Data from: Genome scans reveal candidate regions involved in the adaptation to host plant in the pea aphid complexJulie Jaquiéry, Solenn Stoeckel, Pierre Nouhaud, Lucie Mieuzet, Frédérique Mahéo, Fabrice Legeai, Nina Bernard, Antoine Bonvoisin, Renaud Vitalis & Jean-Christophe Simon
A major goal in evolutionary biology is to uncover the genetic basis of adaptation. Divergent selection exerted on ecological traits may result in adaptive population differentiation and reproductive isolation and affect differentially the level of genetic divergence along the genome. Genome-wide scan of large sets of individuals from multiple populations is a powerful approach to identify loci or genomic regions under ecologically divergent selection. Here, we focused on the pea aphid, a species complex of...
Unveiling the genetic basis of local adaptation to environmental variation is a major goal in molecular ecology. In rugged landscapes characterised by environmental mosaics, living populations and communities can experience steep ecological gradients over very short geographical distances. In lowland tropical forests, interspecific divergence in edaphic specialization (for seasonally flooded bottomlands and seasonally dry terra firme soils) has been proven by ecological studies on adaptive traits. Some species are nevertheless capable of covering the entire...
Data from: Is local selection so widespread in river organisms? Fractal geometry of river networks leads to high bias in outlier detectionChristophe Lemaire
Identifying local adaptation is crucial in conservation biology in order to define ecotypes and establish management guidelines. Local adaptation is often inferred from the detection of loci showing a high differentiation between populations, the so-called FST outliers. Methods of detection of loci under selection are reputed to be robust in most spatial population models. However, using simulations we showed that FST outlier tests provided a high rate of false positives (up to 60%) in fractal...
Loci considered to be under selection are generally avoided in attempts to infer past demographic processes as they do not fit neutral model assumptions. However, opportunities to better reconstruct some aspects of past demography might thus be missed. Here we examined genetic differentiation between two sympatric European oak species with contrasting ecological dynamics (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) with both outlier (i.e. loci possibly affected by divergent selection between species or by hitchhiking effects with...
Adaptation of populations to new environments is frequently costly due to trade-offs between life history traits, and consequently, parasites are expected to be locally adapted to sympatric hosts. Also, during adaptation to the host, an increase of parasite fitness could have direct consequences on its aggressiveness (i.e. the quantity of damages caused to the host by the virus). These two phenomena have been observed in the context of pathogen adaptation to host qualitative and monogenic...
Data from: Digging through model complexity: using hierarchical models to uncover evolutionary processes in the wildMathieu Buoro, Etienne Prévost & Olivier Gimenez
The growing interest for studying questions in the wild requires acknowledging that eco-evolutionary processes are complex, hierarchically structured and often partially observed or with measurement error. These issues have long been ignored in evolutionary biology, which might have led to flawed inference when addressing evolutionary questions. Hierarchical modelling (HM) has been proposed as a generic statistical framework to deal with complexity in ecological data and account for uncertainty. However, to date, HM has seldom been...
An understanding of the evolutionary history and dynamics of invasive species is required for the construction of predictive models of future spread, and the design of biological management measures. The black rat (Rattus rattus) is a major vertebrate invader with a worldwide distribution. Despite the severe ecological, economic and health impacts of this species, its evolutionary history has been little studied. We carried out extensive specimen sampling in Senegal, West Africa, and used microsatellite markers...
Data from: Inferences on population history of a seed chalcid wasp: invasion success despite a severe founder effect from an unexpected source populationMarie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg, Thomas Boivin, Emmanuelle Magnoux, Claudine Courtin, Alain Roques & Carole Kerdelhué
Most invasive species established in Europe originate from either Asia or North America, but little is currently known about the potential of the Anatolian Peninsula (Asia Minor) and/or the Near East to constitute invasion sources. Mediterranean forests are generally fragile ecosystems that can be threatened by invasive organisms coming from different regions of the Mediterranean Basin, but for which historical data are difficult to gather and the phylogeographic patterns are still poorly understood for most...
Data from: Polymorphism pattern at a Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Element locus downstream of the domestication gene Teosinte-branched1 in wild and domesticated pearl milletYann Dussert, Marie-Stanislas Remigereau, Michael C. Fontaine, Alodie Snirc, Ghayas Lakis, Solenn Stoeckel, Thierry Langin, Aboubakry Sarr, Thierry Robert, M.-S. Remigereau, M. C. Fontaine, T. Langin, S. Stoeckel, Y. Dussert, A. Snirc, G. Lakis, A. Sarr & T. Robert
Unraveling the mechanisms involved in adaptation to understand plant morphological evolution is a challenging goal. For crop species, identification of molecular causal polymorphisms involved in domestication traits are central to this issue. Pearl millet, a domesticated grass mostly found in semi-arid areas of Africa and India, is an interesting model to address this topic: the domesticated form shares common derived phenotypes with some other cereals such as a decreased ability to develop basal and axillary...
Natural hybridization is attracting much interest in modern speciation and conservation biology studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear why environmental changes often increase hybridization rates. To study this question, we surveyed mating events in a mixed oak stand and developed a spatially-explicit individual-based hybridization model. This model, where hybridization is frequency dependent, pollen is non-limiting and which allows immigrant pollen to compete with local pollen, takes into account...
Black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. Remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention, and there is no firm agreement on how many species should be recognized within the black rat complex. This species complex is native to India and Southeast Asia. According to current taxonomic classification, there are three taxa living in sympatry in several parts of Thailand, Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where this...
Data from: How to escape from crop-to-weed gene flow: phenological variation and isolation-by-time within weedy sunflower populationsMarie Roumet, Camille Noilhan, Muriel Latreille, Jacques David, Marie-Hélène Muller, M. Roumet, C. Noilhan, M. Latreille & M.-H. Muller
The evolution of crop-related weeds may be constrained by recurrent gene flow from the crop. However, flowering time variation within weedy populations may open the way for weed adaptation by allowing some weeds to escape from this constraint. We investigated this link between phenology, gene flow and adaptation in weedy sunflower populations recently emerged in Europe from crop-wild hybridization. We studied jointly flowering phenology and genetic diversity for 15 microsatellite loci in six cultivated sunflower...
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) is extremely diverse with an estimated 500 000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on both morphological and molecular data. A web-based, systematics workbench mx was used to score 945 character states illustrated by 648 figures for 233 morphological characters for a total of 66 645 observations for 300 taxa. The matrix covers 22 chalcidoid families recognized herein and includes 268 genera within 78 of 83 subfamilies. Morphological...
Data from: Insights into the genetic history of French cattle from dense SNP data on 47 worldwide breedsMathieu Gautier, Denis Laloë & Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi
BACKGROUND: Modern cattle originate from populations of the wild extinct aurochs through a few domestication events which occurred about 8,000 years ago. Newly domesticated populations subsequently spread worldwide following breeder migration routes. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study gives a detailed assessment of cattle...
French National Institute for Agricultural Research14
University of California System2
French National Centre for Scientific Research2
University of Bordeaux2
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1
University of Liège1
Texas A&M University1
University of Paris-Sud1
Paris Diderot University1
Chinese Academy of Sciences1
National Academy of Sciences1