower native species richness than predicted by spatial and physical processes. Location: Marshall Islands, Kiribati...

Data from: Tracking the origins of fly invasions; using mitochondrial haplotype diversity to identify potential source populations in two genetically intertwined fruit fly species (Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis [Diptera: Tephritidae])

Michael San Jose, Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Norman Barr, Scott Geib & Daniel Rubinoff
Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important pests of many fruits. These flies have been spread across the world through global travel and trade, and new areas are are at risk of invasion. Whenever new invasive populations are discovered, quick and accurate identification is needed to mitigate the damage they can cause. Determining invasive pathways can prevent further spread of pests as well as subsequent reinvasions through the same...

Data from: Effects of gear restriction on the abundance of juvenile fishes along sandy beaches in Hawai'i

Mary K. Donovan, Alan M. Friedlander, Paolo Usseglio, Whitney Goodell, Ily Iglesias, Eva M. Schemmel, Kostantinos A. Stamoulis, Filous Alexander, Jonatha Giddens, Keith Kamikawa, Haruko Koike, Kaylyn McCoy, Christopher B. Wall & Alexander Filous
In 2007, due to growing concerns of declines in nearshore fisheries in Hawai‘i, a ban on gillnets was implemented in designated areas around the island of O‘ahu in the main Hawaiian Islands. Utilizing a 17 year time-series of juvenile fish abundance beginning prior to the implementation of the gillnet ban, we examined the effects of the ban on the abundance of juveniles of soft-bottom associated fish species. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) sampling design, we compared...

Data from: Cross-platform compatibility of de novo-aligned SNPs in a non-model butterfly genus

Erin O. Campbell, Corey S. Davis, Julian R. Dupuis, Kevin Muirhead, Felix A.H. Sperling & Felix A. H. Sperling
High-throughput sequencing methods for genotyping genome-wide markers are being rapidly adopted for phylogenetics of non-model organisms in conservation and biodiversity studies. However, the reproducibility of SNP genotyping and degree of marker overlap or compatibility between datasets from different methodologies have not been tested in non-model systems. Using double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing, we sequenced a common set of 22 specimens from the butterfly genus Speyeria on two different Illumina platforms, using two variations of...

Data from: Can the source-sink hypothesis explain macrofaunal abundance patterns in the abyss? A modeling test

Sarah M. Hardy, Craig R. Smith, Andreas M. Thurnherr, A. M. Thurnherr, C. R. Smith & S. M. Hardy
Low food availability is a major structuring force in deep-sea benthic communities, sustaining only very low densities of organisms in parts of the abyss. These low population densities may result in an Allee effect, whereby local reproductive success is inhibited, and populations are maintained by larval dispersal from bathyal slopes. This slope–abyss source–sink (SASS) hypothesis suggests that the abyssal seafloor constitutes a vast sink habitat with macrofaunal populations sustained only by an influx of larval...

Data from: Epidemic and endemic pathogen dynamics correspond to distinct host population microbiomes at a landscape scale

Andrea J. Jani, Roland A. Knapp & Cheryl J. Briggs
Infectious diseases have serious impacts on human and wildlife populations, but the effects of a disease can vary, even among individuals or populations of the same host species. Identifying the reasons for this variation is key to understanding disease dynamics and mitigating infectious disease impacts, but disentangling cause and correlation during natural outbreaks is extremely challenging. This study aims to understand associations between symbiotic bacterial communities and an infectious disease, and examines multiple host populations...

Data from: When environmental factors become stressors: interactive effects of vermetid gastropods and sedimentation on corals

Julie Zill, Michael A. Gil, Craig W. Osenberg & Julie A. Zill
Environmental stressors often interact, but most studies of multiple stressors have focused on combinations of abiotic stressors. Here we examined the potential interaction between a biotic stressor, the vermetid snail Ceraesignum maximum, and an abiotic stressor, high sedimentation, on the growth of reef-building corals. In a field experiment, we subjected juvenile massive Porites corals to four treatments: (i) neither stressor, (ii) sedimentation, (iii) vermetids or (iv) both stressors. Unexpectedly, we found no effect of either...

Data from: Invasive rat eradication strongly impacts plant recruitment on a tropical atoll

Coral A. Wolf, Hillary S. Young, Kelly M. Zilliacus, Alex S. Wegmann, Matthew McKown, Nick D. Holmes, Bernie R. Tershy, Rodolfo Dirzo, Stefan Kropidlowski, Donald A. Croll & Alexander S. Wegmann
Rat eradication has become a common conservation intervention in island ecosystems and its effectiveness in protecting native vertebrates is increasingly well documented. Yet, the impacts of rat eradication on plant communities remain poorly understood. Here we compare native and non-native tree and palm seedling abundance before and after eradication of invasive rats (Rattus rattus) from Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, Central Pacific Ocean. Overall, seedling recruitment increased for five of the six native trees species examined....

Data from: Environmental controls on canopy foliar N distributions in a neotropical lowland forest

Christopher S. Balzotti, Gregory P. Asner, Philip G. Taylor, Cory C. Cleveland, Rebecca Cole, Roberta E. Martin, Megan Nasto, Brooke B. Osborne, Stephen Porder & Alan R. Townsend
Distributions of foliar nutrients across forest canopies can give insight into their plant functional diversity and improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling. We used airborne remote sensing and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) to quantify canopy foliar nitrogen (N) across ~164 km2 of wet lowland tropical forest in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. We determined the relative influence of climate and topography on the observed patterns of canopy foliar N using a gradient boosting model...

Data from: The relationship between microhabitat use, allometry, and functional variation in the eyes of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies

Jeffrey A. Scales & Marguerite A. Butler
The evolution of visual systems is guided by visual requirements imposed by the environment, the size of the animal's eyes, and physical limitations imposed by the resolution-sensitivity trade-off. Given a particular eye surface area, resolution and sensitivity cannot be simultaneously maximized: gains in resolution, the ability of the eye to detect detail, will come at the cost of sensitivity, the ability to capture photons, and vice versa, without an increase to eye size. How this...

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